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The University 
Monthly 



VOLUME XVII 
1916-1917 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS 
TORONTO 



INDEX TO VOLUME XVII. 



ROLL OF HONOUR. 

Page 

Accidentally Injured 86 

Accidentally Killed 3 

Died on Active Service, 3, 85, 169, 

209, 249, 289, 329 
Died of Wounds, 1, 45, 85, 129, 

169, 289, 329 

Fallen, The 13 

Gas Poisoning 290 

Honours 5, 86, 130, 209, 291, 332 

111 46,169,209,249 

Members of Staff, Graduates and 
Undergraduates now on Active 

Service 5, 87, 169, 250, 291 

Missing 3, 86, 209, 249, 290, 330 

Prisoner of War 3, 86, 130 

Professors' Sons on the Roll of 

Honour 210 

Roll of Service 210 

Shell Shock 169 

Wounded 3, 46, 86, 129, 290 

EDITORIALS. 

Alumni Association, Organisation 

of the 16 

Alumni Reunions 132 

Change of Presidents 20 

Commencement 333 

Fifty Years of Confederation 334 

Graduate Courses 18 

Passy, Monsieur Paul 334 

Recent Losses 15 

Recruits for the 67th Battery and 

the Training Company 131 

Royal Honours 333 

Ontario Educational Association, 

The 293 

ARTICLES, ETC., FROM 
CONTRIBUTORS. 

Address at the Opening of the 

Session 1916-17, R. A. Falconer 48 
Amabiles in Vita . , . 254 



Articles, etc. Contd. Page 

Balfour Convocation, The D. R. 

Keys . 352 

Bonne Entente, The Arthur 

Hawkes 213 

Book Reviews: 

Belloc's History of the War G. 
N. Bramfitt 74 

Bourru, Soldat de Vauquois, by 
Jean des Vignes Rouges, 
Paris J.S 317 

Commonwealth of Nations, The 
(Part I) by Lionel Curtis H. 
A. Harrison 152 

En Temps de Guerre by John 
Squair Maurice Hutton .... 107 

From the St. Lawrence to the Yser 
with the First Canadian Brigade 
by Frederick C. Curry 
G. O. S 364 

Gaspard by Rene Benjamin 
J.S 235 

How the French Boy Learns to 
Write by Rollo Walter Brown 
A. F. Bruce Clark 27 

Le Feu, Journal d'une Escouade, 
by Henri Barbusse J. S. . . . 365 

Nelson's History of the War 
John Buchan 190 

Our Progress-Idea and the War 
by George Roy Elliott W. 
H. C 367 

Report of the Seventh Annual 
Meeting of the Commission on 
Conservation S. A. Cudmore 238 

Similia Similibus by Ulric 
Barthe J. S 278 

Sons of Canada by Augustus 
Bridle P. S 155 

Studies in Tudor History by W. 
P. M. Kennedy Helen Mc- 
Murchie 240 

Varsity Magazine War Supple- 
ment 156 

Vespucci Reprints by George 
Tyler Northup M. A. B.. . . 237 



iv 



INDEX 



Book Reviews, etc. Contd. Page 
Wrack of the Storm, The, by 
Maurice Maeterlinck Con- 
stance B. Laing 150 

Causes of the War J. Squair. . . . 295 
Franco-British Aid Society 

Beatrice M. Embree 308 

German Defeat the Price of Last- 
ing Peace Gustav Bissing 140 

In Memoriam: 

Boyd, Sir John D. R. Keys. . . 134 
Brodie, Professor Thomas Gre- 

gor A. B. Macallum 25 

Duff, George Clarke 91 

Duff, The Hon. James Stoddart 91 

Fraser, William Henry 183 

Address at funeral of Professor 

Fraser J. Ballantyne 184 

An Appreciation J. Squair . . 186 
Hagarty, Lieut. Daniel Galer... 342 
Harbottle, Robert Maurice 

Hutton 60 

James, C. J. N. Burwash 23 

Johnston, Dr. G. W., Address at 

funeral of 340 

Kennedy, George J. Squair. 22 

King, John Alfred Baker 59 

Loudon, James 175 

Address at funeral of Dr. 

Loudon 176 

Appreciations : . 

W. F. MacLean.. 179 

J. Squair 180 

Meredith, John Redmond Wal- 

singham E. C. Cattanach ... 93 
Moss, Charles Alexander 

Miller Lash 91 

Oldham, James Henry G. M. 

Wrong 93 

Old^-ight, William R. A. 

Reeve 188 

Master's Course in Chemical En- 
gineering, A J. Watson Bain 305 
Poems: 

Circumstance G, E. J 361 

Hail and Farewell 256 

Jackals Speak, The G. E. J.. . 360 
In Camp J. B. Hammond. . . . 232 
In Flanders Fields. . . 362 



Poems Contd. Page 

In Argo Belgico Maurice A. 
Hutton 363 

Research Chairman's Difficulties, 
A J. Squair 284 

Snow Diamonds J. B. Ham- 
mond 319 

Sonnet to A. B. Macallum W. 
H. Ellis 283 

War Elegiacs Maurice kutton 211 
Letters: 

From the Balkan Front 

D. E. S. W 191 

From the Front: 

C. P. Sills 226 

Harley Smith 373 

Cpl. A. W. Crawford. ... 369 
Letters to the Editor: 

Beattie, Robert 158 

Bonis, H 157 

Maclaren, Lt.-Col. C. H 29 

Message of Gabriele d'Annunzio to 

the City of Venice J. S 338 

Nasmith, Lt.-Col. W. H. Ellis. .. 359 
President's Report to the Senate 

on National Service 273 

Re-educational Work for Soldiers 

Edward A. Bott 269 

Research Council and Its Work, 

The A. B. Macallum 257 

Research in Canada J. P 230 

Scientific Man in Business, The 

S. B. Chadsey 335 

Second Visit to Labrador, A A. 

P. Coleman 100 

Sketch Club, University of Toronto 

J. B 347 

Toronto Alumni in the United 

States 349 

Toronto Branch of the English 

Association W. H. C 344 

University of Toronto Hospital in 

the Eastern Mediterranean, The 

J. J. MacKenzie 68 

Vesnitch's Speech, M 311 

What the Ontario Department of 

Agriculture is doing to Help 

Increase Production C. C. 

Creelman . 276 






INDEX 



Articles, etc. Contd. Page 

Where Peace Abides Kathleen 

MacKenzie 218 

Work of the Antitoxin Laboratory, 

The J. G. Fitzgerald 95 

TORONTONENSIA. 

Address to the Governor-General. Ill 

Alumnae Associations: 

University College 322 

Victoria College 322 

Alumni Associations: 

California 161 

Los Angeles 280 

New York 323 

Alumni Association, Annual Meet- 
ing 280, 374 

Alumni, Organisation of, at Buffalo 
and Niagara Falls 245 

Antitoxin Laboratory, New J. 
G. F 39 

Appointments.. 34, 77, 113, 203, 

242, 280 

Appointments, Recent Public 163 

Benefactions, Recent 243 

Bigelow, Mr. Poultney, Address 
by 202 

British Red Cross Subscriptions . . 124 

Class Reunion, 1891 W. S. W. 
McLay 33 

Clerical Alumni Meetings, Victoria 
J. F. McL 82 

College and Faculty Notes: 

Faculty of Education. 121, 159, 

204, 242, 322 
Faculty of Medicine. . . 120, 159, 203 

Knox College 160, 321 

Royal College of Dental Sur- 
geons 160 

St. Hilda's College 122 

Trinity 83, 206, 243 

Victoria 81, 121, 204 

Wycliffe 83, 321 

Deaths: 

Akers, Harry Goulding 328 

Beith, Alexander 128 

Bowlby, WardH.... 208 

Boyd, Sir Alexander 128 



Deaths Contd. Page 

Brodie, Ralph 128 

Brown, John Hislop 328 

Choate, Joseph Hodges 396 

Cotton, James H 208 

Cumming, Montgomery 328 

Davison, John L 328 

Field, George Augustus 328 

Geikie, Walter Bayne 208 

Gordon, Andrew Robertson .... 168 

Grout, Canon George W. G.. . . 248 

Henderson, Dr. W. A 128 

Henry, James 128 

Hough, Henry 248 

Howland, William Bailey 248 

Jeffers, J. Frith 248 

Johnston, George Wesley ...... 396 

King, John Edgar 208 

Lamont, Miss Julia Kendall. . . 44 

Lazier, Stephen Franklin 128 

Lee, Brig.-Gen. James G. C.. . . 44 

Loudon, James 168 

McDonald, Thomas J.. 168 

Mearns, John 328 

Mills, William Lennox 396 

Morrow, Robert Fowler 248 

Niddrie, Keith Temple 168 

Rupert, Rev. E. S 44 

Scott, Rev. Alexander Arm- 
strong 328 

Sparks, Thomas 328 

Thompson, John Nixon 208 

Trench, William Lawson 128 

Wilkins, George 44 

Wilson, John B 328 

Dinner to Dean Ellis 383 

Dinner to Professor A. B. Macal- 

lum 283 

Dinner to Professor A. H. Young. 383 
Dinner, A Jubilee, 1866-1916 

John A. Paterson 31 

English Association, Toronto 

Branch of the, 165, 344 

Garneau, Sir George 200 

Governor-General's Visit Maurice 

Hutton 197 

Laurier, Sir Wilfrid Address 

J. E. Burke 123 



VI 



INDEX 



Lectures by: Page 

Dr. Mitchell Carroll 123 

Professor Gustave Lanson 201 

Professor J. Carter Troop 281 

Lecture in Celebration of the Semi- 
centennial of Confederation 282 

Lecture on Belgian Relief 323 

Lecture on Industrial Research 
Professor McLennan 118 

Marriages: 

Anderson, J. F 42 

Armour, Major Archibald 

Douglas 207 

Bailey, Rev. John 328 

Beaton, Blake Byron 127 

Bevan, Lieut. William Henry B. 127 
Boddy, Capt. Albert Hawley ... 42 

Bonham, Albert Roy 43 

Boyle, V. Osmond 395 

Broughton, Ernest A 395 

Brown, Charles Edgar 207 

Bullen, Joseph Max 127 

Burgess, Kenneth Edward 127 

Butts, Victor Robertson 43 

Cameron, Dr. M. H. V 395 

Carruthers, Rev. Russell Gar- 
field 43 

Cassells, Lieut. Hamilton 207 

Christie, Ryerson Meyers 207 

Clark, Alexander F. B. C 43 

Clark, Hial Jackson 127 

Clarkson, Charles Harold 43 

Cleeves, Alfred Christian 127 

Clugston, Harold Smith 395 

Cockburn, Leslie Starrock 127 

Coleman, Capt. Theo 167 

Coyne, Arthur James 127 

Crashley, Lieut. John Willard. . 207 

Crockett, Lieut. J. R 207 

Cruise, William Wilson 207 

Dafoe, Miss Mary W 248 

Dickson, Miss E. M 168 

Dobson, William Percy 43 

Dolson, Wilbur J. McL 43 

Duncan, John H 43 

Dunnett, Miss Carrie B 127 

Dykes, Philip John 327 

Flint, Thomas R. C 43 



Marriages Contd. Page 

Forrest, Miss Jessie Wilson .... 43 

Frost, John G. G 207 

George, Capt. Ruggles Kerr 168 

Gibson, James Robert 43 

Gilchrist, James 127 

Gillies, Duncan B 168 

Gillies, Capt. John Z 127 

Goforth, Capt. Paul 395 

Gordon, Miss Jean 127 

Gordon, Murray 168 

Goulding, Arthur M 127 

Gray, Lieut. Arthur G 128 

Greene, Lieut. Philip 43 

Griffin, Lieut. Selwyn P ... 328 

Haire-Forster, Rev. Arthur. ... 43 

Hall, William Henry 128 

Harcourt, Robert 43 

Hardy, Miss Florence S 395 

Hawkey, Miss Ella Louise 128 

Hewitt, Miss Ruby C 207 

Hewitt, Samuel R. D 128 

Hill, Arthur N 207 

Hoig, Miss Dorothy L 207 

Iwanami, Junkichi 328 

Jackson, Capt. Alan Bert 168 

Johnston, Capt. Eric Franklin. . 128 

Kinsey, Harold Ivan 395 

Kammerer, Miss Christine E. . . 43 

Kerr, Dr. W. A. R 168 

Langlois, Miss Ruth 44 

Lindsey, Charles Bethune 168 

Line, Rev, John 43 

Lloyd, Rev. Grover S 328 

Lowe, William Arthur 128 

McDermott, A. Miles 43 

McDonald, Capt. Wilbert Lome 288 
McGregor, Miss Eva Leona. . . . 327 

McKay, Craig- Allan 395 

McKee, Miss Kathryne E 328 

McLarty, John Edmond 43 

McLean, Herbert Arnold 248 

McLean, W. T. Taylor 168 

McLellan, Lieut. Roy Alexander 207 

McMahon, Miss Marjorie 208 

McMillan, Neil Lament 128 

Martin, W. H 128 

Mendizabel, Cpl. A. P 248 

Mortimer, Lieut. Arthur B 207 



INDEX 



Marriages Contd. Page 

Morton, John Pettigrew 128 

Niebel, Fred G 43 

Nourse, Major Clifford Bennett 43 

O'Brian, Lieut. Geoffrey S 128 

O'Ftynn, Major Edmund D. . . . 248 

Oke, Lieut. William V 207 

Parlow, Capt. Allan 128 

Paterson, Frank Chester 395 

Patterson, Miss Olive G ' 

Ponsford, Miss Lavinia 207 

Robertson, Arthur Howard. ... 128 

Robertson, Capt. A. Ross 43 

Routley, Lieut. T. Clarence. ... 43 

Scott.JohnW 168 

Sheard, Lieut. Joseph Louis. . . . 168 

Sisson, Capt. E. W 168 

Smith, Rev. G. Napier 44 

Smyth, Arthur Herbert 207 

Stewart, Lieut. Frank 

Storms, Capt. Harold D 44 

Taylor, William John 396 

Thomson, Miss Bertha R 128 

Tull, William S 207 

Van Wyck, Capt. Hermon B. . . 208 
Walker, Miss Margaret Ethel . . 208 

Wood, Major Robert F. B 44 

Zimmer, Albert Russell. . . .128 



Page 
Military Hospitals' Commission, 

The 41 

Military Notes 38 

Military Personals 385 

Organ Recitals 40, 124 

Patriotic work by the Women of 

the University of Toronto 324 

Personals, 42, 125, 167, 206, 247, 288, 

327, 385 
Premier of Saskatchewan, The 

New F. M 118 

Salter, Miss: 

Retirement Gertrude La wler .. 112 
Farewell Reception J. B. Read 166 

Senate Notes 166 

Squair, Professor, at Laval 282 

Summer Session, 1916 40 

Reception to Returned Alumni . . . 

164, 202 
University College Women's 

Union, The 84 

University Hospital Supply Asso- 
ciation, The 80, 246, 326 

University Settlement, The 

E. F. B 162 

University No. 4 General Hospital 117 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, OCTOBER, 1916. NO. 1 




THE ROLL OF HONOUR 

XIV. 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 

Major-General Malcolm Smith Mercer, O.C. Third 

Division, C.E.F.; B.A. University College, 1885. 
Lieutenant Charles Penner Cotton, C.F.A.; Applied 

Science, 1915. 
Lieutenant Henry Russell Gordon; B.A. University 

College, 1912. 
Lieutenant Arnold Munroe Thurston, C.F.A.; Forestry, 

1916. 

Lieutenant Herbert Spencer Holcroit, C.E.; B.A.Sc., 1901. 
Lieutenant Robert Alexander Rankine Campbell, B.E.F.; 

Trinity College and Forestry, 1913. 
Captain Gerald Edward Blake, B.E.F.; B.A. University 

College, 1914. 
Second Lieutenant Frederick William Walsh, B.E.F.; 

B.S.A., 1916. 

Private Roy Irvine Poast; Victoria College, 1918. 
Private Henry Greenwood; Dentistry, 1918. 
Private Joseph Cuthbert Shipton; B.S.A., 1915. 
Private Charles Laidlaw Anderson; Medicine, 1915. 
Lieutenant William Laurance Evans, R.A.M.C.; M.B., 

1915 
Sub- Lieu tenant Kenneth Marsden Van Allen, R.N.A.S.; 

B.A.Sc., 1913. 
Gunner Kenneth Brown Downie, C.F.A.; University 

College, 1918. 
Lieutenant John Reginald Maguire, B.E.F. ; Applied 

Science, 1919. 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS Contd. 

Lieutenant Colin Simpson, R.F.A. ; Victoria College, 1910. 
Gunner Thomas Leon Goldie; B.A., University College, 

1904. 

Captain Dugald Black McLean, R.A.M.C.; M.B., 1913. 
Private Arthur Willoughby Chesnut; B.A.Sc., 1910. 
Lieutenant Hugh Edward McCutcheon, R.F.C.; Univer- 
sity College, 1913. 
Lieutenant John Ure Garrow; B.A., University College, 

1912. 
Lieutenant Archibald Walter Macdonald; University 

College, 1911. 
Lieutenant Maurice Fisken Wilkes; B.A., University 

College, 1913. 

Lieutenant Edgar Harold McVicker, R.A.M.C ; M.B., 1915. 
Lieutenant Asa Milton Horner; B.A., Victoria College, 

1916. 
Lieutenant Maurice Irving Machell ; B.A., Trinity College, 

1913. 
Lieutenant Gordon Wilson Crow; B.A., Victoria College, 

1915; Medicine, 1919. 
Lieutenant William T. Willison; University College, 1907- 

1908. 
Lieutenant Ernest Alroy Simpson; B.A., University 

College, 1915. 

Lieutenant David Douglas MacLeod; B.A.Sc., 1911. 
Lieutenant James Roy Mitchener; Applied Science, 1918. 
Lieutenant James Hamilton Ingersoll, B.E.F. ; Trinity 

College, 1917. 

Corporal Frederick Ivanhoe Taylor; Trinity College. 
Private Aubrey Milton Marshall; Victoria College, 1919. 
Corporal John Sanford Taylor; B.A.Sc., 1914. 
Lieutenant Robert Gordon Hamilton; University College, 

1917. 
Captain James Henry Oldham; B.A., Victoria College, 

1908, LL.B. 

Lieutenant Geoffrey Allan Snow; University College, 1917. 
Major Arthur Edward McLaughlin; B.A., University 

College, 1892, LL.B. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 



ACCIDENTALLY KILLED. 

Major Warren Knight Campbell, Royal Flying Corps; 
Victoria College, 1917. 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Captain Finlay David Fraser; Phm.B., 1910. 
Captain Thomas Gregor Brodie, C.A.M.C.; Staff. 
Lieutenant-Colonel Duncan Frederick Campbell, D.S.O. ; 

B.A., Trinity College, 1896. 
Second Lieutenant Chester Matthew Willey, R.G.A. ; 

Applied Science, 1918. 



MISSING. 

Lieut. J. A. N. Ormsby; Sc. '16. 

Lieut. G. P. Dunstan; B.A. (U.) '15. 

Lieut. H. V. Wrong; B.A. (U.) '13. 

Lieut. F. Howard; Med. '19. 

Lieut. H. L. Devlin; 

Lieut. George Edward Bothwell; B.Sc.F. '13. 

PRISONER OF WAR. 

Capt. W. R. W. Haight, M.B '11 (erroneously reported killed), 
Lieut. C. I. Van Nostrand; U. '09. 
Lieut. J. H. Firstbrook; R.F.C.; Sc. '18. 

WOUNDED. 

Lieut. N. C. Fergusson; U. '17. 

Pte. F. W. Knight; Staff. 

Pte. F. J. Sternberg; B.A., V. '06. 

Pte. W. V. Ramsay; U. '16. 

MajorS. P. McMordie; U. '99. 

Lieut. C. K. Hoag; Sc. '17. 

Lieut. B. L. Cumpston; B.A. (T.) '15. 

Lieut. J. A. Pearce; U. '17. 

Lieut. W. N. Hanna; V. '17. 

Lieut. T. I. Findlay; U. '18. 

Capt. C. E. Kilmer; Sc. '13. 

Pte. R. C. Geddes; B.A. (U.) '11. 

Lieut. H. J. McTavish; Sc. '10. 



4 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Sergt. J. P. Cavers; Sc. '16. 

Cpl. J. S. Willis; B.A. (U.) '14. 

Lieut. E. H. Saer; T. '16. 

Lieut. G. F. de C. O'Grady; '07. 

Pte. R. W. Donaldson; B.S.A. '15. 

Capt. S. M. McLay, R.A.M.C., M.B.; '10. 

Pte. A. H. Livingston; Sc. '18. 

Sergt. A. J. Dixon; T. '16. 

Lieut. C. E. Macdonald; Sc. '16. 

Pte. W. M. Kedey; B.S.A. '15. 

Lieut. J. P. Magwood, R.F.A.; V. '17. 

Lieut. B. Wright; U. '18. 

Lieut. C. Smythe, C.F.A.; Sc. '16. 

Capt. J. L. McLean; D.D.S. '01. 

Capt. R. Coatsworth, R.A.M.C.; M.B. '15. 

Pte. H. M. Douglas; Ed. '15. 

Capt. H. B. Jeffs, C.A.M.C.; M.B. '14. 

Capt. W. L. Whittemore, C.A.M.C.; M.B^'08. 

Lieut. C. C. Robinson; B.A. (U.) ' 16. 

Lieut. S. S. Burnham; B.A. (U.) '12. 

Capt. M. H. Paterson, R.A.M.C.; M.B. '14. 

Gnr. E. B. Dustan, C.F.A.; Sc. '17. 

Lieut. D. G. Mclntosh; B.A. (U.) '11. 

Lieut. H. Cassels; U. '17. 

Sec. Lieut. R. B. Sinclair, R.F.A.; B.A.Sc. '15. 

Lieut. R. Hodder Williams; B.A., Staff. 

Lieut. P. L. Barber; Ed. '15. 

Capt. J. E. Hahn; U. '14. 

Lt.-Col. D. M. Sutherland; M.B. '03. 

Lieut. H. R. Rutherford; B.A. (U.) '15. 

Lieut. W. M. McQueen; B.A. (U.) '12. 

Lieut. T. B. Colley; B.A. (U.) '08. 

Lieut. H. M. Harman; T. '10. 

Lieut. H. H. Saunders; U. '17. 

Lieut. M. H. Russell; Med. '18. 

Lieut. J. M. Chisholm; T. '18. 

Lieut. W. H. Bunting; B.A. (U.) '92. 

Capt. T. W. Lawson; B.A. (T.) '05, M.A. 

Lieut. T. B. Malone; B.A. (U., St.M.) '09, LL.B. 

Major G. B. Gordon; B.A. (T.) '00, M.A. 

Lieut. H. V. Hearst; B.A. (U.) '13. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 5 

Lieut C. E. Willows; B.A. (V.) '14. 

Capt. D. A. McLenahan, C.A.M.C.; M.B. '94. 

Lieut. L. G. Mills; B.A.Sc. '12. 

Lieut. H. G. Manning; B.A. (V.) '09, Staff. 

Lieut. A. D. Gray; U. '18. 

HONOURS. 

To be Brigadier General Lt.-Col. V. W. Odium. 
D.S.O. Major W. W. Denison, Major D. H. C. Mason, Major S. 

P. McMordie, Capt. C. E. Kilmer, Capt. W. E Phillips. 
Military Cross Capt. M. H. Paterson, Capt. P. P. Acland, Capt. 

J. R. Irwin, Lieut. F. R. Hassard, Lieut. P. W. Beatty, Lieut. 

G. W. Crow (killed). 

D.C.M. Cpl. A. C. Oxley, Pte. (now Lieut.) C. K. Hoag. 
Mentioned in Despatches Col. J. A. Roberts. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY STAFF, GRADUATES AND 
UNDERGRADUATES NOW ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

(Continued from the June- July number) 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Adams, J. R.; 141st Bn.; Saskatoon; B.A. (V.) '16. 
Lieut. Alford, H. F.; C.A.D.C.; Belleville; D.D.S. '15. 
Lieut. Allan, L. B.; No. 1 Constr. Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '12. 
Gnr. Amos, L.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; B.S.A. '16. 
Lieut. Andrews, L. R.; R.F.C.; Tor.; B.Sc.F. '13. 
Lieut. Armstrong, G. W.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16. 
Pte. Austin, R.; 43rd Bn.; Tottenham; B.S.A. '11. 
Lieut. Bailey, N. S.; C.A.D.C.; Portage La Prairie, D.D.S. '14.; 
Capt. Ballantyne, T. W.; C.A.M.C.; Stratford; M.B. '16. 
Sub-Lieut. Barry, H. N.; R.N.A.P.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '13. 
Sapper Bennett, H.; Div. Sig.; B.A. (V.) '15. 
Gnr. Bennett, O. W.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Peterboro; B.S.A. '16. 
Lieut. Bird, E. A.; 75th Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; U. '19. 
Pte. Blake, H. M.; U. of T. Coy.; U. '08. 
Capt. Brace, W. D.; M.O., 203rd Bn.; Cobourg; M.B. '13. 
Pte. Bradstock, A.; 238th Bn.; Winnipeg; T. '10. 
Gnr. Breadon, L. H. M.; 72nd Bty., C.F.A.; B.A. (T.) '10. 
Pte. Broughall, Rev. G. H.; C.A.M.C.; Winnipeg; B.A. (T.) '83. 
Lieut. Brown, P. B.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16. 
Gnr. Brown, W. A.; 67th Bty. C.F.A.; Trinity, '19. 
Capt. Brown, W. E.; M.O., 180th Bn.; Peterboro; M.D.C.M. '91. 



6 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Burroughes, C. R.; 234th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '09. 
Lieut. Burrows, L. F.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; B.S.A. '15. 
Capt. Campbell, C. A.; No. 2, F.A.D.; Tor.; M.D.C.M. '97. 
Sergt. Campbell, T. D.; C.A.D.C.; Dutton; D.D.S. '16. 
Lieut. Campbell, W. C.; King; Sc. '05. 
Lieut. Carroll, J. A.; 164th Bn.; lona; B.S.A. '14. 
Lieut. Carscallen, H. R.; C.E.; Calgary; B.A.S.c. '09. 
Lieut. Col. Carter, C.; D.A.D.M.S.; Mil. Dist. No. 2; Hton.; 

M.D.C.M. '93. 

Capt. Church, E. F.; Ch., C.E.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '16. 
Gnr. Clark, G. A.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Poole; B.S.A. '16. 
Capt. Clark, R. W.; M.O., 235th Bn.; Bowmanville; M.B. '10. 
Lieut. Clarke, H. J.; C.A.D.C.; Edmonton; D.D.S. '14. 
Capt. Clarke, W. G.; Ch., 235th Bn.; Bowmanville; B.A. (V.) '90. 
Lieut. Clement, C. M.; R.F.C.; Vancouver; Sc. '14. 
Sapper Cline, C. W. ; Div. Sig. ; Hanmon; V. '19. 
Lieut. Cluff, R. A.; 161st Bn. C.E.F.; Stratford; B.A., T. '15. 
Major, Coghlan, F. T.; 25th Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; D.D.S. '93. 
Sergt. Conway, H. R.; C.A.D.C.; Hespeler; D.D.S. '16. 
Capt. Coutts, R.; C.A.M.C., Hdqrs., M.D. No. 1; Tor.; M.B. '14. 
Lieut. Coyne, G. B.; A.Q., Valcartier; St. Thomas; B.A. (U.) '11. 
Lieut. Culham, G. J.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; B.S.A. '13. 
Sergt. Currie, J. E.; R.C.H.A.; Wingham; U. '18. 
Lieut. Curry, P. W. M.; R.A.M.C.; Trenton; M.B. '16. 
Sub-Lieut. Doane, A. J.; R.N.A.P.; Quennsville; U. '18. 
Gnr. Donald, F. C.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Mandaumin; B.S.A. '15. 
Pte. Douglas, T. St. C.; 203rd Bn.; Moose Jaw; U. '19. 
Pte. Duff, G. C.; 76th Bn;. Cookstown; B.S.A. '14. 
Capt. Duff, J. R.; 79th Bn.; Portage La Prairie; D.D.S. '04. 
Lieut. Duncan, J. H.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '10; M.B. 
Pte. Eastham, A.; M.G. Sect.; Ottawa; B.S.A. '09. 
Sapper, Edmonds, E. W.; Div. Sig.; St. Catharines; V. '17. 
Sergt. Elliott, E. V.; C.A.D.C.; Brighton; Dent. '18. 
Lieut. Ferrier, D.; R.C.H.A.; Tor.; Sc. '15. 
Lieut. Fissette, C. C.; R.A.M.C.; Brantford; M.B. '98. 
Lieut. Foote, W.; R.A.M.C.; Rosseau; M.B. '16. 
Sergt. Forge, F. W.; 180th Bn.; Moose Jaw; M. '18. 
Pte. Foyston, B. E.; 43rd Bty.; Minesing; B.S.A. '15. 
Lieut. Freeborn, S. G.; 20th Bty., C.F.A.; Magnetawan; B.S.A.'IS 
Sergt. Gahan, F.; C.A.P.C.; London, Eng.; B.A. (T.) '14. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY. 7 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Gardiner, F. G.; C.M.R.; Tor.; (U.) '17. 
Capt. Gilchrist, L.; Orpington Hospital; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '04, M.A., 

Staff. 

Pte. Gilroy, A. E. T.; U. of T. Coy.; Mt. Forest; V. '19. 
Sergt. Godfrey, R. J.; C.A.D.C.; Elora; D.D.S. '16. 
Lieut. Golding, N. S.; Sanity. Corps; Plaxtol, Nev.; B.S.A. '14. 
Sergt. Graham, W. T.; Sub Staff Instr.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '16. 
Lieut. Graham, G. W.; M.O., 208th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '97, M.B. 
Capt. Greene, A. D.; Ch., 123rd Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '11. 
Capt. Hackett, W. T.; C.A.D.C.; Winnipeg; D.D.S. '99. 
Pte. Hall, E. R.; St. Albert, Alta.; B.S.A. '15. 
Sub-Lieut. Hall, W. T.; R.F.C.; Tor.; B.A.S.c. '15. 
Sapper Hamilton, G. M.; 4th Div. Sig. ; New Hamburg; B.A.Sc. 

'12. 

Lieut. Hammell, D. H.; C.A.D.C.; Owen Sound; D.D.S. '15. 
Pte. Harding, P. S. D.; 130th Bn.; Lacombe, Alta.; B.S.A. '13. 
Pte. Hare, H. R.; Grafton; B.S.A. '14. 
Major Harrison, F. C; Hdqrs. M.D. No. 4; B.S.A. '92. 
Sapper Harrison, W. H.; Div. Sig.; Oshawa; B.A., U. '16. 
Capt. Hazlewood, H. C. P.; M.O., 204th Bn.; Tor.; M.B. '15. 

Harstone, Miss J. E. ; Lady Byng Conv. Hosp. ; Peterboro; 

B.A. (T.), '13, M.A. 

Sapper Heard, K. M.; Div. Sig.; St. Thomas; M. '20. 
Capt. Hedley, C. W.; Ch., 94th Bn.; Port Arthur; B.A. (T.) '92, 

M.A. 

Capt. Henderson, R. H.; C.A.M.C.; Tqr.; M.B. '10. 
Lieut. Henderson, T. D.; C.E.; Acton; Sc. '04. 
Pte. Heurtley, E. W.; 29th Bty., C.F.A.; Ashington, Eng.; B.S.A. 

'11. 

Capt. Hill, H. W.; C.A.M.C.; London; M.B. '93, M.D. 
Lieut. Hill, L. R.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16. 
Pte. Hinds, P. T. B.; 208th Bn.; Tor.; U. '19. 
Pte. Hinman, R. B.; No. 2 F.A. ; Wicklow; B.S.A. '15. 
Pte. Hogarth, E. G.; R.C.H.A.; Exeter; B.S.A. '15. 
Pte. Holmes, H.; S.B., 71st Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '13. 
Lieut. Hoskin, H. A.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '04 
Capt. Howard, R. S.; Ch., 186th Bn.; Chatham; B.A. (T.) '94, 

M.A. 
Gnr. Hudson, H. F.; 16th Bty., C.F.A ; Forest Gate, Eng.; B.S.A. 

'07. 



8 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit. Home College Year 

Lieut. Huestis. D.; R.C.H.A.; Tor.; Sc. '15. 
Lieut. Hutcheson, F. W.; C.E.; Huntsville; Sc. '13. 

- Hyland, Miss I. ; Harvard Unit, R.A.M.C. ; Tor. ; B.A. (V.) '09. 
Lieut. Irvine, D. R.; 43rd Bty., C.F.A.; Elmwood; B.S.A. '14. 
Pte. Irwin, W. J.; Agincourt; U. '19. 

Gnr. Jackson, G. H.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Osborne; B.S.A. '15. 
Sergt. Jamieson, E. F.; C.A.D.C.; Rosemount; D.D.S. '16. 
Gnr. Johnson, J. T.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Novan; B.S.A. '16. 
Pte. Jones, N. E.; C.A.S.C.; Tor.; Sc. '13. 
Sapper Junkin, F. L.; Div. Sig.; Tor.; '20. 
Lieut. Keefer, M. W.; 69th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '13. 
Sub-Lieut. Kierstead, R. M.; R.F.C.; Tor.; Agr. '16. 
Capt. LaPierre, L. A.; 7th C.M.R.; Paris; B.S.A. '03. 
Lieut. Larsen, T.; Victoria; B.A. (U.) '06, M.A. 
Lieut. Latchford, J. K.; 69th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '14. 
Pte. Lattimer, J. E.; 4th C.M.R.; Burford; B.S.A. '14. 
Sergt. Laudels, B. H,; P.P.C.L.I.; Herbert, N.S.; B.S.A. '11. 
Lieut. Leonard, J.; 166th Bn.; Tor.; (U.) '17. 
Lieut. Lindsay, R. E.; No. 1 Constr. Bn.; Bolton; B.A.Sc. '14. 
Lieut. Litster, K. L; 234th Bn.; Tor.; (U.) '17. 
Capt. Little, O J.; M.O., 220th Bn.; Seaforth; M.B. '14. 
Sergt. Livett, J. C.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '16. 
- Logie, W. D.; No. 10 S.H.; Sarnia; M. '18. 
Lieut. Loudon, T. R.; No. 1 Constr. Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc.; Staff. 
Sub-Lieut. Lower, A. R. M.; R.N.A.P.; Barrie; B.A. (U.) '14, 

Staff. 

Pte. McClenahan, W. S.; Div. Cycl.; Milton; (U.) '16. 
Sapper McCollum, R. ; Div. Sig.; Brampton; Ed. '16. 
Capt. McCorvie, J. E.; No. 10 S.H.; Chatham; M.B. '14. 
Capt. McCracken, J. F.; A.M.C.; Worthington; M.B. '11. 
Pte. McDonald, H. S.; C.A.M.C.; V. 

Capt. Macdonald, J. W.; No. 3 Cas. Cl. Sta.; Tor.; D.D.S. '15. 
Capt. Macdonald, W. L.; 235th Bn.; Weston; B.A. (U.) '08. 
Lieut. McElroy, H. M.; 141st Bn.; Chesterville; B.S.A. '14. 
Lieut. McEwen, W. J.; C.A.D.C.; Gleichen; D.D.S. '13. 
Sergt. McKee, E. C.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; Dent. '18. 
Sapper Mackersie, W. G. ; Div. Sig. ; Uptergrove ; Med. '20. 
Lieut. McLachlan, C. C.; C.A.D.C.; Cobden; D.D.S. '08. 
Sub-Lieut. McLaren, G. H.; R.N.A.?.; U. '12. 
Sergt. McLaurin, L. D.; C.A.D.C ; Vankleek Hill; D D.S. '16. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 9 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Gnr. McLennan, D. M.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Lancaster; B.S A. '16, 
Sergt. McMillan, R. G.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '16. 
Capt. McNally, W. H.; 179th Bn.; Winnipeg; D.D.S. '04. 
Capt. McPhedran, F. M.; M.O., 12th Bde., C.F.A.; Tor.; M.B. 

'12. 

Capt. McPherson, E. E.; C.A.M.C.; Cedar Springs ; M.B. '16. 
Lieut. McVean, J. H.; 177th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '17. 
Pte. Maguire, W. S.; 8th F.A.; Tor.; U. '15. 
Pte. Main, C.; Sheffield; B.S.A. '11. 

Manning, F. W.; Y.M.C.A.; B.A. (V.) '16. 

Pte. Manzer, R. H.; 196th Bn.; B.A. (T.) '13. 

Lieut. Mark, A. E.; C.A.D.C.; Vancouver; D.D.S. '05. 

Lieut. Marshall, F. R.; 71st Bty., C.F.A.; St. Catharines; B.A 

(U.) '15. 

Gnr. Martin, N. R.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Corinth; B.S.A. '16. 
Capt. Merritt, F. C.; C.A.M.C.; St. Catharines; M.D.C.M. '91. 
Sergt. Merritt, T. R.; C.A.M.C.; St. Catharines; U. '18. 
Sapper Mingay, H. G. ; Div. Sig. ; Warren; V. '18. 
Sergt. Mogan, W. M.; 208th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '11. 
Lieut. Monds, W.; No. 1 Constr. Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '00. 
Capt. Montgomery, J. E.; 13th F.A.; Barrie; M.B. '10. 
Gnr. Moore, J. A. C.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Islington; B.S.A. '14. 
Pte. Morgan, R. N.; 153rd Bn.; Guelph; B.S.A. '92. 
Pte. Morris, J. F. E.; 204th Bn.; V. '12. 
Capt. Morrison, T.; C.A.M.C.; Hamilton; M.B. '07. 
Sub-Lieut. Morton, F. L.; R.N.A.P.; Keswick; U. '17. 
Pte. Moseley, L. A.; Bayfield; B.S.A. '14. 
Capt. Moshier, H. H.; llth F.A.; Edmonton; M.B. '09. 
Major Muckleston, H. S.; C.A.M.C.; Montreal; B.A. (T.), '99; 

M.A., M.D.C.M. 

Lieut. Mulligan, C. V.; 109th Bn.; Omemee; M. '18. 
Pte. Mulligan, D. G.; Kapuskasing Camp; V. '18. 
Lieut. Muntz, E. P.; No. 1 Constr. Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '14. 
Pte. Murray, G. S.; M.Tpt., C.A.S.C.; Tor.; Dent. '18. 
Pte. Murray, R. H.; 82nd Bn.; Avening; B.S.A. '12. 
Sub-Lieut. Nelles, D A. H.; R.F.C.; Simcoe; U. '13. 

- Newman, F. S.; 99th Bn.; Dauphin; B.S:.F. '13. 

- Nicholson, M. S. ; Western Univ. Bn. ; Winnipeg; T. '18. 
Sergt. Nott, G. E. ; Can. Signal Corps; London; Sc. '16. 
Capt. Oliver, E. H.; Ch., 203rd Bn. ; Saskatoon ; B.A. '02, M.A. 



10 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 
Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

- Oliver, J. R.; 203rd Bn.; Saskatoon; Sc. '03. 
Capt. Parsons, R.; R.A.M.C.; Red Deer; M.D.C.M. '01. 
Lieut. Peacock, R. M.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '9. 
Lieut. Pedley, J. H.; 216th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '13. 

Capt. Pickup, H. R.; Ch., 220th Bn.; Weyburn; B.A. (U.) '06. 

Capt. Pickup, W. S.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M. '13. 

Capt. Pinnington, E. F.; Ch., 162nd Bn.; T. '10. 

Lieut. Purvis, W. P.; C. E.; Sc. '13. 

Pte. Reeves, F. S.; 44th Bn. ; Tewkesbury, Eng.; B.S.A. '12. 

Sec. Lieut. Reid, J. S.; Duke of Cornwall's L.I.; Tillsonburg; M. '17. 

Sub-Lieut. Rettie, J. E.; R. F.C.; Living Springs; B.S.A. '12. 

Sapper Reynolds, N. W.; Div. Sig.; Solina; V. '17. 

Capt. Richardson, C. C.; A.M.C.; Windsor; M.B. '92. 

Pte. Rive, H.; 5th Bde., C.F.A.; Eramosa; B.S.A. '03. 

Sapper Robertson, H. G.; Div. Sig.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '14. 

- Robinson, Miss C.; No. 2 G.H.; Tor.; T. '04. 
Lieut.-Col. Rogers, C. H.; 20th Bn.; Grafton; B.S.A. '97. 
Capt. Ross, M. N.; 21st Bty., C.F.A.; Regina; B.S.A. '98. 
Lieut. Ryan, T. L.; 215th Bn.; Brantford; Sc. '17. 
Lieut. Ryrie, H. S.; Oakville; B.S.A. '13. 

Pte. Sands, D. R.; No. 2 F.A.; Sykeston; B.S.A.; '15. 
Major Schnarr, N.; 94th Bn.; Kenora; D.D.S. (T.) '95. 
Sergt. Scott, D. M.; 240th Bn.; Smith's Falls; U. '19. 
Pte. Shaver, F. D.; Remount Dept.; Cainsville; B.S.A. '13. 
Lieut. Serson, H. V.; C.E.; Antrim; Sc. '05. 

Capt. Sharpe, D. D.; A.M.C., Serbia (returned); Brampton; B.A. 

(V.) '91. 

Gnr. Sherridan, W. E.; 67th Bty., C.F.A.; Brockville; Dent. '18. 
Capt. Shore, H. M.; Ch., 137th Bn.; T. '11. 
Cpl. Silcox, A. B.; 142nd Bn.; Tor.; Sc. 
Pte. Sirrs, G. A.; M.Tpt., C.A.S.C.; Tor.; Dent. 18. 
Pte. Sloan, O. H.; 160th Bn.; Tor.; Dent. '17. 
Gnr. Smith, D. M.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; B.S.A. '15. 
Sergt. Smith, W. E.; Sub-Staff Instr.; Meaford; U. '16. 
Lieut. Snider, R.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16. 
Gnr. Steele, T. M.; 64th Bty., C.F.A.; Stratford; U. '19. 
Pte. Stewart, D. H.; U. of T. Coy.; B.A. (U.) '14. 
Lieut. Stewart, H. A.; C.A.D.C.; Kingston; D.D.S. '14. 
Lieut. Stewart, J. A.; C.A.D.C.; Maple Creek; D.D.S. '15. 
Pte. Stewart, P.; 141st Bn.; Beaverton; B.S.A. '14. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 11 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Stewart, W. E.; C.A.S.C.; Lindsay; U. '17 
Capt. Sutherland, F.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '15. 
Lieut. Switzer, W. G.; C.A.D.C.; Sudbury; D.D.S. '96. 
Lieut. Taylor, M. A.; 142nd Bn.; Guelph; U. '19. 
Lieut. Col. Territt,; O.C., 68th Bn.; V. '91. 

- Thompson. W. R.; Haslar Hosp.; London; B.S.A. '09. 
Capt. Tompkins, M. N. ; Antigonish, N.S.; B.S.A. '12. 
Sapper Tracy, G. F.; Div. Sig.; Tor.; Sc. '18. 
Capt. Treble, C. E.; No. 2 F.A.D.; Tor.; M.B. '01, M.D. 
Lieut. Tregillus, C. A.; Calgary; B.S.A. '13. 
Pte. Twigg, C. B.; No. 1 F.A.; New Denver, B.C.; B.S.A. '07. 

Twohey, W. M.; London; U. '18. 

Lieut. Urquhart, G. A.; 241st Bn.; Windsor; B.A. (U.) '08, LL.B. 
Gnr. Varey, J. M.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Rocklyn; B.S.A, '16. 
Capt. Wade, G. H.; M.O., 175th Bn.; Brighton; M.D.C.M. '97. 
Capt. Walker, A. A.; 3rd Div. Amm. Col.; Tor.; U. '14. 
Sapper Wallace, P. A. W.; Div. Sig.; Tor.; B A. (T.) '15. 
Lieut. Watson, C. H.; 69th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '12. 
Sub-Lieut. Waugh, J. K.; R.N.A.S.; Whitby; Sc. '11. 
Pte. Weir, D.; Montreal; B.S.A. '06. 
Lieut. Wells, G. E.; 65th Bn.; Saskatoon; U. '16. 
Sub-Lieut. Wheatley, A. T.; R.N.A.S.; Tor.; M. '18. 
Gnr. White, W. R.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Ashburn; B.S.A. '15. 
Lieut. Wilkins, S. R.; C.E.; Tor.; Phm.B. '15. 
Lieut. Wilson, E. H.; C.A.D.C.; Perth; D.D.S. '06. 
Lieut. Wilson, M. J.; R.A.M.C.; B.A. (U.) '13, M.B. 
Lieut. Wilson, M. M.; Chatham; T. '18. 
Major Williams, C. J.; Sr. Chaplain, M.D. No. 3; V. '16. 
Lieut. Wood, L. W.; 220th Bn. ; Woodbridge ; B.A. (U.) '11. 
Capt. Woodcock, H. F. D.; Ch., 164th Bn.; Oakville; B.A. (T.), 

'02, M.A. 

Capt. Wright, J. T. ; M.O., 184th Bn.; Queen Charlotte City; 

M.D.C.M. '01. 

Major Young, F. A.; No. 3 Cas. Cl. Sta.; Winnipeg; B.A. (V.) '97, 

M.B. 

Lieut. Zimmerman, E. R.; C.A.D.C.; D D.S. '05. 
Lieut. Zinn, J. H.; C.A.D.C.; Hanover; D.D.S. '15. 



Additional abbreviations: Constr. Bn. = Construction Battalion; R.N.A.P. = 
Royal Naval Auxiliary Patrol (Motor Boat Service). 



12 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The following members of the University Training Company 
have left for England as recommended candidates for commissions 
in the Imperial Army: 

Pte. A. D. Banting, B.A. (V.) '13. Pte. J. Osborne, T. 
Pte. R. G. Beattie, B.A. (U.) '14. Pte. J. Reekie. 
Pte. H. M. Blake, U.C. '08 Pte. R. H. Sawyer, 

Pte. H. A. Burwash, Cpl. E. C. Smith, U. '17. 

Pte. E. B. Crickmore, Pte. L. Snyder, U. '18. 

Pte. G. A. Cruse, V. '18. Pte. P. L. Stevens, Sc. '14. 

Pte. F. J. Foster, B A. (U.) '14. Pte. K. Strother. 
Cpl. H. M. Gardiner, U. '17. Pte. F. W. Strother. 

Pte. C. P. Halliday. Pte. N. J. Taylor, U. '17. 

Lce.-Cpl. D. A. Lane, V. '17. Pte. F. V. C. Ward. 

Pte. H. J. Lofting. Pte. I. J. Warren. 

Pte. R. A. McLaren. Pte. F. A. Watson. 

Pte. H. A. Mossman. Pte. F. Whitworth. 

Pte. J. C. Newcombe, B.A.Sc. '16. Pte. E. H. G. Worden, Ed. '14. 
Pte. W. I. Nurse. Pte. W. R. Wright. 

D. P.Wagner, B.A. (T.) '11, 



These lists are dated Oct. 6th, 1916. Since then other casualties have 
been reported. 

In order not to delay the information this journal has published the Roll of 
Honour in a series of monthly lists, giving alphabetically each group of names as 
soon as they have been received. These lists have now become almost too numer- 
ous for ready reference. Any one who wishes to have a complete single list 
of the 3,000 and more names will do well to obtain a copy of the special 1916 War 
Number of Varsity, which will be published shortly. This gives, as far as is 
known, the present unit and rank of each man, there have been many changes 
and promotions in the course of the two years. Applied Science also contains a 
complete list of that faculty's graduates and undergraduates on active service. 
Special lists are also to be found in some of the Calendars of the faculties and the 
College journals. 

Enquiries and information should also be addressed to the University Regis- 
trar's Office, where a complete card index is being kept. 

A full list of those who have fallen in these two years is given on the next page. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 



13 



THE FALLEN 



Henry Harold Allen 
Hubert Gordon Allen 
Charles Laidlaw Anderson 
Frederick Charles Andrews 
Gordon Stewart Andrews 
Panayote Percy Ballachey 
Alfred C. Bastedo 
William George Henry Bates 
Gerald Edward Blake 
Thomas Gregor Brodie 
George William Bruce 
Leo Buchanan 
Duncan Frederick Campbell 
Robert Alexander Rankine 

Campbell 

Wart en Knight Campbell 
James Russell Chamberlin 
Arthur Willoughby Chesnut 
Philip Fred Chidley 
Allen Charles Mackenzie 

Cleghorn 

Charles Penner Cotton 
Russell Andrew Cross 
Gordon Wilson Crow 
Carl DeFallot 
Kenneth Brown Downie 
George Gordon Duncan 
Frederick Lawrence Eardley- 

Willmott 

Judson Harold Ellis 
Shit ley Duncan Ellis 
William Laurance Evans 
James Stephenson Fleming 
Finlay David Fraser 
Harry William Frogley 
George Gordon Galloway 
Francis Egmont Gane 
John Ure Gat row 
Paul Archibald Gillespie 



George Clarence Gliddon 
Thomas Leon Goldie 
Henry Russell Gordon 
Thomas Seton Gordon 
Oswald Wetherald Grant 
Hugh Alexander McKay 

Grassett 

Henry Greenwood 
Daniel Galer Hagarty 
David Elliot Haig 
Robert Gordon Hamilton 
Henry Arthur Harding 
Thomas Leslie Harling 
Joseph Grant Helliwell 
Maurice Russell Henderson 
John Emerson Hill 
Henry Boyd Hodge 
Herbert Spencer Holcrof t 
Frederick Holmes Hopkins 
Asa Milton Horner 
Chester Hughes 
James Hamilton Ingersoll 
George Leycester Ingles 
Oscar Irwin 

Robert Crawford Jamieson 
Trafford Jones 
Thomas Ewart Kelly 
Stuart Kennedy 
Herbert Norman Klotz 
Edward Joseph Kylie 
Norman Lawless 
Alfred Edward Law ton 
John Gordon Lumsden 
Hugh Edward McCutcheon 
Archibald Walter Macdonald 
Alister Munro Mackenzie 
George Lawrence Bissett 

MacKenzie 
Arthur Edward McLaughlin 



14 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



THE FALLEN-Continued 



Howard James MacLaurin 
David Douglas MacLeod 
William Stewart McKeough 
Dugald Black McLean 
Edgar -Harold McVicker 
Maurice Irving Machell 
John Reginald Maguite 
Maurice Edward Malone 
Aubrey Milton Marshall 
Malcolm Smith Mercer 
James Roy Mitchener 
Herbert Stanley Monkman 
Arthur Edward Muir 
James Henry Oldham 
Harold Heber Owen 
Henry Errol Beauchamp Platt 
Roy Irvine Poast 
Howard Primrose Primrose 
Arthur Harper Qua 
George Ernest Revell 
Ronald McKenzie Richards 
James Ernest Robertson 
George Crowther Ryerson 
Charles Edward Sale 
Wesley George Shier 



Joseph Cuthbert Shipton 
Colin Simpson 
Ernest Alroy Simpson 
Geoffrey Allan Snow 
Arthur William Tanner 
Frederick Ivanhoe Taylor 
Geoffrey Barron Taylor 
John Sanford Taylor 
Ross M. Taylor 
Arnold Munro Thurston 
Norman Ewart Towers 
Kenneth Marsden Van Allen 
George E. Vansittart 
Frederick William Walsh 
Robert Edward Watts 
James Symington Wear 
Edward Alfred Webb 
Maurice Fisken Wilkes 
William Hartley Willard 
Chester Matthew Willey 
George Knox Williams 
William T. Willison 
Harold Mackenzie Wilson 
Norman James Lang Yellowlees 
Martin C. de Bude Young 



EDITORIAL 

RECENT LOSSES 

SINCE the last number of THE MONTHLY appeared the Univer- 
sity has suffered several losses among her sons both of the 
older and the younger generations. Fuller references to 
some of these are made in subsequent pages. Dr. George 
Kennedy, a veteran of 1857, who to the end took the liveliest 
interest in all that pertained to the University and was a conspicuous 
figure at all University gatherings, passed away in June, bequeath- 
ing two scholarships to his Alma Mater. Mr. John King, K.C., 
a few years his junior, besides the performance of his duties in the 
Law School which brought him into contact with many graduates, 
was the senior member of the Senate, and made a valuable con- 
tribution to the history of the University in his memoir of " McCaul, 
Croft, and Forneri", published last year. Dr. C. C. James, a 
graduate of Victoria and one of the best public servants whom the 
country has known, died suddenly when it seemed that many years 
of service yet lay before him. Another former member of Victoria 
College was General J. G. C. Lee who served in the Civil War and 
rose to the highest rank of the United States Army. The Faculty 
of Medicine has suffered a severe loss in the sudden death of 
Professor T. G. Brodie, who died on active service in an army hospital. 
General M. S. Mercer, the University's most distinguished soldier, 
was reported missing in June, and since then, unhappily, his death 
has been confirmed. Lieut. Col Duncan F. Campbell, M.P., a 
graduate of Trinity College, who won the D.S.O. in South Africa, 
and was wounded early in the present war, has recently died on 
active service. Since the fighting near Ypres of four months ago, 
the Canadian casualty lists each week had not been so large till 
within the last few days but as is shown in the Roll of Honour 
the war has again taken a heavy toll of young lives. Among them 
are names that are familiar to many. Lieut. H. R. Gordon was 
already making his mark as a journalist in Toronto. Captain 
Gerald Blake, a grandson of the late Chancellor, was killed in the 
Somme offensive and his cousin Harold Wrong, Flavelle Scholar 
of Christ Church, Oxford, has been missing for several weeks. 

[15] 



16 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Professor Van der Smissen has lost his only son. May he find 
some consolation in the thoughts that inspired the lines addressed 
by himself only a short time before to a friend suffering a like loss. 
To the families of those here named and of all who, though less known 
to most of us, have fallen in an equally glorious death, the Associa- 
tion offers its sincerest sympathy. 

THE ORGANISATION OF THE ALUMNI 

A most important step was taken by the Board of Governors 
last June in relieving Dr. Abbott of a portion of his duties in the 
Department of Philosophy and assigning to him the Secretaryship 
of the Alumni Association. There is a large field to be developed 
by Dr. Abbott, and if he succeeds in deepening the interest of the 
Alumni in the University he will perform a very valuable piece of 
work. 

Among the American Universities the Alumni Associations 
have grown to positions of great influence. Probably in no part 
of the world are the graduates so closely associated with their 
colleges and universities as in the United States. Possibly 
peculiar conditions have given rise to this and there may be some- 
thing in the temperament of the American people that expresses 
itself in this institutional loyalty. But whether this be so or not 
it is a most commendable quality in the American college men and 
women, and we are following a good example in endeavouring to 
create around Toronto something of the same spirit. 

The way in which the University of Toronto has grown through 
the federation of colleges and the gradual expansion of former 
independent schools into faculties has hitherto made it more 
difficult to arouse in this University a unified spirit than in some 
other more homogeneous institutions. But the time seems to have 
come when we are ready for a change. The magnificent response 
that has been given by the University in all its faculties and colleges 
to the call for active service has brought us all togethei in a common 
pride. Men in great numbers graduates, undergraduates and 
members of the staff, have gone to the front, been wounded, and 
have fallen. The women have been united in a common effort to 
serve in their own way. All are one in rallying to the cause, the 
meaning of which they understand so well. 

The common sacrifice of the University has provided it with a 
common pride. It will be felt in the future, as never before, that 
an academic life which can sacrifice itself for a great cause so 



EDITORIAL 17 

liberally, should also find expression in earnest work and sympa- 
thetic interest in the institution from which it springs, and which 
ought to serve the country even more pre-eminently than it has 
done in the past. The University man and woman have under- 
stood the meaning of the war. They understand also the needs 
of the higher life of the country. To bring them together in common 
loyalty to the institution which does so much for their higher needs 
is a task worth promoting. 

Dr. Abbott has since the war began been engaged, with great 
success, in organising various kinds of patriotic work; he has also 
had experience in the extension work of the University and has 
shown his ability to do the kind of service that he will require to 
render in his new office. We look forward with much satisfaction 
to the results that will follow on this appointment. 

R. A. FALCONER. 



One is often reminded that a University does not consist of 
buildings and equipment but of men and women faculty and 
students. The reminder has also not been lacking that within 
the University there are duties of faculty to students and students 
to faculty. But, in Toronto at least, the suggestion that a Uni- 
versity has duties toward its graduates and that graduates have 
duties toward their Alma Mater has not been emphasised as 
strongly and as widely as its importance deserves. And the still 
further suggestion that the University and its graduates are under 
obligation to the general public and that the general public stands 
under certain obligations to the University and its graduates is 
not considered with the seriousness that its importance warrants. 

The step taken by the Board of Governors in appointing a 
member of the staff to a position especially related to the graduates 
of the University and the general public, marks, as President 
Falconer has said, a significant acknowledgement that any lack in 
the relation of the University to those outside its walls must be 
met in so far as the University can now meet it. 

Everyone interested in higher education should welcome this 
forward step more for what it signifies for the future than for 
anything it can accomplish at the moment, for before the graduates 
can be brought together so that they can fulfil their duties to their 
Alma Mater, much work that does not show must be done. The 
preparation of a card index is a first step and that of itself is no 
small task, and the still more important work of getting into- 



18 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

personal touch with the graduates is a task which will require 
more time than any single group of graduates is likely to realise. 

The writer, upon whom the choice of the President and Board 
of Governors has fallen, is under no misapprehension as to the 
magnitude of the work laid before him, but he has no doubt what- 
ever as to the possibility of accomplishing much which will prove 
of benefit both to the graduates and general public, not to mention 
the advantages which the University itself must reap from a closer 
relation of the graduates and the public generally to it. The 
University men will prove their love and loyalty to old Varsity 
just about in the measure that the University herself lets them 
know that she is thinking of them, and that she welcomes and 
expects their interest and affection, and they will do for her what 
they can as she lets them know what she wants them to do. 

To-day, when thousands of Varsity's sons are at the front, no 
one can truthfully say that the form of education given in her 
classrooms and in the general life of the University has not nobly 
stood the test of fire to which it has, perforce, been subjected. 
The trial has, however, also disclosed the places in which we have 
been weak, and the call of the Mother to her sons is an indication 
that the graduates are to have a larger place in the work of the 
future. 

ALBERT H. ABBOTT. 

THE GRADUATE COURSES 

The Board of Graduate Studies, after more than a year of 
strenuous labour, has produced its programme. The general ideas 
which have materialised in this document were stated in an aiticle 
which we published in our February number and it is not necessary 
to repeat what was then said. To all who through past or present 
connection with the University, or without any such direct relation 
are keenly alive to the present conditions and the future possibilities 
of education in this country, the new announcement of Graduate 
Courses will be a cause of satisfaction. 

Velut arbor crescat. It is an old maxim that what does not go 
forward, goes backward: when things cease to grow they begin to 
die. But these cellular organisms which we call educational 
institutions cannot advance by leaps and bounds: no vaulting 
ambition can overcome the continuity of their life. The Announce- 
ment is obviously a branch of the old tree and all its ramifications 
spring from the original roots. The reader who opens at page five 



EDITORIAL 19 

to scan the General Regulations, will, if uninitiated, take them for a 
reprint of the similar regulations which formerly appeared in the 
Arts Calendar: his judgment will not be literally correct but his 
general impression will not be wholly wrong, until he comes to the 
headline about the Degree of Doctor of Medicine; there, probably, 
a new light will dawn and he will reflect on the range of what is 
here called Graduate Studies and on the principles of co-ordination 
which are needed in the organisation of advanced studies. He may 
reflect, too, that these things cost money both to the institution 
and the individual : fees and scholarships will then prove interesting 
according as our imaginary reader has aspirations to assist the 
cause by paying the former or generously supplementing the latter ! 
Twenty-four out of the forty odd pages in the Announcement 
are taken up by the actual description of courses. This is the part 
which constitutes the real substance of the new growth. As every 
one knows, for many years instruction has been given to graduated 
students, and a large amount of work has been done by the Staff 
in the various departments to encourage and maintain interest in 
advanced studies. What is new in this latest phase of the develop- 
ment is the scheme of co-ordination and the natural expansion 
which is brought about by a conscious effort to formulate such a 
scheme. Even a hasty glance through these twenty-four pages 
will be enough to convince the reader that the different departments 
have taken their duty in this matter seriously and have not pre- 
ferred ease to the labours of instruction. It is neither possible nor 
desirable to cater for every individual taste : the student who has a 
craving for any particular form of knowledge may be trusted to 
make good use of the opportunities which the University affords. 
On the administration falls the duty of seeing that development is 
not warped and of combining with efficient specialisation that 
amount of breadth which makes knowledge adequate to life, 
Doubtless such high ideals cannot be realised at one stroke. A 
first effort must necessarily be in many ways tentative. The new 
civilisation, it has been said, consists mainly in the fact that the 
children bring up their parents in the way they should go. The 
optimist is permitted to see by the eye of faith crowds of eager 
students thronging the halls of this Alma Mater who may one and 
all learn from it how to do better. Meanwhile a beginning must 
be made and the definite view which this Announcement gives of 
the scope of the work which the University is prepared to do, may 
be expected to act as a stimulus and an attraction. 



20 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

THE CHANGE OF PRESIDENTS 

In the last issue a brief reference was made to the retiring 
President of the Alumni Association, Professor J. C. McLennan, 
and his successor the Honourable Mr. Justice Masten. The services 
done by the former are appraised by the following resolution 
passed at the last annual meeting of the Association, to which is 
added an account of the new President, written by one who knows 
him well. 

"The University of Toronto Alumni Association 
desires to mark the conclusion of Professor J. C. Mc- 
Lennan's long term of service to the Association, first, 
as Secretary, then as Vice-President, and, finally, as 
President, by expressing its appreciation of the value 
of that service to itself and to the University. 

"When the Association was founded in 1900 he became 
its Secretary and held that office for the eight succeeding 
years. In that capacity he laboured untiringly and 
unselfishly to promote the objects for which the Associa- 
tion was called into existence; and to his energy and 
self-sacrifice is due, in very large measure, the success 
which the Association has had in enlisting the sympathy 
and loyalty of the Alumni in support of the University 
at a critical period in its history. 

"To him as Secretary is due also the recognition of 
the service he rendered in a number of enterprises, such 
as the Dining Hall, the Undergraduates' Union, and the 
Faculty Union, but more particularly the erection of 
the Convocation Hall, which will be a memorial to him 
and those associated with him in that service. 

"As Vice-President he was ever ready to help and he 
gave his service to the Association in the five years of 
his tenure of the office as freely as he did as Secretary. 

"As President for three years he has directed the 
energies of the Association to the attainment of a new 
position for the Association in relation to the University, 
a position in which it will render greater service than 
ever formerly, and in which the hopes of those who 
founded the Association sixteen years ago, will be fully 
realised. 



EDITORIAL 21 

"The, Association rejoices to note that while he 
has given all this service to the University, Professor 
McLennan has also represented the highest ideals of a 
University teacher and investigator, and that his con- 
tributions to Science have brought him distinction 
from abroad, as shown by his election last year as Fellow 
of the Royal Society of London. 

"The Association wishes Professor McLennan many 
years of service in the life to which he now proposes to 
devote himself." 



The Honourable Mr. Justice Masten of Toronto, Canada, who 
was recently elected President of the Alumni Association of the 
University of Toronto, has had an eventful and successful career 
and under his able direction there is no doubt that the Alumni 
Association ought to play a much more important part in the affairs 
of the University than it has done in the past. 

The Honourable Mr. Justice Masten was born on the 16th of 
December, 1857, at the Parish of St. Bernard de La Colle, County 
of St. John's, Province of Quebec and is of United Empire stock. 
He received his education first at the Parish or Public District 
School, second at La Colle Academy, in the village of La Colle; 
third at Victoria University, Cobourg, Ontario, where he graduated 
with honours in May, 1879. 

He was called to the Bar in 1883 and practised his profession 
with great success until the first of November last, when he was 
called to his present position as one of the Judges of the Supreme 
Court of Ontario. At the time of his elevation to the Bench he was 
the Senior member of the firm of Masten, Starr & Spence. He 
was appointed a King's Counsel (Ontario) in 1908, and was elected 
a Bencher of the Law Society of Upper Canada in the same year. 

The Honourable Mr. Justice Masten has been known all his 
life as a hard worker and of later years his profession has called 
upon his energies almost to the limit. However, in the midst of a 
very busy professional life he has found time to publish a book on 
the Company Law of Canada which has met with very wide accept- 
ance on the part of the profession. 

He is an enthusiastic golfer and any leisure that he has will 
find him on the Toronto Golf Club links. Those who know him 
best think he has rare executive ability and that quality of thorough- 
ness and patience which insures a successful career. 



IN MEMORIAM 



GEORGE KENNEDY, M.A., LL.D. 

DR. GEORGE KENNEDY was born near Ottawa in 1838 and 
died in Toronto on June 16th, 1916. He graduated as 
B.A. from the University with high honours in 1857, 
receiving the gold medal in Metaphysics. He attained his M.A, 
in 1860, and went on to his LL.B. in 1864 and his LL.D. in 1877. 
After serving some time as a High School teacher he was called to 
the Bar in 1865 and practised as a lawyer in Ottawa until in 1872 
he was appointed Law Clerk in the Department of Crown Lands, 
at that time under the management of the Hon. Richard Scott, 
Commissioner. In this position he remained till his death, that is, 
for the remarkably long period of forty-four years. 

Dr. Kennedy was always one of the most faithful of the alumni 
of the University. He took a deep interest in her welfare and in 
fact in all that pertained to education in our country. Of his estate 
he left $10,000 to found scholarships in the University and $10,000 
to the Collegiate Institute of his native city of Ottawa. 

Dr. Kennedy was also very active in a number of institutions 
of a scientific and philanthropic character. For thirty years he 
was Editor of the Royal Canadian Institute and for two terms was 
President. As Editor he performed services of a valuable kind for 
the advancement of science. In the Caledonian and St. Andrew's 
Societies he was active and faithful and in his quiet way afforded 
relief to many. 

There is no alumnus of the University of whom we should be 
more proud than of Dr. Kennedy. For forty-four years he dis- 
charged the semi -judicial duties of an important public office 
with singleness of heart and an eye to the interests of the country. 
His hours of recreation were devoted to science and the works 
of philanthropy and when he passed away he left his savings to be 
used to encourage the education of the young. Simple, modest , 
true-hearted, may he rest in peace. 

J. SQUAIR. 

[22] 






IN MEMORIAM 23 

C. C. JAMES, C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., F.R.S.C. 

In the sudden death of C. C. James on the 23rd of June last, 
the University lost one of her most distinguished graduates. 
Retiring in his disposition and manners, he never sought notoriety, 
but quietly addressing himself to the important work to which he 
gave his life, by rare ability, untiring industry, and high fidelity 
to duty, he won a position from which he will be greatly missed. 
The son of U.K. Loyalist parents on both sides of the house, from 
an ancestry embracing such names as James, Canniff, Dulmage, 
and others well known in the early history of this province, he 
inherited the best qualities of that virile race, and by his own life- 
work added to their contributions to the growth and prosperity 
of this country. 

He was born in Napanee in 1863, the son of Charles James and 
Ellen Canniff. He prepared for college in the Napanee Collegiate 
Institute, and at the age of sixteen entered Victoria College in the 
autumn of 1879, and at the end of his first year won the scholar- 
ships of the year in both Classics and Mathematics. In the next 
two years he carried off scholarships in Mathematics, Physics and 
Logic and graduated with first class honours throughout his course, 
the Gold Medal in Science, a graduating scholarship in Science and 
the Wilson Memorial Prize in Astronomy. His course was thus 
not the narrow one of a specialist; but included honour work in 
Classics, Mathematics, Philosophy and Science, and fitted him to 
begin his life-work with a very broad culture and a taste for litera- 
tuie as well as science. 

Immediately after graduation he received an appointment as 
Mathematical Master in the Cobourg Collegiate Institute which 
he held for the next three years. Here he proved himself to be an 
able teacher and at the same time in the laboratories of Victoria 
College pursued graduate studies in Chemistry under Dr. Haanel ; 
while not neglecting the cultivation of his literary tastes. His 
capacity for extensive as well as intensive work was manifest from 
the very beginning of his career. 

On the death of R. B. Hare, Ph.D., Professor of Chemistry in 
the Ontario Agricultural College, he was selected by Dr. Mills to 
fill the vacancy, and here found the field in which he was to give 
his country such successful service. Well grounded in the principles 
of chemical science and its methods of research, he soon became 
a thorough master of the application of that science to all branches 



24 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

of Agricultural industry; and by the preparation of a text-book 
for schools and especially by the issue of monographs filled with 
lucid and practical information leading to the introduction of more 
scientific and profitable methods of dealing with the soil, fertilisers, 
dairy products and foodstuffs generally, he began a course of 
popular education of inestimable value to this country. At the 
same time his ability as an organiser was called into exercise in 
Farmers' Institutes and other means of advancing this educational 
work. In the brief period of five years this work in college so 
demonstrated the abilities of the man that he was called to the 
important position of Deputy Minister of Agriculture and Secretary 
of the Bureau of Industries in Ontario, where for twenty-one years 
he rendered to ther province most valuable service, the moral, social 
and economic results of which no financial estimate can adequately 
represent. 

The country was passing into its full consciousness of national 
life, and, unconscious of the crisis which lay before us, we were 
projecting large enterprises and looking for and calling out to 
national service our strong men and Mr. James was easily one of 
the chosen. In 1912 he was appointed Commissioner of Agriculture 
for the Dominion and large resources placed at his disposal for the 
improvement of our greatest national industry. Honourable 
recognition of his work accompanied this. The Royal Society 
elected him a Fellow; the University of Toronto conferred on him 
the degree of LL.D.; and at His Majesty's Coronation he was 
created a C.M.G. 

We have already referred to his taste for literature. First of 
all he devoted his literary gifts to the upbuilding of the main work 
of his life. The Problem of the Indifferent Farmer, An Agricultural 
War Book, Production and Thrift are specimens of his work in this 
field. A Tennyson Pilgrimage and Tennyson the Imperialist, and 
a Bibliography of Canadian Poetry represent studies in literature. 
A favourite field was the early history of the province to which 
he contributed such monographs as The Irish Palatines in Upper 
Canada, The Second Legislature of Upper Canada, The Downfall of, 
the Huron Nation and The Romance of Ontario. He was a member 
of our most important Historical Societies and president of several. 
His vacant place will not be easily filled in our Civil Service and 
throughout the country universal regret has been expressed at 
the early death of so useful and distinguished a citizen. 

N. BURWASH. 



IN MEMORIAM 25 

PROFESSOR THOMAS GREGOR BRODIE. 

Professor Thomas Gregor Brodie, M.D., F.R.S., died from an 
attack of angina pectoris on August 20th at his residence, 12 Fellows 
Road, Hampstead, North London. 

The late Professor Brodie was the son of the Rev. Alexander 
Brodie, Vicar of Grandborough, and was just over fifty years of 
age at his death. He received his education at St. John's College, 
Cambridge, but, deciding to enter on a medical career, he left the 
University without graduating and underwent his medical training 
at King's College, London, where, as an exceptionally brilliant 
student, he carried off most of the prizes the College offered during 
his course. He obtained the degree of M.B. and, subsequently, 
that of M.D. from the University of London. During these years 
he was specially attracted to the study of physiology, and, as he 
soon gave edvience of the possession of the required qualifications 
in this subject, he was appointed, in 1890, Demonstrator of Physi- 
ology under Professor Halliburton in King's College, in 1894 Senior 
Demonstrator of Physiology in the London Hospital Medical 
School, and in 1895 Lecturer in Physiology at the St. Thomas 
Hospital Medical School. 

So marked were the characteristics and aptitude for research 
which he evinced that he was in 1899 made Director of the Research 
Laboratories of the Royal Colleges of Physicians and Surgeons, a 
post which he held until 1902, when the two Colleges decided to 
close the Laboratories and give their support to the Lister Institute 
of Preventive Medicine which was founded in that year. He was 
then elected to two positions: the Professorship of Physiology in 
the Royal Veterinary College, and the Professor-Superintendent- 
ship of the Brown Animal Sanitory Institution of the University 
of London. He held also the post of Lecturer in Physiology in 
the London School of Medicine for Women, to which he had been 
appointed in 1899. These positions, which called for a great 
expenditure of energy on his part, he filled with acceptance on all 
hands, and at the same time he found opportunities for researches 
which brought him in 1904 the distinction of election as Fellow of 
the Royal Society. The Royal Society, also, conferred on him the 
Croonian Lectureship for 1911, a coveted honour. 

In 1908 he accepted the Professorship of Physiology in the 
University of Toronto, and very soon after he entered upon the 
duties of his new post he began to develop the Department of 



26 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Physiology along Biophysical lines specially, with the result that 
at his death the Laboratory ranked amongst the three leading 
Laboratories of Physiology on either side of the Atlantic. It was. 
his ambition to make Toronto a great and renowned School of 
Physiology, and, had he lived, he would have succeeded in achieving 
this according to his desire. 

He had such inventiveness, resourcefulness and capacity to 
meet experimental needs that would have made him a very success- 
ful engineer, and these qualities served him in an unusual degree 
in his experimental physiological work. He had also unbounded 
enthusiasm for his subject that would not have been daunted by 
the toil and weariness of the twenty or more years of life that he 
hoped would yet be allotted him. 

He did not publish readily or quickly. He was extremely 
cautious as to the results of his investigations, and very careful, 
almost fastidious, as to form and style of expression. In conse- 
quence, not a few of his papers, that might justifiably have been 
published, were held back, some of them for years, and must now 
appear without the desiied revision. 

In 1915 he offered his services to the War Office and was ac- 
cepted, receiving the rank of Captain in the Canadian Medical 
Service, in which position he was engaged during the Summer of 
that year and again of this year, in researches on the respiratory 
processes in connection with wounds and disease. In July he was 
selected to superintend a Department of the Military Hospital at 
Ramsgate, where his chief duties would have been to devise and 
direct the means of re-educating maimed men to resume useful work. 

In 1894 he married Miss Alice Sims, who survives him. Of 
his three sons the eldest is in the army and has been wounded 
twice. The second, as Midshipman, was on H.M.S. Shannon in 
the Jutland naval battle. 

He was a loyal colleague, a true friend and a delightful com- 
panion. 

A. B. MACALLUM. 



A memoir of the late Mr. John King is being written and will appear in. 
the November issue. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



How the French Boy Learns to Write: A study in the teaching of the 
mother-tongue. ROLLO WALTER BROWN, Harvard Univer- 
sity Press, 1915. 

In view of the huge output of uncalled-for books in our time, it 
is remarkable how long we have to wait for certain obvious subjects 
to be treated. Though the excellence of French prose as handled, 
not merely by the literary master, but by the average journalist 
or the informal letter-writer, has been the admiration of the world 
for centuries, no one seems to have asked the obvious question, 
how far the teaching of the French language in French schools 
might be responsible for this excellence of French prose and how 
far the introduction of French methods into the schools of English- 
speaking countries might effect an improvement in the writing of 
average English prose. The lazy view that the French pre- 
eminence in this art is due to a kind of "manifest destiny" is pro- 
bably responsible for our long indifference to this elementary 
question. Teachers of English composition everywhere should 
pass a vote of thanks to Professor Brown or rather, they should 
read his book for his good sense in brushing aside the ' ' manifest 
destiny" theory and his energy in spending a year in France, 
visiting lycees, interviewing ministers, principals, teachers, pupils, 
parents, reading students' compositions, studying educational 
programmes and trying to discover what features of the French 
system of teaching the mother-tongue are applicable to the teaching 
of English in American schools. Canadian and American school 
conditions are sufficiently similar to make the book profitable to 
Canadian teachers. 

Professor Brown does not content himself with merely repro- 
ducing school-curricula and lists of prescribed or recommended 
readings though his assembling of this by no means easily access- 
ible material is one of his titles to our gratitude ; he undertakes to 
transmit the spirit of the class-room work which he observed and to 
describe the personality of the French teacher. It would be idle 
to pretend that he entirely succeeds in communicating the in- 
communicable; but he at least contrives to suggest something of 
those dynamic forces which convert a schedule into a real educa- 
tional process. Difficulties are inherent also in the very attempt 

[27] 



28 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

to equate two school-systems so disparate as those of France and 
America; the lycSe, for example, is our High School plus two years 
at least of our college course. But these are inevitable difficulties 
for which any sensible reader will make allowance. 

Among the many points in the teaching which, according to 
Professor Brown, throw light on the secret of the young French- 
man's ability to write his language, not merely with clearness and 
correctness, but usually with some feeling for literary force and 
grace, may be mentioned: (1) the concentration of all the teaching 
in the mother tongue (grammar, composition, literature) upon the 
development of the pupil's power of thought and expression; 
(2) the co-operation of all the other teaching departments with 
the French department in insisting that pupils shall observe the 
precepts of good writing in everything they write, whether it be a 
report on a chemical experiment or an essay in history; (3) the 
pains which the teacher takes to discuss with a class the subject- 
matter of an assigned composition and possible ways of approaching 
the subject before the pupils begin to write (never, apparently, is a 
French teacher content to assign a subject and leave the matter 
there); (4) the amount of good literature pupils read from their 
earliest years (by the time he leaves the lycee at the age of eighteen 
the young Frenchman appears to have read specimens of all the 
important French authors both modern and mediaeval, having thus 
an equipment which the young Canadian can hardly boast even at 
the end of his University course) ; (5) the careful gradation in the 
kind of subjects assigned for compositions so that the faculties of 
observation, imagination and reason are called into activity in the 
given order as the pupil advances in years; (6) the great amount 
of writing which the French boy is required to do and the early age 
at which he begins; (7) the alertness of the class-room atmosphere 
and the admirable training (usually amounting to that required of a 
candidate for the Ph.D. in America), conscientiousness and en- 
thusiasm of the teacher, who, far from regarding the correcting of 
essays as an uninspired drudgery, considers it a fascinating problem 
to guide the young mind in that most wonderful of arts, the art of 
self-expression in language.* 

A. F. BRUCE CLARK. 

*The writer of this review has often thought that the translation or adaptation 
into English of some notable French manuals on Composition such as, for exam- 
ple, Professor Lanson's Conseils sur I' Art d' Ecrire, might advantageously replace 
the interminable flow of " original " works on that subject from the American 
publishing-houses. 



LETTER TO THE EDITOR 



To the Editor of THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, 
Toronto, Canada. 

Dear Sir : 

It may be of interest to you to know that I have by this even- 
ing's mail received the May copy of THE MONTHLY. I am fre- 
quently meeting graduates and undergraduates of the University 
out here in France, and also from time to time former members of 
the Staff. It is always of interest to receive a copy of THE MONTHLY. 
It keeps us in touch with things at home and is a reminder of better 
days to come, not to mention the memory of many pleasant days 
spent around the campus. 

I am a post-graduate of the University (LL.B. '05), but had 
the opportunity during my course of being closely in touch with 
University life and sports. I came over with the 1st Division and 
crossed to France in February, 1915, in command of the 2nd 
Battery, C.F.A. In August 1915, I was promoted in the field to 
command the 1st Brigade, C.F.A., and still have that command. 

In May of this year Major Gordon Southam and Captain Alex 
Davidson, both of the C.F.A. , were sent to this brigade for instruc- 
tion. They are both graduates of the University and are with the 
Divisional Artillery of our 3rd Division. 

I am frequently meeting graduates either in the Medical 
Corps or in the Engineers, or in the Artillery or Infantry. 

With many thanks for the copy of the magazine. 
Yours sincerely, 

C. H. MACLAREN, Lt.-Col., 

O.C. 1st Brigade, C.F.A. 



[29] 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 



A MAGAZINE PUBLISHED BY THE ALUMNI ASSOCIATION OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

A. H. ABBOTT, PH D., Chairman] J. W. BAIN, B.A.Sc.; R. G 
BEATTIE, B.A.; Miss C. C. BENSON, PH.D.; G. S. BRETT, M.A. 
I. H. CAMERON, M.B., LL.D.; J. D. FALCONBRIDGE, M.A., LL.B. 
J. C. FIELDS, PH.D.; Miss C. LAING, M.A.; A. E. LANG, M.A. 
G. H. LOCKE, PH.D.; A. B. MACALLUM, M.B., PH.D.; J. C. MC- 
LENNAN, PH.D.; J. P. MCMURRICH, PH. D., LL.D.; HON. C. A. 
MASTEN, B.A.; P. SANDIFORD, M.Sc., PH.D.; WALLACE SECCOMBE, 
D.D.S.; J. SQUAIR, B.A.; J. B. TYRRELL, M.A., B.Sc. 

J. PATTERSON, M.A., Secretary-Treasurer. 
G. OSWALD SMITH, M.A., Editor-in-Chief. 
Miss V. B. THOMSON, B.A., Assistant Editor. 



ADDRESS ALL COMMUNICATIONS TO THE SECRETARY'S OFFICE, 
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION, UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO. 



THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY is ISSUED ON OR ABOUT THE 15th OF 

EACH MONTH DURING THE SESSION. 



SUBSCRIPTION, $1.00 A YEAR. SINGLE COPIES, 15 CENTS. 



TORONTO. 
PRINTED AT THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO PRESS. 

[30] 



TORONTONENSIA 



Dinner ON the evening of the twenty-sixth of June 

,. . . 

"Olim meminisse * ast m " ie dining-room of the Faculty Union, 
juvabit" five gentlemen dined, who graduated in Arts 

in the year of Our Lord 1866. On that day, half a century ago, 
twenty -nine men, radiant with the glory of Bachelorhoods, emerged 
from the old Convocation Hall to look life in the face, and see how 
well arid how truly each in his own way could solve its problems. 
During those fifty years death had laid his hand upon many of those 
hearts and had healed them forever. There are nine survivors: 
Sir Glenholme Falconbridge, Chief Justice; William Davidson, 
K.C.; Charles B. Jackes, x Andrew Greenlees, John A Paterson, 
K.C.; Dr. A. H. Wright, William Fitzgerald, Adolphus Williams, 
K.C., and J. C. Morgan. The first five of that number sat down to 
the table. The pre&ence of the other four could not be obtained 
for various regrettable causes. One of them, Adolphus Williams, 
could not come from far Vancouver. Of those nine seven are 
lawyers and the five who dined were lawyers. A lucky thing indeed 
that the advice of " Dick the butcher" set down in the second part 
of " Henry the Sixth" was not taken during that quinquennium 
"The first thing we do, let us kill all the lawyers" for then this 
record would never have intruded itself before its courteous readers. 
The absent ones sent letters of regret for their absence, but they 
rang the bells of joy, for the occasion bade us, both absent and 
present, to be joyful. But it was that kind of joy that the great 
French essayist spoke of when he said: "The most profound joy 
has more gravity than gayety in it." 

As the pleasant evening wore on, the Chief Justice, who pre- 
sided, tenderly and skilfully touched the memories of those who had 
gone over to the silent shore, and with the cypress there was taste- 
fully entwined by him the olive garland. 

We may be pardoned for gently reminding ourselves, that it is 
not every graduating class that ranks am'ongst its members a Chief 
Justice and a Knight all in one, thus so highly honoured by the 
King; while as for the rest of us well we are "all honourable men ". 
College class incidents were recalled ; the old Residence as it was in 

[31] 



32 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

the middle sixties arose from its tomb, although it did not make 
"night hideous" as it sometimes used to; professors of that genera- 
tion, when the veterans of 1916 were boys once more, in our mind's 
eye swept through the corridors to their lecture rooms. The 
cultured McCaul of classic renown ; the exact and scholarly Cherri- 
man; the golden-mouthed Wilson; Croft with skilful hand investi- 
gating the secrets of matter; Hincks with his birds, beasts and 
reptiles; Chapman with his "scale of hardness" for minerals, 
dividing the whole realm of nature up between things that were 
"haurd enough to scrawtch glawss" ; and other things that had not 
reached that degree of physical wickedness. Wickson, Beaven, 
Forneri and others, each in his own place, and at his own worth, 
were all remembered back in the corridors of time, and round each 
gathered a pleasant memory. 

"Lulled in the countless chambers of the brain, 

"Our thoughts are linked, with many a hidden chain. 

"Awake but one and lo! what myriads rise! 

"Each stamps its image as the other flies!" 

Those were the days when there was only one University building, 
and that one yet the Prince of them all, and when the whole of the 
attending undergraduates did not equal the number in the First 
year of recent days. Another member present contributed some 
statistics indicative of the immense progress of the University since 
those pristine days educationally, financially and numerically. 
Then old class lists from 1862-1866 supplied by the kindness of Mr. 
Brebner, the Registrar, were produced and referred to. They 
recorded many triumphs, but alas! too many failures, but yet no 
crushing disasters. So often it happened that some examiners had 
strangely failed to comprehend the absolutely correct answers to 
the questions which they had set. The year 1866 was memorable 
for then war's stern alarums rang through Convocation Hall; 
many of the examinations were never finished, for a foe, despicable 
it is true, invaded our territory, and three of the then undergraduates 
McKenzie, Mewburn and Tempest "pro patria pugnantes occu- 
buerunt." 

Many another of our graduates and undergraduates have fallen 
in this greater war, although indeed no hostile foot now, as then, 
has polluted our borders; then the Gaul, such as he was, strove to 
reach our very gates. These are occasions when the old epigram 
is reversed, and the sword is mightier than the pen but with the 
sword the pen becomes the mightier, and its dominance must be 



TORONTONENSIA 33 

established. On the 26th of June our hearts went out, with a 
fiercely burning patriotism, in close sympathy for the many 
patriotic scholars, whose names are written in blood on the pages 
of our University history. This Jubilee Dinner is the only one 
we have heard of why not more of them? They serve to link 
the past with the present, and we then hear 
"The muffled tramp of years, 

Come stealing up the slope of Time." 

One humorist, who was present, invited the rest of us to the next 
Jubilee Dinner, and generously offered to bear the whole expense; 
he, however, was fair enough to add: "You may find it rather 
difficult to discover my address". But why not look forward to a 
Diamond Jubilee in the year 1926? We are possessed with a most 
reasonable optimism, we are intelligently incredulous regarding the 
evils of life. In any event to our Alma Mater we say as the old 
gladiators did on the arena "morituri te salutamus." 

JOHN A. PATERSON. 

1891 Class On Friday, May 19th, twenty- two members 

Reunion o f the Class of '91 met to celebrate the 

twenty-fifth anniversary of their graduation. In the afternoon 
they attended Convocation and in the evening dined and made 
merry in the familiar haunts of the old Residence dining hall. 
The Hon. G. Howard Ferguson acted as chairman of the after- 
dinner festivities. Reminiscent speeches from all present, greet- 
ings from absent comrades, and such old-time college songs as 
"Litoria", "Keemo-Kimo" and "Michael Roy", evoked the spirit 
of the past and made the olden days live in the memory as if they 
were but yesterday. A pleasant feature of the evening was a 
visit from President Falconer and Professor Keys, both of whom 
made short speeches, the latter recalling the fact that he was 
joined to the class by special ties inasmuch as his sister, Professor 
Florence V. Keys, graduated in '91. Three members of the class 
are taking an important share in the war, namely, Dr. John Malloch 
at Saloniki, Dr. Donald Armour in England, and Lt.-Col. Duncan 
Donald of the 134th Highlanders. Letters were read from Prof. 
Stephen Leacock, Dr. Thomas McCrae, of Philadelphia; Professor's 
Frank Lillie and Gordon Laing, of Chicago University; Chief 
Justice Stuart of Alberta, J. F. Howard, San Antonio, Texas; H. C. 
Pape, Moosejaw; J. C. McKechnie, Saskatoon; Rev. Lewis Nicholls, 
Lock Haven, Penna; Dr. John Scane, of McGill; W. E. Rand, 



34 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Arnprior; W. Hardie, Ottawa; T. W. Standing, Brantford, and A. 
M. Stewart, Toronto. The following were present from out of 
town: Rev. R. H. Ballah, St. Thomas; W. E. Buckingham, Guelph; 
W. H. Harris, Port Perry; R. Henderson, New York; Rev. W. R. 
Mclntosh, London; A. J. McKinnon, Actan; Rev. Geo. W. Robin- 
son, Orangeville; Duncan Ross, Barrie; Spencer Stone, Chatham; 
Duncan Walker, Peterboro; U. M. Wilson, Napanee; and the 
following from Toronto: J. C. Breckinridge, A. W. Briggs, T. D. 
Dockray, H. M. Ferguson, G. H. Ferguson, J. M. Godfrey, Geo. 
Graham, W. S. W. McLay, Rev. John McNicol, H. E. Rose, and 
Rev. J. Wilson. The Hon. Howard Ferguson was elected Presi- 
dent, and H. M. Ferguson, Secretary. 

W. S. W. McLAY. 

FACULTY OF ARTS. 

W. A. Parks to be Professor of Palaeontology. 
Appointments, 
etc. M. A. Buchanan to be Professor of Italian and 

Spanish. 

G. S. Brett to be Professor of Philosophy (part time). 

M. W. Wallace to be Professor of English. 

J. Home Cameron to be Professor of French. 

J. S. Will to be Professor of French. 

F. Tracy to be Professor of Ethics in University College. 

J. A. Craig to be Professor of Oriental Languages. 

L. Gilchrist to be Assistant Professor of Physics. 

John Satterly has been appointed Assistant Professor of Physics 
and Assistant Director of Undergraduate Laboratory Work. 

Professor J. G. Hume has been transferred from University 
College to be Professor of Philosophy in the University and Head 
of the Department of Philosophy. 

Professors M. W. Wallace and Lachlan Gilchrist have been 
granted leave of absence for military service from July 1st, 1916. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE. 
PROMOTIONS : 

J. McGowan to be Professor of Applied Mechanics. 

J. Watson Bain to be Professor of Applied Chemistry. 
APPOINTMENT : 

L. M. Arkley to be Assistant Professor of Mechanical 
Engineering. 

Professor W. H. Ellis is transferred from the Department of 
Applied Chemistry to be Dean of the Faculty. 



TORONTONENSIA 35 

MISCELLANEOUS APPOINTMENTS. 
LIBRARY : 

Assistant Cataloguer, Miss Alice E. Stennett. 

Assistant, Miss Madge Murphy. 
SUPERINTENDENT'S OFFICE: 

Chief Clerk, E. A. Ridge. 

The resignations of Miss M. Lowe and Miss J. Forrest, Assist- 
ants in the Library have been accepted. 



The following are appointments for the Session 1916-17: 
FACULTY OF ARTS. 

Mathematics: Lecturers: S. Beatty, I. R. Pounder. 

Fellows: T. H. Milne, F. Phillips. 

Physics: Lecturer, H. A. McTaggart.* 

Assistant Demonstrators: D. S. Ainslie, R. C. Dearie, Miss A. W. 
Foster, F. W. Kemp, R. G. Moffatt. 

Class Assistant and Stenographer, Miss A. T. Reed. 

Astro-Physics: Assistant, F. L. Blake. 

Geology: Lecturer, A. MacLean. 

Mineralogy: Lecturer, J. Ellis Thomson. 

Chemistry: Lecturer, W. S. Funnell. 

Assistants, G. H. Brother, Miss S. N. Boyd, E. J. Fulmer, 
F. Olsen. 

Biology : Lecturer in Vertebrate Embryology, A. F. Coventry.* 

Lecturer in Comparative Anatomy, W. H. T. Baillie. 

Lecturer in Elementary Biology, W. A. Clemens. 

Museum Assistant and Cataloguer, E. B. S. Logier. 

Botany: Lecturer, J. H. White. 

Demonstrator, Miss J . McFarlane. 

Fellows, N. C. Hart, Miss G. Wright. 

Assistant, G. H. Duff. 

Bio-Chemistry: Lecturer and Demonstrator, E. J. Baumann. 

Physiology : Lecturer, Frank S. Hartman. 

Fellow, Miss L. McPhedran. 

Assistant, Miss M. G. Marsh. 

History: Lecturers: R. Hodder Williams,* G. M. Smith,* 
Vincent Massey,* W. S. Wallace.* 

Instructor, Miss H. McMurchie. 

Italian and Spanish: Instructor, M. C. Catalano.* 

* Absent on Military Service. 



36 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Psychology: Demonstrator, E. J. Pratt. 

Laboratory Assistants, E. A. Bott, V. T. Mooney. 

Political Science: Lecturers, S. A. Cudmore, W. T. Jackman. 

Special Lecturer in Federal, English and Colonial Constitution 
Law, Professor A. H. F. Lefroy. 

Lecturer in Commercial and International Law, J. D. Falcon- 
bridge. 

Latin: Lecturer, David Duff. 

Ancient History: Lecturers, A. Grant Brown, E. A. Dale, C. N. 
Cochrane.* 

English: Lecturers, W. H. Clawson, A. F. B. Clark. 

French: Lecturers, F. C. A. Jeanneret, J. B. Wallace. 

Instructors, P. Balbaud,* L. A. Bibet.* 

German: Lecturer, G. E. Holt. 

Assistant in Registrar's Office, University College, Miss C. 
Tocque. 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

Anatomy: Lecturer (including course of lectures on Topo- 
graphical Anatomy), J. C. Watt. 

Demonstrator for Dental Students, E. F. Risdon. 

Pathology and Bacteriology: Lecturer, Duncan Graham.* 

Chemical Pathology: Lecturer, C. G. Imrie.* 

Demonstrators, W. R. Campbell, F. W. Rolph. 

Assistants in Clinical Laboratory, F. W. Rolph, D. H. 
Boddington. 

Pharmacy and Pharmacology: Lecturer, A. Brodey. 

Instructor, J. A. Macdonald. 

Class Assistants, F. C. Harrison, E. M. Henderson. 

Ophthalmology: Assistant, D. N. MacLennan. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE. 

Electrical Engineering : Lecturers, W. S. Guest, A. R. Zimmer. 
Demonstrators, Ross Taylor, R. J. Allen, W. B. Buchanan. 
Mechanical Engineering: Lecturer in Hydraulics, J. J. Traill. 
Lecturer in Machine Design, J. H. Billings. 
Lecturer in Thermodynamics, J. H. Parkin. 
Mining Engineering: Lecturers, F. C. Dyer, J. T. King. 
Surveying: Lecturers, S. R. Crerar, E. W. Banting. 
Applied Chemistry: Demonstrator, L. J. Rogers. 



* Absent on Military Service. 



TORONTONENSIA 37 

Electro-Chemistry: Lecturer, J. T. Burt-Gerrans. 

Demonstrator, H. J. Brownlee. 

Architecture: Lecturer, H. H. Madill.* 

Instructor in Modelling, J. L. Banks. 

Instructor in Freehand and Water Colour, C. W. Jefferys. 

Instructor, etc., Miss J. C. Laing. 

Drawing: Lecturer, W. J. Smither. 



Household Science : Lecturers, Miss L. L. Ockley, Miss W 
Cruise. 

Instructor, Miss M. V. Manning. 
Laboratory Assistant, Miss V. B. Spinney. 



FACULTY OF EDUCATION. 

Instructor, University Schools, Frank Halbus (substitute for H, 
G. Manning).* 



FACULTY OF FORESTRY. 
Lecturer, J. H. White. 



SOCIAL SERVICE. 
Director of Courses, Franklin Johnson, Jr. 



MISCELLANEOUS. 

Physical Director, J. W. Barton. 

Superintendent, University College Women's Residences, Miss L. 
I. Livingstone. 

Housekeeper, University College Women's Residences, Miss L. 
Pan ton (from September 15th, 1916). 

Superintendent of Dining Hall, Miss V. H. Ryley. 

Lady Resident, University College Women's Union, Miss M. 
Wrong. 

Secretary to Students 1 Administrative Council, C. C. Grant. 



'Absent on Military Service. 



38 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Military Notes Lieut. -Col. W. R. Lang has been since June 

a General Staff Officer at Headquarters, 

Camp Borden. Lieut. -Col. A. D. LePan has succeeded him as 
Officer Commanding the School of Infantry Instruction, Military 
District No. 2. 

* * * * 

The 67th (U. of T.) Battery, C.F.A., has already sent over to 
England three drafts, so that practically all its original members 
are now overseas. After a short period at Niagara it has now gone 
to Petawawa for training. 

***** 

The U. of T. Overseas Training Company has now a strength 
of over 100. On August 18th a farewell was said to 32 of its 
members selected as the second draft from .the Company of candidates 
for commissions in the Imperial Army. Those who saw them 
before leaving had ample evidence of the good work that the 
Company is doing, and the parting cheers which they themselves 
gave to the officers of the Company must have been specially 
gratifying to Captain Needier and his staff who have been in charge 
of their training. During the summer the Company has been living 
in barracks at Burwash Hall, which was kindly placed at their 
disposal by the authorities of Victoria College. 
***** 

Several officers, members of the University, who had hitherto 
been supernumeraries to the strength of the existing battalions in 
Canada have recently left for England to undergo further training 
and be drafted into the battalions already overseas. 

***** 

Owing to the renewed demand for officers and the attractions 
of other arms of the service for those going in the ranks, only a few 
recruits have come in recently for the Universities Companies 
reinforcing the Princess Patricia's Light Infantry. In consequence 
after the heavy losses of last June the regiment has had to draw 
part of its reinforcements from elsewhere. But it is still looking to 
this source as far as University men or those of a similar standard 
are available, and drafts of fifty are being sent forward from 
Montreal as soon as they are raised. 

Enquiries regarding these three units should be addressed as 
follows : 

67th Battery at the Armouries. 



TORONTONENSIA 39 

Training Company, at the Orderly Room, Mining Building, 

(Phone: Coll. 5000). 
Princess Patricias, at Room H., Department of History 

Staircase, Main Building (Phone, evenings, Coll. 3623). 

***** 

The active service figures of the C.O.T.C. up to September 
1st are approximately as follows : 

N.C.O's 
Officers and Men. Total 

Infantry 280 180 460 

Headquarters (Instruction) 8 10 18 

Engineers and Signal Corps - 8 106 114 

Artillery 34 305 339 

Medical and Dental 73 116 189 

Other Services 158 

1278 

Probably the list of officers should be somewhat larger and that 
of N.C.O.'s and men correspondingly smaller, as since going over- 
seas several who enlisted in the ranks have obtained commissions, 
but in some cases the details are unknown. There is reason to 
consider that this list will soon prove to be larger, as the records of 
those who have left the Corps during the summer cannot be com- 
pleted till after the opening of the drill season in the autumn. Of 
all the members of the Corps who have now gone many were still 
at school when the war began, and in consequence a large pro- 
portion is still in training in Canada or England. But already 
over twenty -five members of the Corps have been killed in action 

or died on active service. 

***** 

During the month of September an Army Medical training 
course has been held at the University under the direction of the 
A.D.M.S. for this district. This course has been arranged for those 
graduates who are now going overseas, and those undergraduates 
who will be completing their University course this autumn. 

Antitoxin ^ e Antitoxin Laboratory in the Department 

Laboratory of Hygiene, University of Toronto has 

recently received a splendid gift from Colonel A. E. Gooderham. 

The work of the laboratory has, since its inception nearly three 
years ago, been greatly handicapped because of inadequate accom- 
modation. To remedy this and place the laboratory in a satis- 



40 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

factory position, Colonel Gooderham has presented to the Univer- 
sity a farm of fifty acres in York Township, about twelve miles north 
of Toronto. 

On this farm most complete laboratories and stables have been 
erected ; the stables to accommodate the antitoxin horses and other 
laboratory animals. The laboratories will be used for certain of 
the work of the Antitoxin Department. A cottage and living 
quarters for employees is also being built. 

The whole is a most munificent benefaction by Colonel Gooder- 
ham. The opening of the new buildings will take place this fall. 
A more complete account of the work of this new department of the 
University will appear in a later issue of THE MONTHLY. j. G. F. 

Organ The fortnightly Organ Recitals in Convocation Hall 

Recitals w m fe g i ven during the session, on alternate 

Tuesdays at 5 p.m. The first recital will be given on October 
17th, by F. A. Moure, Esq. 

Summer The unique feature of the Summer Session of 

Session, 1916 1916 was ^ appearance of the Course author- 
ised by the University of Toronto leading to the Degree of Bachelor 
of Arts. This Course is made up of subjects from the regular 
General Course without options and will conform to the Depart- 
mental Regulations for candidates for Inspector's Certificates. 
The subjects of the first year were given conjointly with the Faculty 
Entrance classes already provided for by the Department of 
Education. Three subjects of the second year were offered : English 
French and Physics. These classes were attended by thirty-one 
(31) students, all of whom, except four, enrolled in the three 
subjects. The remaining subjects of the Second Year will be offered 
in the Summer Session of 1917. The work of the third and fourth 
years will require three additional years in which attendance at 
two Summer Sessions is necessary. 

The usual Courses were offered as in previous years by the 
University in co-operation with the Department of Education, 
the attendance being as follows Faculty Entrance 97; Normal 
Entrance 68; Household Science 41; Vocal Music 37; Manual 
Training 22; Commerce 18; Special Course in French 20; Paed- 
ogogy 19. Total 322. In spite of the intense heat the Courses 
were followed with the customary zeal and interest. Perhaps the 
Course which aroused the greatest enthusiasm was the one arranged 



TORONTONENSIA 41 

for teachers of French Classes in pronunciation and Methods of 
teaching were interspersed with " Causeries " and lectures on France : 
the people, institutions, army and navy, the great war, chief men 
in literature, etc. 

The following entertainment was arranged for Summer Session 
students in all Courses : three evening lectures The True Significance 
of the War The Honourable Mr. Justice Riddell ; The Organisation 
of the British Empire Sir John Willison ; What can Canada Learn 
from the War President Falconer: excursions to Niagara Falls, 
to the Prison Farm and Ontario Agricultural Farm, Guelph; and a 
visit to the Ontario Museum. 



The Military J ust before going to press an article was re- 

Hospitals' ceived from this Commission entitled "Not a 

carpenter's job. It is more like a watchmaker's. 
Putting soldiers into repair", from which the following extract is 
taken. 

" The country naturally insists that the most skilful surgeons 
and physicians shall be employed to heal the soldier's physical ills. 
But that is only the first stage of the disabled soldier's treatment. 
Equal skill and thoroughness must be employed to equip him 
educationally with technical knowledge and practice for regaining 
the ranks of industry. Even then we cannot turn him adrift. We 
must exert continued and systematic care to see that he gets work 
suited to him, or trouble is sure to folfow. 

"The Military Hospitals Commission of the Dominion Govern- 
ment, and the Provincial Commissions and local Committees in 
co-operation with it, are trying to do this. If any one can help 
them, either with practical suggestions or offers of steady work, it 
is his duty to do so. 

" On the care we take now, depends the answer to the question 
whether our returning soldiers are to be a burden or a help to them- 
selves and their fellow-citizens." 

The universities should be able to assist in this nationally 
important work. Correspondence or articles on the subject are 
invited from readers of THE MONTHLY. 



42 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
" The Monthly 1 ', and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



Professor I. H. Cameron has re- 
turned from the Ontario Government 
Hospital at Orpington, and Professors 
J. J. Mackenzie and B. P. Watson from 
the University of Toronto Hospital at 
Salonica. 

Sir James Aikins, B.A. (U.) 75, has 
been appointed Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Province of Manitoba. 

Professor W. Libby, B.A. (V.) '87, 
has been offered appointment as Pro- 
fessor of the History of Science at the 
Carnegie Institute of Technology. He 
will shortly publish "An Introduction 
to the History of Science". 

Dr. Arthur W. Mayburry, M.D. '91, 
has moved to 329 Bloor Street West, 
Toronto. 

George H. Locke, B.A. (V.) '93, 
M.A. '96, has been elected President 
of the Ontario Library Association, 
Vice- President of the American Library 
Association, and President of the 
Canadian Club of Toronto within the 
past three months. 

Lt.-Col. Sir Hamar Greenwood, 
Bart., M.P., B.A. (U.) '95, has been 
recently on the staff of the War Office, 
London. Previous to this appoint- 
ment he was at the front, as the first 
Commanding Officer of the 10th South 
Wales Borderers. At present he is 
visiting Canada, and addressed the 
Canadian Club in Toronto on October 
4th. 



Hugh N. MacKechnie, M.D., CM, 
(T.) '01, of 7 West Madison Street, 
Chicago, has been appointed to the 
Chair in Surgery in the Medical 
Department of Loyola University. 

Lt.-Col. C. H. Maclaren, LL.B. '05, 
who went with the First Division to 
the front in command of the 2nd 
Battery, has been since August 1915 
Commanding Officer of the 1st Brigade, 
C.F.A. 

J. D. Munro, B.A. (U.) '05, who has 
been practising law for several years 
past at Lloydminster, Sask., spent 
several weeks in Toronto and other 
Ontario points this summer. 

F. M. Clement, B.S.A. '11, of the 
horticultural experimental station of 
Vineland, Ontario, has been appointed 
Professor of Agriculture at the Univer- 
sity of British Columbia. 

Edward Murray Wrong, B.A 'll r 
has been appointed Vice-Principal of 
the great School of Technology at 
Manchester, which serves as the 
Science department of the University 
of Manchester. He holds concurrently 
his Fellowship in Magdalen College, 
Oxford. He is married to a daughter 
of the Master of Balliol College, 
Oxford. 

The Rev. E. G. D. Freeman, B.A. 
(U.) '12, Knox, was ordained to the 
charge of St. Enoch's Presbyterian 
Church, Toronto, on June 23. 

Marriage*. 

ANDERSON GREIG On August 17, 
1916, at Collingwood, J. F. Ander- 
son, 56th Battery, C.F.A. (U.C. '17, 
Knox), to Miss Margaret Helen 
Greig of Collingwood. 

BODDY ELLIS On September 14, 
1916, Capt. Albert Hawley Boddy, 
162nd Battalion, C.E.F., B.A (T.) 
'13, of Brantford to Miss Mildred 
Evelyn Ellis of Dunnville. 



TORONTONENSIA 



43 



BONHAM CAMERON On August 25, 
1916, at Toronto, Albert Roy Bon- 
ham, B.A.Sc. '14, to Miss Emma 
Lois Cameron of Toronto. 

BUTTS MCCARTNEY On June 10 at 
Delaware, Ohio, Victor Robertson 
Butts, B.A. (V.) '16, of Milton West, 
Ontario, to Miss Ethel I. McCart- 
ney of Chungking, W. China. 

CARRUTHERS WIGLE On August 27, 
1916, at Halifax, the Rev. Russell 
Garfield Carruthers, B.A (V.) '16, 
to Miss Pearl Irene Wigle of Halifax, 
N.S. 

CLARK FORREST On June 28, 1916, 
Alexander Frederick Bruce Clark, 
B.A. (U.) '06, to Miss Jessie Wilson 
Forrest, B.A. (U.) '01. 

CLARKSON MURRAY On July 12, 
1916, Charles Harold Clarkson, 
D.D.S. '04, of Toronto, to Miss 
Mildred Murray of Clinton, Wis- 
consin. 

DOLSON PEARL On June 6, 1916, 
Leut. Wilbur J. McL. Dolson, 
C.A.D.C., D.D.S. '13, of Toronto, to 
Miss Gladys Pearl of Toronto. 

DOBSON WOOLDRIDGE On June 14 
1916, at Toronto, William Percy 
Dobson, M.A.Sc. '16, to Miss Ada 
Estelle Wooldridge of Palmerston. 

DUNCAN HARRIS On August 16, 
1916, John H. Duncan, M.A. '12, 
M.B. '15, to Miss Helen Harris of 
Bruce Mines. 

FLINT EDY On August 18, 1916, 
Thomas R. C. Flint, B.A.Sc. '10, of 
Toronto, to Miss Josephine Bryant 
Edy of Toronto. 

GIBSON WILLIAMSON On June 22, 
1916, at Chesley, James Robert 
Gibson, M.B. '10, of Toronto, to 
Miss Frances G. E. Williamson of 
Chesley. 

GREENE KORTRIGHT In January 
1916, Lieut. Philip Greene, 35th 
Battalion, C.E.F., B.A.Sc. '09, to 
Florence Kortright of Egerton, Kent. 



HAIRE-FORSTER KAMMERER On 
September 4, 1916, at Toronto, the 
Rev. Arthur Haire-Forster, B.D., 
of Trinity College, to Miss Christine 
Elizabeth Kammerer, B.A. (T.) '08, 
M.A. 

HARCOURT FORBES On August 24, 
1916, at Guelph, Robert Harcourt, 
B.S.A. '93, Professor of Chemistry, 
Ontario Agricultural College, to 
Miss Caroline Forbes of Guelph. 

LINE PERRINS On August 25, 1916, 
at Toronto, the Rev. John Line, 
M.A. (V.) '13, B.D., of Mount 
Allison University, N.B., to Miss 
Amy Caroline Perrins of Toronto. 

MCDERMOTT GOOD On August 23, 
1916, at Kitchener, A. Miles McDer- 
mott, B.S.A. '16, of Elmvale, to 
Miss Jean A. Good of Kitchener. 

MCLARTY WILSON On June 30, 
1916, at Wardsville, John Edmond 
McLarty, B.S.A. '16, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Winifred Wilson of Wardsville. 

MARTIN HAWKEY On August 30, 
1916, at Russeldale, W. H. Martin, 
B.Sc., to Miss Ella Louise Hawkey, 
B.A. (U.) '12, of Russeldale. 

NIEBEL WILSON On January 1, 
1916, Fred G. Niebel, Ph.M. '12, 
of Toronto, to Miss Grace Wilson. 

NOURSE Me DONALD On June 17, 
1916, at Picton, Major Clifford Ben- 
nett Nourse, 168th Battalion, 
C.E.F., B.S.A. '15, to Miss Sidna 
McDonald of Picton. 

ROBERTSON GAMMA GE On July 21, 
1916, Capt. A. Ross Robertson, 
169th Battalion, C.E.F., B.A.Sc. 
'09, to Miss Grace Irene Gammage 
of Chatham. 

ROUTLEY JOHNSTON On July 1, 
1916, at Toronto, Lieut. T. Clarence 
Routley, R.A.M.C., M.B. '15, of 
Toronto, to Miss Florence Muriel 
Johnston of Toronto. 



44 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



SMITH LANGLOIS On August 24, 
1916, in Wycliffe College Chapel, 
the Rev. G. Napier Smith, B.A. 
(U.) '14, to Miss Ruth Langlois 
(U.C. 17), of Toronto. 

STORMS DE WAR On June 21, 1916, 
at Hamilton, Capt. Harold D. 
Storms, R.A.M.C., B.A. (T.) '10, 
M.B. '15, to Miss Helen Robertson 
Dewar. 

WOOD HEATH On July 22, 1916, at 
Toronto, Major Robert F. B. Wood, 
123rd Battalion, C.E.F., B.A.Sc. 
'13, to Miss Elsie Victoria Heath. 



Deaths 

LAMONT Suddenly at the residence 
of her parents, 56 Walmsley Boule- 
vard, Toronto, on July 19, Julia 
Kendall Lamont, B.A. (U.) '14. 

LEE At his summer home "Hague" 
on Lake George, Brig.-Gen. James 
G. C. Lee (V.). 

RUPERT At his residence, 46 Wells 
Street, on August 11, the Rev. E. S. 
Rupert, B.A. (V.) '61, M.A. 

WILKINS In Montreal on August 7, 
George Wilkins, M.B. '66, M.D. '68, 
professor on the staff of the Medical 
Faculty, McGill University. 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO. NOVEMBER, 1916. No. 2 




THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION cte. DIED OF WOUNDS. 
Captain James Symington Wear; Victoria College, 1917. 
Lieutenant William Hartley Willard, B.A.; University 

College. 1915. 

Lieutenant Stewart Cowan ; University College 1907-1908. 
Lieutenant Stanley Arthur Walker, R.A.M.C.; M.B., 1915. 
Captain Richard Horkins, R.A.M.C.; M.B., 1914. 
Private William Moses Kedey; B.S.A., 1915. 
Lieutenant John Irvine Harvey; Faculty of Education. 
Lieutenant John Antony Ninian Ormsby, R.F.C.; Ap- 
plied Science, 1916. 
Major Edwin Rochfort Street, B.E.F. ; Applied Science, 

1898. 
Major Gordon H. Southam, C.F.A. ; B.A. University 

College, 1907. 
Major Charles Alexander Moss; B.A- University College, 

1894, LL.B. 
Lieutenant Gordon King MacKendrick; Applied Science, 

1918. 

Lieutenant Frederic Gustavus Stupart; Forestry, 1918. 
Lieutenant Hubert Jeggerson Fen ton; B.A., Victoria 

College, 1915. 
Corporal William Elmsley Raley, C.E.; Applied Science, 

1915. 

Lieutenant Ernest Langford Davies; B.S.A., 1913. 
Private John Cecil Feeney; St. Michael's College, 1917. 
Private Horace Pearson; Applied Science, 1919. 
Private George Clarke Duff; B.S.A., 1914. 
Lieutenant Gerald Edwin Wells; University College, 1916. 
Private Kenneth White; Victoria College, 1918. 
Gunner Norman John Harvie; B.A.Sc., 1911. 
Lieutenant Paul Lyndon Armstrong; B.A., University 

College, 1912. 
Gunner Stuart MacDonald MacPherson; University 

College, 1918. 

[45] 



46 UNIVERSITY MONTHL 

WOUNDED. 

Major P. P. Acland; B.A. (U.) 1913. 
Lieut. L. G. Hutton; B.A. (V.) 1915. 
Pte. R. D. Bartlett; Med. 1920. 
Cpl. R. A. Utley; Applied Science 1908. 
Major H. R. Alley; B.A. (U.) 1912. 
Major G. W. McLeod; Science 1909. 
Cpl. W. W. Ridge; Viet. 1917. 
Cpl. C. H.Strickland; U.C. 
Capt. L. B. M. Loudon; B.A. (U.). 
Lieut. J. A. Linton; Med. 1916. 
Lieut. W. D. Walcott; B.A.Sc. 1912. 
Lieut. J. F. Meek; U.C. 1917. 
Lieut. C. Weir; U.C. 1917. 
L.-Cpl. R. C. Hayes; Trin. 1918. . 
Cpl. F. C. Mayberry; App. Sc. 1917. 
Lieut. G. A. Cockburn; App. Sc. 1915. 
Lieut. W. Proudfoot; B.A. (T.) 1910. 
Lieut. O. A. Elliott; D.D.S. 1910. 
Lieut. A. P. Wilson; B.A. (U.) 1916. 
Lieut. A. Macfarlane; App. Sc. 1916. 
Lieut. W. G. Bowles; B.A. (V.) 1916. 
Capt. W. Mavor. 

Capt. K. A. Mahaffy; B.A. (U.) 1915. 
Lieut. E. D. Hosken; B.A. (U.) 1915. 
Lieut. J. C. Auld; U.C. 1916. 
Pte. J. P. Aikenhead; Viet. 1913. 
Lieut. H. Webster; B.A.Sc. 1913. 
Sergt. F. B. Houston; U.C. 1918. 
Gnr. G. H. Ramsey; Med. 1918. 
Lieut. W. H. Bunting; B.A. (U.) 1892. 
Cpl. A. W. Groves; Sc. 1917. 
Lieut. F. O. Bolt6 ; B.A. (U) 1916. 
Pte. A. B. Hobbs; B.A. (V.) 1910. 



SERIOUSLY ILL. 
Lieut. C. C. Thompson; App. Sc. 1917. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 47 

The following members of the University of Toronto Training 
Company have received appointments in the Canadian Forces: 
V. W. Armstrong, U.C. '18, Lieut. 216th Bn. 
R. N. Ball, Lieut. 168th Bn. 
H. R. Banks, B.A.Sc. '14, Lieut. Can. Engineers. 
W. J. Beattie, Lieut. 110th Bn. 

W. A. Cameron, B.A. (McMaster), Captain (Y.M.C.A). 
G. H. Gooderham, U.C. '11, Lieut. 70th Bty. C.F.A. 
A. J. Hamilton, Lieut. 110th Bn. 
M. C. Lane, B.A. (V.) '07, Capt. 235th Bn. 
G. F. McKelvey, V., B.A. (Queen's), Capt. 213th Bn. 
J. V. MacKenzie, Lieut. 118th Bn. 
R. H. Rickard, B.A. (V.) '15, Lieut. 235th Bn. 

The following members of the Company have been accepted as 
candidates for commissions in the Imperial Army: 
A. Blair J. McQueen, B.A. (U.) 13. 

E. H. Burr. E. A. Munro (B.A., Dalhousie 
S. E. Clark. and Oxford). 

W. W. Cotton, V. '12-14. C. Norie-Miller. 

A. H. Gillespie, U.C. '19. J. E. Ramsden, U.C. '11. 

W. S. Jenkins, U.C. '17. W. R. Smith. 

H. W. Light. D. H. Stewart, B.A. (U.) '14. 

J. P. Macdonald. H. L. Tracy,' U.C. '17. 
A. R. MacLeod (B.A., McGill G. W. H. Troop, 
and Oxford). 

The following members of the Company have been accepted as 
candidates for commissions in the Royal Flying Corps: 

R. S. Bennie.* R. A. Lyon. 

J. W. G. Boyd. I. M. MacLean, U.C. '19. 

A. B. Campbell. A. W. Pratt. 

F. W. Curtis.* H. W. Price, V. '18. 
C. B. Fisher, V. '17. L. J. Scott.* 

J. W. Fleming.* A. G. Smith. 

J. H. Forman (R.N.A.S.). H. L. Tracy, U.C. '18. 

A. L. W. R. Henry- Waetjen. J. D. E. Troop. 

C. N. LeMercier. L. N. WaddelL* 

A. W. Little. C. R. F. Wickenden. 
*Matriculant. 



ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE 
SESSION 1916-17, SEPTEMBER 26, 1916 



AS usual we have to chronicle some change in the life of the 
University which has happened since the close of the last 
academic year. On this occasion I shall refer only to one 
of sad moment and permanent regret within our domestic circle, 
the death of Dr. Thomas Gregor Brodie, F.R.S., Professor of 
Physiology since 1908. He died very suddenly in London in August 
where he was engaged in most fruitful researches into the physio- 
logical effects of gunshot wounds. Dr. Brodie was a good teacher, 
a brilliant experimenter, an independent thinker, and a widely read 
man of sane judgment on educational questions. Respected by 
his students, admired by his friends, standing high in the world of 
science, Dr. Brodie has left a large vacancy in the life of this Uni- 
versity. Of late we have lost from our staff several men of unusual 
eminence or promise. Often we do not recognise how good men are 
until they are taken from us. 

Two years ago when I gave the opening address this hall was 
filled with men and women. I spoke to them of the meaning of 
the war and its direct causes. At that time far more men were 
listening to me than to-day. Most of those who came up then were 
lighthearted youths who did not realise what an awful decision 
lay before them. They did not know what hidden powers of 
sacrifice, what latent nobility of character were theirs. How 
different is the environment to-day. These halls are lonely even 
though you come as a new issue out of boyhood into youth to take 
the places of those who have gone. 

Our records show that 3000 graduates and undergraduates of 
this University are on active service divided thus, 1700 of the 
former, 1300 of the latter. There are 80 members of the staff who 
have been released from academic duty for this purpose. Honours 
have been won by many. The full price has been paid by more. 
I will read the names of those who have fallen since Convocation 
in May.* Most of these were young men who had put forth tender 

*See the full list in the October number. 

[48] 



ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE SESSION 49 

leaves of hope, and very abundant blossoms. I cannot think that 
they have been blighted by the frost of this world's fickle climate, 
but prefer to believe that a skilful gardener has removed them to 
richer soil and a more genial air. To their parents, wives and 
friends we offer our respectful sympathy. We have in especial 
remembrance those members of our staff from whom the supreme 
renunciation has been definitely asked or who are kept in suspense. 
These all have deserved well of their country. 

The days drag wearily. Each morning we turn with haste to 
the paper for the news that has come in overnight ; and each evening 
reawakens the hope of substantial success since the morning; but 
as day follows day the situation changes so slowly for the better, 
little successes are often disappointingly exaggerated, and there 
appears without fail the sad list of casualties, while friends wait 
with tense expectancy. This is a time of great testing, for we 
cannot seek to banish the scene which is daily brought before us; 
we should be poor creatures were we to forget the agony. If we 
dannot fight we may take our share in the struggle by enduring 
with patience. By our self-restraint, our courage as the issue 
tarries, our faith and hope in the result we shall create a right 
moral atmosphere which may reach even to those who are fighting 
for us at the front. The old figure has truth in it that the State 
is the body and that each part does its share in sustaining the life 
of the whole. 

Sometimes I can detect in articles which I read and in the 
conversation of people a tinge of staleness infecting the mind. 
The dust of a hot and dry summer has got into the cracks and 
crevices of the social structure. Now another winter is upon us 
and the world will still be locked in strife. People are easily irri- 
tated; they live as it were in the hum-drum of trench existence at 
home. Probably there is a good deal of this frame of mind among 
the neutrals; but I judge that there is little or none in Britain and 
France. They are in too deadly earnest. 

Lest this staleness should insensibly overtake you I wish you 
to adopt these words as your motto Sursum cor da. Keep your 
courage high. Let no unworthy depression seize upon you. How- 
ever irritated and petulant others may be let not your heart fail. 
Now is the very time when your resolution is needed. Let your 
restrained endurance bring buoyancy to others as when men 
approach something vital. Blows rain thick and fast. We are 
buffetted by Fortune; men whom we thought to be essential to 



50 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

us are falling by our side; but it is not for us to brood upon our 
misfortunes or the ravages of death and wounds. Never was a 
battle won by the half-hearted and the easily discouraged. 

The weary months have disclosed no unexpected develop- 
ments of human character, apart from the display of heroism and 
the splendid response of our youth to duty. Many of those at 
home have also shown great sacrifice and much endurance, but we 
can hardly expect to find that the war has greatly transformed the 
individual. Older people are too set in their ways to permit of it. 
The man who never had much sense has not got any more; his 
overstrained nerves may even make him cry out more foolishly 
than before. The inveterate critic will complain still and will 
wreak his irritation on governments or on any who may seem to 
be responsible for long drawn out trials. Fortunately thoughtless 
proposals go out into the air that hurtles with the din of war and 
are soon forgotten by sensible people. Surely there are enough 
troubles without making imaginary ones, and it is the duty of 
educated folk at home to exercise restraint and be as sane as 
possible. 

Now is the time for us to open the record of our fathers' doings, 
to remember what they endured, to call to mind not the days of 
comfort and ease, but the hard times when by their patience they 
won their lives. We are an ancient people. Canadians belong to 
stock that braved the terrors of the ocean, the great danger of the 
unknown forest, and before that for many centuries in Britain 
faced threatening disasters with resolution. It is a fine word "un- 
shakeable", inebranlable that a French writer employs of the 
British. 

Moreover we have good reason for pride that we are of the 
British stock when we keep in mind what they have done in the 
present war. Take this account of Britain's gigantic accomplish- 
ment given by an American observer a few days ago. 

"We in America have no adequate conception of the magnitude 
of England's achievements in the war. The appeal of France has 
been so simple and direct that one's sympathy and admiration 
could not go astray, but we have heard so much of England's 
mistakes and shortcomings that we have lost sight of the real 
greatness of her achievements. By common consent among the 
Allies the creation of England's voluntary army, with the mobilisa- 
tion of the industries of the nation for the support of that army, 
is the most marvelous achievement of the war always excepting 



* ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE SESSION 51 

the victory of the Allies in the battle of the Marne, which still 
remains the miracle of the war. We are apt to forget that before 
conscription came almost 90 per cent, of the available men of 
England, Wales, Scotland, and Ulster had already volunteered. 
England has assembled, trained, equipped, and officered a volun- 
teer army of about 4,000,000 men. No one who has not seen for 
himself can form any conception of the gigantic proportions on 
this task. England has done in two years by the voluntary action 
of her people what it has taken Germany and France two genera- 
tions to accomplish with the most drastic measures of conscrip- 
tion and organisation. England has been turned into a veritable 
armed camp. Soldiers are everywhere. To equip and munition 
this army there are over 4,000 factories operated by the Govern- 
ment or under its control, many of them built since the beginning 
of the war. At least 2,000,000 people are engaged in the manu- 
facture of munitions, and in other activities directly connected 
with the war. Since the outbreak of the war the production of 
munitions in England has been multiplied at least fiftyfokL 

"In two years England has spent over $9,000,000,000 on her 
own preparations a'nd loaned about $4,000,000,000 more to her 
allies and colonies. After allowing for all the blunders and decays, 
this gigantic mobilisation of the energies of the nation has been 
accomplished with a promptness and a universality of sacrifice 
and service for which history affords no parallel. The women of 
England have bee'n wonderful. Hundreds of thousands of them 
of all ranks are doing work which in normal times is done by men." 

That is a splendid tribute. The people who did that are our 
kith and kin. We have our share in it. It is in part our record, 
for they are our people. They can execute great tasks this stock 
of ours. 

Courage thrilling through the people of Britain and Canada 
will do much for us just as it did for the French. General Malle- 
terre describes its effect thus in the Victory of the Marne. 

"The German armies, upheld by a formidable confidence, 
drunk with victory arid with pride, surged toward Paris, which 
the French Government had just left and which seemed to them 
incapable of serious resistance. 

"For the Germans, as for the neutral powers, the defeat of 
France seemed an accomplished fact. It appeared that the German 
plan must succeed, as it had been foreseen and prepared by the 
strategists of Berlin. 



52 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

"On the 6th of September General Joffre addressed to his 
armies the famous Order of the Day which was destined to change 
the face of things. A few words, sublime in their brevity and their 
simplicity, were to suffice for turning Fortune toward Justice: 

'At the moment of engagement in a battle on which depends 
the safety of our country it is necessary to remind all that the time 
has passed for looking behind, that all efforts should be used in 
attacking and driving back the enemy. A group which can advance 
no further should, cost what it may, keep the ground conquered 
and die upon it rather than retreat. In the present circumstances 
no faltering can be tolerated.' 

"At the appeal of its chief the French Army lowered a threat- 
ening head, threw itself forward. The Germans, surprised, stopped, 
sustained the unexpected shock. This was the battle of the Marne, 
which was to last six days. On September 12th came the victory 
of the Marne. And the Commander-in-Chief completed his Order 
of the Day of September 6th: 

'The vigorous resumption of the offensive resulted in success. 
All, officers and soldiers, you have responded to my appeal, and 
you deserve thanks of our country.' 

"The victory of the Marne was an event which, from a military 
standpoint, is witho'ut precedent in history. It was not a victory 
like Austerlitz, Jena, or Waterloo, since the war continued and 
still continues. But it had a moral significance which made the 
certitude of victory, so to speak, pass from one camp to the other. 

"This was Germany's great error, to underestimate the power 
of reaction of our soldiers and of our race. She does not under- 
stand now, and never will, the real cause of the victory of the 
Marne, any more than she will understand her ultimate defeat." 

The spirit of confidence and courage is needed in us at home. 
We have fallen into such a din of blows and battering that 
there is danger lest in the melee we may forget the causes and pur- 
pose for which we are fighting. We are not a lot of mad creatures, 
enraged animals who will gore one another to death. This is no 
contest of brute strength. The moral element must give us com- 
fort and impart strength just as it did to the French at the battle 
of the Marne. 

During the past two years your predecessors have had the causes 
of this war laid before them ; but many of you have come here for 
the first time. You also must consider what is the meaning of this 



ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE SESSION 53 

struggle. And you who have been here before must reconsider it. 
This welter of blood, the ghastly destruction by shell, machine guns, 
mines, the killed and maimed this external horror must have 
some awful meaning behind it. What is it all about? You too must 
ask yourselves as those who went before you have done, What part 
am I going to play in this struggle? What shall I do in this war 
for the country that has given me the privileges that I enjoy? 
You cannot say that this is an old question which has been fully 
answered by your predecessors. I wish to God that it were. But 
you have to answer it as they did in the face of the terribly serious 
situation in which we find ourselves. I am afraid that throughout 
the coming winter, as in the two that have gone, this University 
will be the scene of many trying decisions. I see no escape as yet. 

The function of education is to enable us to judge as to the 
issues that are placed before us and to come to a right conclusion. 
And I know that in this place young men in the companionship of 
others and by themselves have courageously looked into the face 
of duty and have come to a decision. These years have revealed 
to us the tremendous influence of environment in enabling us to 
reach decisions which in our retired consciousness and in solitude 
we should never have had enough initiative to venture upon. 
Here we have it forced upon us that others have done the noble 
thing; we decide that we also can face what they faced. Here 
traditions have been formed ; never in all the history of this Univer- 
sity as in the last two years. The accumulated noble deeds of 
those who belong to a university or a nation create a conscience 
for them. It may be said with confidence that the spirit which 
during the past two years has lived in our Varsity men, those who 
have made the sacrifice whether the utmost has been required of 
them or not, has created a new patriotism, which makes it easier 
for you in your present time of decision to determine rightly as 
to how you can best serve your country and your fellows. For 
many generations to come these men's service will be the standard 
of duty. 

Let me therefore urge upon you who have never done so or 
who are in danger of forgetting the reasons why we are at war, 
to consider what underlies this struggle. It is simply this. Is the 
world hereafter to live in a permanent condition of organisation 
for war or is it to be organised for peace? Is any one nation having 
so organised itself and set the pace for others, and having drawn 
others into its orbit, to be able just by the rush and sweep of its 



54 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

power, to force all other nations, large and small, into the circle 
of its will? If this principle were to succeed the world would live 
in subjection to the General Military Staff of the most powerful 
nation. All life would be regulated to serve their plans, and 
individual freedom, implying initiative, self-government, tolera- 
tion of differences would be checked. Everything would be directed 
to serve the purposes of a military situation which itself would be 
determined by aims of worldwide control. Lesser nations would 
lose their cherished identity; all other nations keeping themselves 
fully armed would live in constant alarm, or would be centres of 
constant plots and of revolutions of restless and daring groups 
within nations, or within groups of nations. From ancient days 
our Anglo-Saxon life has been built upon the foundation of freedom, 
our history has been a process of ever widening this founda- 
tion until our civilisation has become securely based, roomier, 
more varied, richer. France also loves liberty. She has bled for 
it often, and again she is bleeding for it. On Freedom righteous- 
ness is based, for righteousness involves the power of following 
one's own conscience; it ceases when one must obey another's 
commands. Righteousness among the nations implies that honour 
is binding, and that they will deal fairly with one another. There 
is idealism at the heart of this war. 

We may detect a possible danger against which we should be 
on our guard, that with the enlargement of the area of hostilities 
and the great increase in the number of the belligerents, the purer 
purposes with which the war opened may be diluted. In the 
Balkans already old jealousies are aroused and unless strong and 
just men determine the issues of peace that ancient region of trouble 
may still be a potential storm-centre for our children. What an 
infinite pity it would be if on ground that has been drenched with 
the blood of noble sacrifice, seeds of bitterness should be sown and 
a sad crop of troubles spring up again. The safeguard against such 
a danger is to keep alive the idealism which sent us into the war. 
And this may be done if the stronger nations abide by the principles 
of international righteousness to the end. We need a large and 
influential nucleus within these nations to proclaim the necessity 
of having justice rendered to all peoples, and! of terms of peace not 
revengeful but so clear that the world will never again doubt that 
to break international faith is to bring disaster upon those who 
violate it. The cost has been awful, but when our immediate grief 
is past we may come to accept it as not too great if the world again 



ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE SESSION 55 

believes that such spiritual realities as honour and justice do exist, 
and reconstructs its society on righteousness and law. 

It is our duty, I repeat, as educated people to try to see below 
the events on the battlefronts. It is a part of our duty to our country 
to preserve our idealism. Here again I say Sursum cor da. Con- 
fidently hold forth the ideal. This is no time for sordid counsels. 
Over and over again in this war pluck and spirit have saved us. 
Already I have spoken of the Marne, but that was only one narrow 
escape in which spirit came to the rescue. You must know that 
often we were in deadlier peril than any of us imagined. Our 
munition boxes empty, our guns worn out, the line that stood 
between the enemy and Calais almost gone, the Russians delivered 
a year ago almost by a miracle it was well for us that we knew 
so little. The men who went first, so many never to return, saved 
the situation. Their heroism should shame the despondent, queru- 
lous cynic who is now safe, or even the man who complains of what 
he endures. 

It seems unfair that the older generation should require so 
much from the younger. But so it must be. Many of the elders 
pay a greater penalty than the younger. The father and mother 
suffer more than the son who has fallen. And the world will con- 
tinue to suffer. So many of those who would have borne the 
burden on their young shoulders will be missing that it will weigh 
heavily on those who remain. We shall be without the initiative 
of their youth. Older men who have had their day expect as a 
rule to hand on their tasks to the younger generation. Their ideas 
get set; their interest flags. But we who are now in active life shall 
have fewer to whom to transmit our tasks. It would indeed be 
a sad result were there to be left only the tired, the cynics, those 
delivered up to their own ease ; if the men who conduct affairs were 
to have no vision. So the call Sursum corda comes to us who are 
at home doing our routine duty here while the youth are at the 
front. As our day is lengthened out and fewer reinforcements come 
to us from the younger generation we must strive against stateness, 
and against the temptation to lose interest in the present. In the 
years after the war we must not allow ourselves to sink down in 
weariness; there will still be youth and vigour in this country and 
our courage will be a call to them. There is more power in our 
people than we imagined. Great tasks are still ahead, greater 
probably than anyone forecasts. Let us who are not in the fighting 
line keep our courage up to be ready to face them until the next 



56 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

ranks of our youth fill up the gaps of their fallen comrades. There 
may be a testing interval until the new youth take up their burdens. 
More will be expected of us during this interval ; our responsibilities 
will be heavy. This is a fact that such of you young men as may 
not go to the front, and all of you young women, must not forget. 
Keep your courage up, for not having been on the firing-line you 
must perform extra service for your country at home. You may 
find less competition in your profession, because there will be fewer 
qualified men, but it will be a sad day if in default of a high heart 
you sink into an easy livelihood, and are absorbed in your own 
concerns 

Professor Gilbert Murray has painted a dark picture of the 
future of Britain. "At the end of all this, what prospect is there? 
There is sure to be poverty and unemployment, just as there was 
after 1815. From a rich, generous, sanguine nation, putting her 
hopes in the future, we shall emerge a poverty-stricken nation 
bound to consider every penny of increased expenditure. There 
is also the spiritual evil to be faced. There will be a grave danger 
of political reaction and of religious reaction. The real danger will 
be the struggle between crude militarist reaction and violent un- 
thinking democracy. We cannot go on living an abnormal life 
without getting fundamentally disorganised. You cannot con- 
centrate your mind on injuring your fellow creatures permanently 
without habituating yourself to evil thoughts. We shall achieve, 
no doubt, peace in Europe, we shall have probably some better 
arrangement of frontiers, but underneath the peace there will be 
terrific hatred in the heart of Europe." 

Though this view may be too gloomy there is I fear much truth 
in the forecast, and it will serve to remind us that all the work will 
not be over when peace is declared, but that then many of our most 
serious troubles will begin. Already our most far-seeing leaders 
are making preparations for the period of reconstruction, and it 
is to be hoped that in Canada we shall not allow ourselves to slip 
back into the easy-going optimism which we enjoyed previous to 
the war, on the assumption that Democracy will somehow purify 
itself, as it is commonly thought great lakes do from the filth that 
the streams pour into them. Assuredly Democracy will not thus 
purify itself, as our neighbours to the South have found to their 
dismay during the past year. It does not require much imagina- 
tion to conjure up the future of this continent if we continue to 
treat our affairs with unconcern. Senator Lodge warned his fellow 



ADDRESS AT THE OPENING OF THE SESSION 57 

Senators of the United States that it is dangerous to think more of 
the loss of a cargo than of the lives of their citizens. If the things 
that concern the lives of those citizens at home are neglected it is 
not unlikely that it is because the soul of the nation has been put 
in as ballast with the cargoes of their ships. We are subject to the 
same dangers. There is no magic vitality in our land that passes 
into the newcomer as he first steps upon the shore. He brings with 
him his life, and he that is quarrelsome, or unjust, or grasping, or 
ignorant or prejudiced will be so still, unless we make the con- 
ditions here favourable to give him a real chance. 

It will be necessary for us to insist upon education, for demands 
upon the taxpayer and the public purse will be heavy, and the 
obvious things that bring in quick money returns may be attended 
to first. Other peoples are awake to the influence of education. 
During one week in September we had visits in the University 
from three members of the staffs of the great universities of Japan 
at Tokio and Kyoto professors in English, Biochemistry, and 
Engineering. Germany being closed to them they have turned 
to this continent and will visit Britain also. These little men have 
penetrating vision, and wi'll quickly discover whether we are worth 
coming to visit again. They are going to be extraordinarily efficient 
if they can become so by taking from other nations what they deem 
to have contributed to their success. They are thoroughly educ- 
cated; their courses whether arts or professional are long and 
severe, which is partly due to the necessity that is laid upon them 
of learning difficult foreign languages. But apart from this they 
work for long hours and for more months in the year than we do 
and they fix their mind steadily on a high standard. They seem 
to exhibit great economy and to find comfort and contentment at 
small cost. I am not holding up their efficiency as a model for us. 
They have their faults. One of them they acknowledged to me. 
The Japanese student is over eager to absorb and to imitate; to 
catch every note from the teacher with the accuracy that would 
belong to a human phonograph; and for this they pay the penalty 
in a lack of originality. 

Without comparing ourselves with any other nation I must say 
that in Canada we are not free from this fault. We must aim at 
making the student think, instead of absorb; understand instead 
of imitate; have a conscience instead of adopting prepared beliefs; 
realise that there are moral standards to which as a free man he 
ought to conform. Character comes to those who think for them- 



58 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

selves. Mere efficiency and imitation of successful peoples con- 
stitute far too low a standard. More than intellectual acuteness 
is necessary. We must keep our hearts high. And our present 
sacrifices, so costly and so great, are creating for us a fine tradition 
which will be the moral atmosphere for the educational life of the 
people. 

To-day our halls are comparatively empty. Our corridors 
do not echo as they once did with the voices of happy men. Of 
hundreds of these now in the trenches in France the thoughts turn 
towards old Varsity; they read and reread every word from home. 
To them we send our greetings. We tell them that we too are full 
of courage and keep our hearts high, that we shall not fail them 
and that more will follow. By and by peace will come and the 
voices of youth will resound again in happy days within these 
precincts; up from this present of ours, which will be their past, 
will rise the memories of those who were once happy here and care- 
free, but who left us for France to defend our liberty silent vohes 
in a glorious tradition, inspiring the future generations to service 
for their country. When the summer breeze will blow gently 
among the flowers on the silent battlefields of France, our home- 
land will rejoice again with the voices of a youth made happier 
by reason of these days of our dreary endurance. Hearts up even 
now. This is a time of great accomplishment. 

R. A. FALCONER. 



IN MEMORIAM 

JOHN KING, M.A., K.C. 

AT the time of his death Mr. King occupied an unique position 
in the Senate of the University: for thirty-seven years he 
had been, without interruption, an elected member. To 
have enjoyed for so long a period the approval of our graduates 
was a distinction due to his personal popularity and to a wide- 
spread confidence in his devotion to the best interests of the Uni- 
versity. It is a distinction not likely to be often attained. His 
last work, written shortly before his eyesight failed, "McCaul, 
Croft, Forneri", was a genuine labour of love; and in the pleasure 
its perusal affords old graduates King seems, with a fine sense of 
gratitude, to be paying his acknowledgments to those who for so 
many years had honoured him with their confidence. The book 
not only relates to the old professors, but abounds in historical 
narrative and details of university policy which make it a mine of 
interest. It is written in the easy, flowing style of which its author 
was a master. I first made his acquaintance when he became 
President of University College Literary and Scientific Society, 
and recall with vividness the evening in Croft's old lecture room 
when he read his presidential address. Its literary finish and 
absolute suitableness greatly impressed me at the time; recently 
I have read the printed copy which 1 have the good fortune to 
possess, and I find no reason for altering my boyish judgment. 

Of the fifteen elected members who were colleagues of Mr. 
King at his entrance to the Senate in 1879, five still survive 
Sir Thomas Wardlaw Taylor, Dr. James Loudon, Dr. William 
Oldright, Sir William Mulock and Sir John Gibson four of whom 
in the intervening period have been intimately associated with 
University affairs. Mr. King participated in the defence of Canada 
in 1866 and received the usual medal. As the mind turns from the 
picture of "K" Company in 1866 to the University's participation 
in the present struggle a remarkable impression is received of 
phases of the institution's development. 

Outside of his University activities Mr. King won for himself a 
distinguished position as a writer and as a lawyer. His "The Other 
Side of the Story", a criticism of J. C. Dent's "Story of the Upper 

[59] 



60 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Canadian Rebellion", is considered an able presentation of the 
case of the patriots of 1837. His contributions to the Canadian 
Monthly, the Nation, the Week and the 'Varsity were numerous. 
His text-books and other publications on slander and libel con- 
stituted him the leading Canadian authority on these subjects. 
Well known to the legal profession are his Criminal Law of Libel 
in Canada, Law of Defamation, Law of Contempt in Canada, 
Slander and Libel in Canada, History of Newspaper Libel, Cana- 
dian Cases in the American Law Book Co.'s Cyclopaedia of Law ,etc. 
His affectionate regard and deep concern for the University, 
almost equally with his professional obligations, was with him a 
controlling factor throughout his long and honourable career. 
As one who maintained unflagging for upwards of half a century 
his interest in his Alma Mater, with all the enthusiasm of his 
undergraduate days, we must regard Mr. King as the type of 
graduate the University should produce if it is to win for itself 
that position of strength and influence throughout Canada which 
is essential to a high destiny. There were elements in his character 
that were sure to win for him strong friendships his courage 
which ever prompted him to declare his approval or condemnation, 
his absolute straightforwardness which even the tones of his voice 
suggested, his kindliness which meant charity for all, his intellectual 
honesty which made him always fair, his devotion to his friends 
which will ever keep green their memories of him. 

ALFRED BAKER. 

ROBERT HARBOTTLE, M.A., M.B. 

THE death on September 21st at Dog Pound, Alberta, of 
Robert Harbottle, M.A., M.B., removes another of the 
rapidly dwindling array of the early graduates of University 
College. 

The late doctor illustrated the days in which he studied at the 
University; he was, as every doctor ideally is, but few have leisure 
under actual modern conditions to be, a student of the humanities 
before he took up medicine; he took his M.A. degree before pro- 
ceeding to read for his M.B. As a result, in part at least, of this 
ideal course, he was interested to the end in everything, yet not 
to the exclusion of his own science, rather it became his prime 
interest; but after discussing it and suggesting new methods of 
treatment for disease especially for nervous and mental diseases 



IN MEMORIAM 61 

which especially interested him he turned to literature, revived 
his memory of Homer and wrote verses; their subjects ranged from 
the Old Red School-house to the Old Testament and from old 
memories to the wild flowers of Canada one of his chief joys and 
consolations. 

The doctor was a man of strong opinions, strongly, aggressively 
it may be, entertained; and he was never a courtier of the modern 
king, public opinion. It was perhaps not wonderful then that a 
few years ago during the South African War he came into collision 
with the crude and undiscriminating opinion of a small village in 
Ontario and was accounted a Pro-Boer. 

As a result of these now ancient controversies, Dr. Har bottle 
went West and took up farming and medicine 45 miles northwest 
of Calgary. Before going he revisited the University, was recog- 
nised by Professor Maclennan and taken to the then President, 
his former friend James Loudon. The visit was a source of great 
satisfaction and comfort to a man sore at heart and ready almost 
to suppose that the fires of partisanship burned as blackly and 
with as little light and warmth even in the University as in the 
back concessions. 

There he practised his profession and revised his University 
memories and discussed various topics, such as medical juris- 
prudence, connected with his profession; he was much concerned 
with the provision of safeguards against the injustice resulting 
from popular ignorance whether of jury or of judge, when persons 
who may easily be misunderstood are on trial. One of his 
last pleasures was the reading of the lives of McCaul, Croft and 
Forneri by the late John King; he wrote at some length on 
Professor Croft's anticipations of "wireless". 

His was a humane and loveable nature and was so recognised 
when the end came; his neighbours attended in large numbers 
bringing|the offering he loved best flowers R.I. P. 

MAURICE HUTTON. 



FROM FLANDERS 



MY trip of last night was one of the most interesting I have 
yet made on this front and especially so because my com- 
panion was the . We left Corps H.Q. at 11.00 going 

up in his closed car dozing on the way, because we had had no 
preparatory sleep and were to be out all night. It was a long trip 
up, usually 40 minutes, this time an hour, as there had been some 
bad shelling in the city from 10-10.30 like the kind a few nights 

ago when B and I were there, and the transport had become 

congested and we met strings of it coming out. Fortunately it 
was a really bright night with clear and deep blue sky and lots of 
stars. In fact we took full advantage of it on our perigrinations 
at the front later. 

Motor driving at night on a crowded road with no lights is 
weird and exciting. The driver has to be alert to avoid the slow 
going horse transport on the side, and dodge the hustling motor 
ambulances and the great lumbering and fiercely snorting motor 
lorries looming enormous in the darkness and all as silent as can 
be, and when shells are near it is truly dramatic. As we neared 
the city at midnight, however, all was quiet and again I went 
through the sensations, which are never dulled, of driving through 
this place of ruin in the dark. I well remember it a year ago last 
April when it had the semblance of a town and when people were 
still living there ; but now it is just a heap with jagged walls and 
chimneys and piles of ruin standing against the sky line, weird 
and fantastic and silent in its blackness and desolation. We 
passed with awe the ruins of the Post Office which strangely enough 
stands in part, with the semblance of a building, with some of its 
artistic front still remaining and its diamond pane windows. I 
say 'awe', because when I was last past in this street a few nights 

ago with B about the same hour the Germans had just finished 

a severe bombardment in the locality in which they endeavoured 
to get our transport coming up which they did. We had to 
thread our way in the dark between broken wagons, holes in the 
road, dead and dying horses and I am sorry to say, dead men 
who were then being picked up. Again it is war ! 

[62] 



FROM FLANDERS 63 

After a few minutes in the great vaulted brick dungeon 

and I with a Staff Captain (of Brigade) set out in the darkness by 
the sally port and the swan's-nest footbridge for our long night's 
tramp ; we left exactly at midnight. 

So we three tramped along at first over ground familiar to me 
in many trips out to this region, then swerved off to the left and 
up to high ground which overlooks far afield our front and away 
beyond to the north toward where we were last year. Then as we 
arrived at the point we did see how the salient encircled us and as 
we went on forward toward the apex it was more noticeable it 
is always much more so at night. There was a time when I thought 
that the enemy's flares were almost entirely around its. On we 
went meeting working parties here and there on various jobs, 
repairing roads, deepening ditches, repairing and building new 
trenches, tearing down old farm buildings for the brick that is in 
them, while the transport was bringing up timber and steel and 
wire and corrugated steel plates " bath mats " (slat walks for bottom 
of trenches), sand bags, etcetera. The busy men, the patient quiet 
horses and the lumbering wagons seemed so stealthy in the dark- 
ness. After a while we took to the trenches, or such of them as 
there were, and got along for a while; but as we neared the front 
line say a half mile, they got pretty bad and it was here that most 
of the working parties were busy. Here was begun the struggle to 
get along trenches washed in, the ground rough and broken up 
over a great mass of mud and wire and debris and we had soon to 
get out of the trenches and go overland. This was the raison d'etre 
for our going at night because one cannot do this in day time. It 
really was a struggle and the though a very active man is 
not so sure on his feet as I am nor so quick. Though it was night, 
about 1.30 a.m., by this time it was not dark and one could always 
orient himself by the friendly stars and such of the silhouetted 
trees and crest lines as were near by. 

The line at this point is where it has been driven in the farthest 
from its original position and was really at a point with which I 
was not familiar. It was most weird with the many flares breaking 
in front of us continually and in the light we always felt as if the 
Boche could really see nothing else on the landscape but us. It 
is a queer feeling to have a flare so light up the ground that you 
cast a sharp shadow as if by full moon and you feel that the enemy 
must see you. If he were near enough perhaps he might, but it is 
very difficult for him even if you are moving, and if you stand 



64 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

still he could not see you even at 100 yards, providing you have a 
suitable background, i.e., not on the sky line. But in this case we 
were hundreds of yards from him. Their magnesium flares are 
truly wonderful. . . 

Our visit to the actual front line and our study of "No man's- 
land" in front, as we leaned over the sand bag parapets peering 
into the shattered wood, did not detain us long as it was then 
2 o'clock and we had arranged to be at a certain farm over a mile 
away in another part of the front in front of the village of Z. (now 
well known) by 2.30. So we hurried out. Our walk across the 
open by tracks and trails in the grass with the dawn breaking in 
the east was most exhilarating like it is high up in the moun- 
tains at daybreak. 

As we went through the long village street we found it sadly 
done in by the shelling of the past few weeks. I had not been 
there since the memorable morning of the 1st of June when I had 
been out just previous to the battle. Then it had some semblance 
to the remains of a village now it is but a heap of ruins. Even 
the church tower which before stood high enough to be a landmark 
usually shining white in the sun, was now just a pile of bricks, 
and I missed it on the landscape. When we got to the front corner 
of the little place just as a glimmer of dawn was breaking, 2.30, 
I could not help but think of the tragedies of this corner in the 
roads where for months the Germans have had a fixed rifle or 
possibly a machine gun trained from some point high up the well 
known hill in front. There was a time when the frequent fire from 
this throughout the night had its victims, but of late it has not been 
successful. 

Soon we got to the Farm, a Battalion H.Q., and after 

passing a small but diligent working party we were stopped by a 

guard asking if it was " with the ." So we found our 

bright young Staff Captain (from the Brigade) awaiting us. 

He is a particularly bright little chap, alert, bright eyed, very active 
and talkative in a western Canadian way, an engineer and has 
done much work on the Canadian Northern. 

Here, in the grey light all was quiet and peaceful, but up over 
the Hill there was a constant tack-tack of rifle fire from the busy 
sniper^ and sentries in the early morning as the light was coming 
always their favourite time. However it had been busy here all 
night as we had heard it and remarked on it when we were up at 
the other part of the line earlier in the night. Captain had 



FROM FLANDERS 65 

said "Oh yes, that's the regiment (of ours) they're always busy 
at night, it's a way they have ". They must have been because this 
was at times quite acrimonious on both sides, the Boche evidently 
getting quite as excited as ours by the frequency of their flares. 
But the Hill is always lively. We were walking up a little narrow 
road on the sheltered side of the hill entirely out of view and fire 
from there, but capable of being easily seen in daytime from away 
over on our left where all the recent fighting had been in progress, 
and had we waited another half hour in the increasing light we 
surely would have been seen and doubtless sniped at by alert 
rifles. Our party now consisted of five, too large I thought, for to 
our original three we had added Capt. M. and his "runner" 
carrying a long periscope, etcetera. I should say here that all of 
us when going out "alone" always have a man (orderly or runner) 
with us for emergencies and messages, etcetera. 

Presently we got up to our objective, which was a little secluded 
observation post close to the front line on the hill-side overlooking 
the valley of death where our brave battalions fought so gallantly 
on June 2nd and later attacked with such brilliancy on June 13. 
I saw for the first time since, at a distance, the terribly scarred 

hill-side at Ridge and Mt. with its blasted earth of shell 

holes, its broken hanging trees leafless and splintered, and its 
masses of debris scattered across the network of trenches, now 
almost undiscernible through the tangle and brown earth slopes. 
Close in our foreground was the front line on the Hill and in the 
grey light one could see the occasional heads of the watchful 
sentries behind the parapets. It was not light enough to enable 
us to see what we wanted, the front portions of the adjoining 
position being still in shadows. So we made ourselves comfortable, 
sitting on cushions of empty sand bags in the trench. I think 

some of us, including the , tried to doze. But we soon grew cold 

after our warm walking, so got up and stirred about. By 4 o'clock 
all was really bright and the morning haze was lifting and we were 
quiet and intent with our telescopes and field glasses. 

From here we made our way through the adjoining trenches 
along the front and support lines, crouching low at particularly 
unfavoured spots with frequent rifle shots coming in the sand 
bags from the same alert snipers on the higher part of the Hill 
and we came to the farthest forward part of the little salient and 
again we studied the enemy's position, his parapets, wire entangle- 
ments and "No-man's-land" between. I was particularly inter- 



66 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

ested here because had not been here, even in the locality, 

since October 1914 when he fought over this ground in command 
of the gallant Cavalry Division, in those memorable weeks when 
they were holding the Germans back from the sea and striving 
to establish a line of defence on the high ground. This general 
location, along this part of the salient is the same as was then 
fought over and as finally established but oh, how many lives and 
how much else has been lost in the struggle that has gone on here 
unceasingly in all these 20 months. There has always been a rest- 
lessness on both sides to secure or deny the strong dominating 
positions on the high ground surrounding the coveted city on the 
east. 

As we came away from the apex and along the " walk" on 

the edge of the deep cutting we found the busy wakeful Tommies, 
now quite "domesticated", cooking their- savoury bacon and 
bestirring themselves with their breakfasts. Glancing across 
"No-man's-land" we could see the thin blue haze overhanging 
Fritz' lines, meaning that he too was looking after himself after 
his long, or rather short, night. The study of the Boche psychology 
so valuable in our intelligence work and now, in its rudiments at 
least, so much a part of our Tommies' life and thought in the front 
line, is becoming more and more interesting; but I shall have to 
reserve that for another letter some day. 

We had to cross the cutting. It was all right to go down and 
across on the surface but we thought better of it and went by the 
underground route which, especially at the bottom with its 6 inches 
of water, reminded me of my underground days in tunnelling at 
Niagara Falls and in the mines. When we emerged we went up 
another part of the hill (partly artificial from material taken from 
the cutting) and had another good stealthy look at Mr. Boche. 
His grim entrenchments and parapets and his tangled masses of 
red rusty barb-wire and the serrated skyline were an interesting, 
if forbidding, study. Then we came down, down again into the 
cutting and out rearwards past dug-outs under its cover and past 
particular spots much favoured by the German artillerists, and 
shortly turned out and behind the shelter of the hill-side on to a 
little road which ran across the green fields in the rear of that hill- 
top village (V.) with the long name, and revelled again in the green 
grass and flowers untorn by shells and smelling sweet and inviting 
after the mess and colour of the trenches. 



FROM FLANDERS 67 

It was now 5.30 a.m. and our walk continued back across the 

fields past Farm near where one of our splendid batteries 

suffered so badly in June we saw their shattered dugouts 
as we passed. The enemy's aeroplanes and observation balloons 
must have located them exactly, probably by triangulation from 
the balloons. These open fields with occasional short rows of tall 
trees in the edges of old fields or around farms are quite safe from 
view so far as the enemy's front line is concerned, but of course 
there is always the observation balloon called by us the "kite 
balloon", with the observer's eye on us. You always feel that he 
can see you and that you are the only thing in his horizon. 

We came back past a familiar H.Q. of a group of dugouts 

where Capt. was quartered and he insisted that we should 

come in for a bite of breakfast 5.50 and as the said "we fell". 

It was kippers and coffee and toast, if you please, in a candle lighted 
dugout their mess. We had a delightful rest and chat over the night's 
wanderings. Then we went on in the bright sunlight and passed 

through Gate at 6.40, delighted with our night's work and 

"outing". We really dozed on the way home. 

C. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO HOSPITAL 
IN THE EASTERN MEDITERRANEAN 



FEW cities of the Eastern Mediterranean have had such a 
varied history as Salonika. In some respects it has been even 
more interesting than Constantinople, and its many vicissi- 
tudes have led a French writer to speak of it as " the coveted city". 
Its situation on its wonderful harbour, at the head of the beautiful 
gulf, quite similar in situation to Venice, led people in the middle 
ages to think of it as a possible rival to Venice and only its un- 
favourable position with the background of the Balkan peninsula 
prevented such a rivalry. 

Although Xerxes probably found a settlement there when he 
invaded Greece after cutting through the Isthmus of Mt. Athos 
to shorten the sea journey for his fleet which made its rendezvous 
in the harbour, he left no permanent settlement. The actual 
foundation of the city dates from 315 B.C. when Cassander made 
it his capital. He was a general of Alexander the Great and one 
of the inheritors of his Empire when it broke in fragments. He 
had married a daughter of Philip of Macedonia, a half sister of 
Alexander, and he gave her name to his new capital Thessalonika. 
When the Romans conquered Macedonia the city's importance 
was recognised and it was connected on the one hand with the 
Adriatic and on the other hand with Byzantium by the Via Egnatia, 
the street which still forms the backbone of the town. In B.C. 42 
it became a Roman city and when St. Paul visited it in A.D. 53 
it contained a considerable population, among which was the Jewish 
colony, which was probably St. Paul's real reason for visiting it. 
In spite of the somewhat bad report which the writer of the Acts 
of the Apostles gives of the Thessalonians, Christianity seems to 
have spread rapidly and in the fourth and fifth century we find 
that the churches of St. George, St. Demetrius and St. Sophia were 
founded, churches which are still the chief glory of the town. 
And from Thessalonica went St. Cyril and St. Methodius, the 
missionaries to the Slav world. 

Throughout the centuries which followed the city had a troubled 
history. Its population was turbulent and independent. In A.D. 

[68] 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO' HOSPITAL 69 

390 it was the scene of a massacre by the Emperor Theodosius which 
was of more than passing interest. The whole Christian world 
was shocked and Ambrose, Bishop of Milan, wrote to the Emperor 
in horror "In the community of Ambrose there is no absolution 
for what you have done. I dare not in your presence offer the Divine 
Sacrifice". Theodosius, frightened by the anathema, hurried to 
Milan and presented himself at the church in his Imperial robes 
and surrounded by his Court. The Bishop stopped him at the 
threshold. The Emperor sought to justify himself by the example 
of David, but the Bishop replied "You have imitated him in his 
crime, imitate him also in his penitence". To obtain absolution 
Theodosius had to build a church for the orphans of the massacre 
and make a public penance at Milan. The incident is significant. 
It is the first time that an Emperor had to submit to punishment 
by the spiritual powers. 

In the tenth century the Bulgars appeared and for nine hundred 
years it has been the dream of the Bulgar people to capture Salo- 
nika. Either openly or secretly they have struggled to possess it, 
so far without success. It was attacked by the Normans in A.D. 
1081 and again in 1185, and during the Fourth Crusade it became 
the capital of the independent Kingdom under the house of Mont- 
ferrat. The Serbians menaced it in 1283. In 1308 it was captured 
by the Catalans, an army of Spanish mercenaries, who had tried 
to settle in Gallipoli. 

In 1380 the Turks first appeared and many of them were settled 
in the Vardar Valley. In 1423 it was held by the Venetians and 
in 1431 it became definitely Turkish, to remain so until the war 
of 1912. 

An important date in its history is 1492, when Spanish and 
Portuguese Jews, driven out by the Inquisition, settled here in 
large numbers. This immigration gave a distinctly Jewish character 
to the population and its results are seen to-day in the Spanish 
names over the shops and in the common language of commerce 
which is Spanish, although the more educated Jews to-day speak 
French also. In 1655 the Jewish population was disturbed by the 
advent of a Messiah, named Sabbatai, who obtained a large 
following there. He subsequently embraced Moslemism and the 
most of his adherents followed him, being henceforth known in 
Salonika as the Deunmeh, a Turkish word meaning a convert. 
The Deunmeh are still an influential section of the population, 
publicly Moslems, but they practise Jewish rites in their families. 



70 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

They played an important part in the establishment of the Com- 
mittee of Union and Progress and, according to Zangwill, Enver 
Pasha is one of them. 

Salonika alternately throve or declined according as its Turkish 
governors were enlightened or the reverse, but it became more 
and more a hot-bed of radicalism until, under the evils of the 
Hamidian regime, all elements focused in support of the Committee 
of Union and Progress of the Young Turk party in 1908. After 
sharing in the vicissitudes of the Turkish Revolution it became 
the place of exile of Abdul Hamid. He was placed in the Villa 
Allan tini, a house overlooking the harbour about fifteen minutes 
walk from the University Hospital. He remained there until the 
Turks gave up the city to the Greeks in 1912. In 1913 the second 
Balkan war broke out and Salonika witnessed sharp street fighting 
when the remnant of the Bulgarians were thrown out by the 
Greeks. 

Salonika has a most beautiful situation. From the Harbour 
the view is striking. The town skirts the shore and stretches up 
the hills behind. The low red-tiled houses rise in irregular terraced 
lines to the old Byzantine Citadel at the top with its seven towers. 
Graceful minarets break the lines whenever a mosque or church, 
formerly used as a mosque, occurs and there are many of them. 
Behind the town rise a series of hills culminating in the east in 
Hortiak, a hill about 3,600 feet above sea level. To the west 
stretch the Vardar -marshes with the blue Balkans in the distance, 
and to the east the Kalamaria district of fertile vineyards and 
mulberry orchards amidst which the Base Hospitals are now 
situated. Far to the south, on a clear day, one can see the massive 
range of Olympus and, just in sight, the smaller pyramid of Ossa. 
Pelion one cannot see. 

When one lands at the busy quay the picturesqueness of Salo- 
nika is emphasised, but one is apt to be more impressed by the 
narrow and dirty cobble-paved streets and the all pervading odour 
which is not pleasant. A flippant French officer, who had lost his 
way in the dirty back streets, suggested that it was well named 
Sale Unique. In spite of the present dirt everyone who knew it 
in Turkish times says that it is infinitely cleaner. The population 
is about one hundred and seventy-five thousand and of these 
ninety-eight thousand are Jews, thirty-one thousand Greeks, 
nineteen thousand Deunmehs, fifteen thousand Mussulmans, seven 
thousand Bulgars. The balance of the population is made up of 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO HOSPITAL 71 

Serbs, Armenians, Gypsies and Italians, and to-day the troops of 
the Allies form an additional population for whom the city is the 
common meeting place. The streets present a picturesque and 
busy scene. The British, French, Serbian and Greek uniforms 
are everywhere, but the native population adds to the picture. 
The older Jews wear the traditional gaberdine, often of brilliant 
coloured cloth lined and edged with fur. Their wives also seem to 
love fur-lined cloaks and bright colours and wear a characteristic 
head-dress. The Turkish fez is everywhere present and many of 
the Turkish women wear a costume of deep black with accom- 
panying thick black veils which more completely hide their charms 
than the flimsy gauze one sees in Alexandria or Cairo. Often one 
sees an Albanian or Vlach in the wide white skirt, or "fustanella," 
alas! no longer clean, and the Greek soldier of the King's body- 
guard wears a similar costume with white stockings and low slippers 
with wonderful rosettes on the toes. The Gendarmenie are all 
Cretans and wear a special black uniform with little round forage 
caps, short black tunics and extraordinary breeches which hang 
down behind in an enormous pocket, in which the British "Tommy" 
popularly supposes the Cretan carries his rations. 

At Salonika three railroads centre ; one line runs north-west 
past Fiorina to end at Monastir, connected since May last at 
Veria with a line to Athens; a second line runs north, following 
the valley of the Vardar, passing through Serbia to Belgrade where 
it connects with the European system; the third line runs north 
on the east side of Lake Doiran where it turns east to Constanti- 
nople through eastern Macedonia. It was the destruction by the 
Allies of the great bridge on this line over the Struma which caused 
so much excitement in Greece during the winter. It will be seen 
that Salonika forms an important junction, connecting Athens, 
Constantinople and the European railway system. 

There are two important main roads from Salonika, one running 
north and east to the Struma at Seres and the Via Egnatia, the 
old Roman road which runs west as far as Monastir. For many 
centuries it ended at Durazzo on the Adriatic but the portion 
between Monastir and Durazzo has fallen into ruins and is probably 
of little value now. 

Ever since the Allies' landing in October 1915, enormous 
numbers of workmen have been employed in repairing and con- 
structing roads in the district which will considerably facilitate the 
operations. 



72 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Back of Salonika is a ridge of hills which runs east and west 
from the Gulf of Stavros to the Gallico River. To the east of the 
town is the fertile country of the Chalcidice Peninsula in which are 
many vineyards and mulberry plantations. Here the Turk, who 
is a born farmer, concentrated his agricultural activities, and to 
the east of the town there are several agricultural schools, which 
were established by American missionaries during Turkish times. 
West of the town the country is almost uncultivated, isolated 
patches only being sown with grain. The land is rolling and is 
exceedingly like the Canadian Prairies. On this rolling plain, 
close to the Monastir road, the University Hospital was placed 
when it landed in the first week of November. The situation 
seemed ideal. The lines extended for half a mile along the road 
and stretched back up the rising ground for some distance. It 
commanded a beautiful view of the town and harbour. The Vardar 
marshes extended beyond the road to the south and these were 
backed by the range of Olympus which was about forty miles away, 
but wonderfully beautiful upon a clear day. 

Unfortunately the soil contained a great deal of clay and in 
wet weather it became a sea of sticky mud, which was decidedly 
unpleasant. In addition to this it was so close to the marshes that 
the authorities decided that it would be unsafe to retain it in this 
situation after the hot weather came on account of the danger of 
malaria. 

The country about the hospital was full of interest. The road 
was a never failing attraction with its continuous stream of troops 
up and down; its Macedonian villagers on donkeys or in bullock 
carts, especially on holidays when whole families would pass going 
to or coming from town. The district was ideal for walking and 
there were many interesting expeditions to be made, to the summits 
of the hills about six miles behind the Hospital, to the Gallico 
River and beyond, and to the interesting Macedonian villages 
which dotted the plain. 

The Hospital began taking in patients four days after it arrived 
and from that time until it was moved to the huts east of the town 
it was never empty. At times it contained its full quota of one 
thousand and forty patients, or even on some occasions many 
more; at other times, when the health of the troops was good, the 
number of cases would drop to two or three hundred. But there 
was always some work to do and sometimes the staff was exceed- 
ingly busy. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO HOSPITAL 73 

Early in February the wild flowers began to appear in the plain ; 
at first the wild crocuses and anemones, growing out of the hard 
barren soil of the hillsides in places that seemed too dry to support 
life. Up in the valleys quantities of orchids were found and in 
the plain north of the hills one met with acres of asphodel. Later 
on the plains became covered with scarlet poppies and a white 
composite which the up-patients used to collect in quan- 
tities for the wards. When in May the weather got hotter the 
thistles began to appear and the Vardar marshes especially became 
covered with impenetrable masses of giant thistles which some- 
times grew to six or more feet in height. By the middle of June 
the weather became so hot and dry that only the thistles seemed 
able to resist the heat, but they were alive in infinite variety and 
of many different colours. 

In May the Hospital moved into huts and as quickly as the 
ward huts were finished they were occupied, so that by the middle 
of June the staff was as busy as ever and the work continued to 
grow until at the present moment there are as many as fifteen 
hundred beds continuously occupied. 

In the hot weather the work is especially trying on the Nursing 
Sisters, but they all seemed happiest when their wards were full 
and their patients demanding every minute of their hours of duty. 
No. 4 Hospital has every reason to be proud of the devotion of its 
nursing staff. 

People at home who are interested in the Base Hospitals some- 
times feel that a large hospital staff equipped as No. 4 Canadian 
was, may be wasting time and material when the wards are half 
empty and the cases not serious. But it must be remembered that 
these Hospitals are exactly in the situation of the reserve troops 
behind the fighting line, always ready when the demand comes. 
One of the most striking facts in regard to the wonderful organisa- 
tion of the Army Medical Service is that whenever the call came, 
the Hospitals were there to take charge of the casualties and pro- 
vide every facility which skilled officers and trained nursing sisters 
could give to lessen suffering and save life. It is only by maintain- 
ing a sufficient reserve that this is possible. 

No. 4 Hospital by the ease with which it was able to take care 
of the rush of cases last winter and the heavier work which was 
demanded of it in this summer, has amply justified the support 
which its friends in Toronto and Ontario have given it. 

J. J. MACKENZIE. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



THE BATTLE OF THE MARNE : 

A General Sketch of the European War. The Second Phase. HILLAIRE 
BELLOC. Toronto, Nelson's. 

This book the second in what promises to be a valuable series 
is a close study of the Battle of the Marne, with a briefer outline 
of that of the Aisne. 

The author is severely handicapped as are all historians of 
the present war by the lack of reliable information in regard to 
the strength and movements of the troops engaged. This handicap, 
however, does not prevent him from spreading his material over 
some four hundred pages when half that number would have 
sufficed. This unnecessary space is filled with the repetition of 
statements already sufficiently emphasised and conclusions of 
whose logic the reader is already convinced. The explanation of 
an "action of dislocation", for instance, is repeated ad nauseam, 
while each new chapter in the work appears to commence with a 
summary of all that has preceded. This method may be excellent 
for a series of lectures delivered at considerable intervals, but is 
out of place in a single volume; the reader has only to turn a few 
pages to verify a reference or refresh his memory upon a disputed 
point. The writer appears in the r61e of a schoolmaster constantly 
berating his pupils for not having learned their previous lessons, 
without troubling to find out whether his suspicions are -ustified. 

There are a few minor errors, too, which may confuse the casual 
reader. The German armies, for instance, are repeatedly spoken 
of as "leaning to the left", when the student of tactics would 
insist upon "leaning to the right" an error due to the author's 
thinking in diagrams rather than in armies. Again the army 
operating on Foch's left is called variously the 5th, the 2nd, and 
the 4th, when the correct designation is evidently the 5th. 

Shorn of all redundancies the work becomes a clear account of 
the causes, progress and consequences of an action which must 
still be to many a mystery the defeat of a victorious army by a 
defeated army of inferior numbers. The proofs that Joffre's great 
retreat was planned, and his stand finally made along a line already 

[74] 



BOOK REVIEWS 75 

settled in that plan, are convincing enough, but the victory is 
not robbed of that atmosphere of the miraculous in which it ap- 
peared to the world at the time. 

The battle as represented here resolves itself into three dis- 
tinct, but mutually dependent, actions on the (Allied) left the 
Ourcq and the two Morin Rivers; in the centre La Fere Cham- 
penoise; on the right La Grande Couronne. Pivoting on its left 
the German line was to swing around by the right, cut off the 
French left (i.e., the British Contingent) and enclose the rest of 
the French forces in a vast semicircle a magnified Sedan. This 
plan was frustrated, but by the narrowest margin; firstly by the 
enemy's exaggerated idea of the numbers with which the French 
were holding him on his left, and his consequent failure to increase 
the strength of his all-important right ; secondly, by the appearance 
of unexpected reserves threatening that right; thirdly, by the 
weakening of his centre to help that right to meet the new danger ; 
and fourthly, by the genius of Foch in appreciating this weakness 
and risking everything to break through there. 

The volume has been severely criticised for the unfavourable 
impression created therein of the action of the British in the battle. 
One is led to the conclusion that the British were not seriously 
engaged at all a conclusion not borne out by the despatches of 
the British Commander-in-Chief at the time. The fault appears 
to lie in the author's inability or disinclination to draw the logical 
conclusions from the premises he lays down. When it became 
evident that Von Kluck' s intention was to march across the front 
of the battered British Contingent and to strike it where it joined 
the French 5th Army, so crumpling up the French line on its right, 
a trap was laid for him with that same Contingent as its bait. 
South of the Marne the British were to stand; Von Kluck was to 
cross the Marne and attack them. When he had become too heavily 
engaged to withdraw Manoury, with the troops he had and others 
to be rushed up to him from other parts of the line, was to fall 
upon his right flank and rear, cut his communications and com- 
plete his capture. As a matter of fact, Manoury fell upon him 
before he had become engaged and before the remainder of his own 
troops had come up. So little was Von Kluck committed that he was 
able to withdraw most of his forces back across the Marne and 
outflank the outflanker. The British indeed were compelled to 
advance some considerable distance in order to enter the battle 
at all. From these premises it is difficult to see how the author 



76 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

can conclude that "either Manoury attacked too soon, or the 
British too late", with a strong presumption against the former 
supposition. Had the plan succeeded Von Kluck could not have 
escaped; as it was, only Foch's success turned the defeat of the 
Marne into a partial victory. This is a bold accusation to make 
against the force that was later to be entrusted by the French 
Higher Command with the task of holding the Ypres salient, the 
gateway to the Channel ports, and therefore more vital to the 
French existence than Paris itself. 

A natural resentment against this slight upon those who bore 
the chief brunt of the fighting in the great retreat from Mons and 
Namur should not, however, dissuade one from studying the work. 
Belloc's contributions to the literature of the war are too valuable 
to be discounted by one error. No writer is more encouraging than 
he, for most of his forecasts have been justified during the course 
of the war; and one of them, which can be read between the lines 
throughout this book, is that the German success had touched high 
water mark just before the Marne. 

G. N. BRAMFITT. 



TORONTONENSIA 



Readers of THE MONTHLY are asked to co-operate with the Editorial Staff 
in making this section of THE MONTHLY a fuller record than it has been hitherto. 
It is hoped that in the future a complete bureau of information will be established 
in connection with the Association, but without the co-operation of the Alumni 
themselves the effort will not succeed. Communications should be addressed 
to the Alumni Association Office, University of Toronto. 

FACULTY OF ARTS. 
For the Session 1916-17. 

Additional Assistant in Astro-Physics, J. P. Henderson. 

Appointments, Assistant in Chemistry, G. B. Frost (vice H. R. 
etc - Cozier). 

Assistant in Bio-Chemistry, Miss Gladys M. Griffiths. 
Lecturer in Physiology, Dr. V. H. Mottram. 
Special Lecturer in History, S. H. Hooke. 

Special Lecturer in Philosophy (in addition to appointment 
previously announced) E. A. Bott. 

Instructor in Italian, Luigi Passarelli. 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 
Fellow n Pathology Hugh Maitland. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE. 
Demonstrator in Thermodynamics D. J. Thomson. 
Demosntrator in Applied Mechanics R. J. Marshall. 

FACULTY OF HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE. 
Instructor in Hous hold Science, Miss Edith Andrews. 
Instructor in Food Chemistry, Miss M. Eraser. 
Leave of absence for the Session 1916-17 has been granted to 
Dr. H. A. Bruce for military service. 

M . rf 1*4 All members of the University will join in 

congratulating Col. C. H. Mitchell, D.S.O. 

on his new appointment as First Staff Officer in the Second British 
Army. The invaluable Intelligence services rendered by him are 
well known, and have received recognition in the honours already 
bestowed upon him both by H.M. The King and the French 

[77] 



78 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Republic. In his work as a civil engineer and in the Canadian 
militia he was laying the foundation on which he has built with 
such conspicuous success and his Alma Mater is justly proud of 
the distinctions which he has won. 

******* 

Col. G. G. Nasmith, C.M.G. has returned to Canada owing 
to ill-health. He is succeeded as officer in charge of Sanitation by 

Capt. A. W. M. Ellis, B.A., M.B., son of Dean Ellis. 

******* 

The following recent promotions are noted: Captain J. G. 
Fitzgerald, C.A.M.C., to be Major. This is a fitting recognition 
of the important work done by Major Fitzgerald in connection 
with the health of the troops in Military District No. 2 and other 
parts of Canada. 

Major A. D. LePan, C.O.T.C., to be temporary Lieut.-Colonel, 
while acting as Commandant of the School of Infantry, M.D. No. 2. 

Major C. V. Massey, C.O.T.C., Senior Musketry Officer, M.D. 
No. 2, to be temporary Lieut.-Colonel. 

Captains C. R. Young and H. H. Madill, C.O.T.C., to be 
temporary Majors while employed as Instructors at the School of 
Infantry, M.D. No. 2. 

Sergeant A. S. Robertson, B.A. (U.) '15, formerly of the 26th 
Battery C.F.A., to be Lieutenant, C.F.A. 

Sergeant A. E. Bright, U.C. '17, formerly of the 25th Battery, 
C.F.A., to be Lieutenant, C.F.A. 

Sergeant W. J. Reilley, B.A. (U.) '12, formerly of the P.P.C.L.I., 
to be Lieutenant. Lieut. Reilley after a short time in the trenches 
contracted a severe illness. He is at present in the Legal Depart- 
ment of the C.A.P.C., at 34 Bedford Place, London, W.C. 
******* 

The members of the University Training Company who left in 
August as recommended candidates for commissions in the Imperial 
Army have now received their appointments as Cadets in the 
various services. The appointments of the following, who are 
members of the University, are noted: 

Cadet Lane, V. '17, is at Cambridge University taking a special 
course in Persian with a view to service in the East. 

Cadets E. C. Smith, U.C. '17, and A. D. Banting, B.A. (V.) '13, 
have been posted to the Royal Artillery. 

Cadets J. C. Newcombe, B.A.Sc. '16, and P. L. Stevens, Sc. '14, 
to the Royal Engineers. 



TORONTONENSIA 79 

Cadets N. J. Taylor, U.C. '17, F. J. Foster, B.A. (U.) '14, and 
H. M. Gardiner, U.C. '17, to the Royal Flying Corps. 

Cadets E. H. G. Worden, Ed. '14, L. Snyder, U.C. '18, G. A. 
Cruse, V. '18, H. M. Blake, U.C. '08, and D. P. Wagner, B.A. (T.) 
'11, to the Second Artists Rifles O.T.C. with a view to qualifying 
for Infantry commissions. The official report from Cpl. H. M. 
Gardiner who was in command of the party has been recently 
received. Cpl. Gardiner gives a full account of their experiences 
since leaving Canada, and speaks highly of the treatment they 
received from the officials of the War Office, especially Captain 
Wilson, "who was courtesy itself and seemed to be desirous of 
satisfying the wishes of each one of the party". 

H. F. Johnston, B.A. (V.) '10, has been appointed Assistant in 
compass adjustment work in the Admiralty. 

A third draft of recommended candidates left Toronto on 
October 22nd. Their names are given in the Roll of Honour of 

this issue. 

******* 

The 67th (U. of T.) Depot Battery is returning to Toronto for 

the winter. Lieut. W. J. T. Wright is in command of the unit. 
******* 

On October llth, Lt.-Col. Clayton, C.A.D.C., addressed the 
students of the Royal Dental College on the important work that 
is being done for the troops by the Canadian Dental Corps. Readers 
of a letter from Dr. Primrose published in THE MONTHLY of last 
April will have an idea of the invaluable service rendered by 
members of this Corps in connection with a single unit which may 

be taken as typical. 

******* 

The C.O.T.C. has resumed its operations. Owing to the absence 
of over 1000 members on active service and the small registration 
in the senior years, the Corps will consist mainly of first year 
students to whom the usual academic credit will be granted. The 
Corps has been reorganised on a smaller scale and will consist of 
one or two companies with platoons drawn from the various 
faculties and colleges. A "proficiency" class for Certificate A 
candidates will be maintained, only those, however, being accepted 
who signify their intention to go overseas. Ultimately the Corps 
should act as a "feeder" to the two University active service 
units, the Training Company under Captain G. H. Needier, and 
the 67th Battery under Lieut. W. J. T. Wright. 



80 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The C.O.T.C. active service figures were given in the October 
MONTHLY. The figures for the whole University, graduate and 
undergraduate, on October 15th were 

Staff and graduates 1858 

Undergraduates 1344 

A number of those no\\ listed as graduates went first on active 
service as undergraduates. 

On October 10th the University Hospital 

Supply Association Supply Association met in the Croft Chapter 
House of the University, with its President, 
Mrs. R. A. Falconer, in the chair. 

Formed hastily on St. Patrick's Day, 1915, to equip No. 4 
Canadian General Hospital, its membership made up of the women 
belonging to the various faculties in the University, it worked 
tirelessly till September last year, when, its own hospital equipped 
for two years, it began to work for the Canadian Red Cross. 

Since the beginning the Treasurer, Mrs. F. N. G. Starr, has 
handled in subscriptions, fees and bank interest a total of $50,963. 
Disbursements have totaled $45,510. A tribute to Mrs. Starr's 
management is paid by the auditors who went over the accounts, 
and say that they have never known so much money to be manipu- 
lated with so little deducted for expenses. 

Mrs. F. B. Kenrick, Convener of the Packing Committee, 
reported the packing, between April, 1915 and October of this year, 
of 1,328 large cases of hospital supplies, 667 going to No. 4 
Hospital, 654 to the Canadian Red Cross, and seven cases of socks 
to the Secours National. Of sheets there were 8,751; pillowcases, 
14,360; tow-els, 44,804; pyjamas, 7,575; pairs socks, 11,802; 
surgical shirts, 12,615; bedjackets, 1,913; dressing gowns, 528; 
grey flannel shirts, 942; work clothes, 21,540; surgeons' gowns, 
845; masks, 276; surgical nurses' caps, 290. Bandages alone filled 
84 cases, and besides those mentioned thousands of articles have 
been despatched pillows, quilts, rugs, hot water bags, Testaments 
and so on. 

In addition, the association has given the Canadian Red Cross 
forty-two large cases of factory-made bandages. 

Mrs. Samuel Johnson, Convener of the Surgical Supply Com- 
mittee, gave an excellent report showing a total of 1,146,575 pieces 
of surgical supplies, including pads, compresses and sponges, made 
up to November 15th, 1915, and 743,750 since that date; and Mrs. 



TORONTONENSIA 81 

Mcllwraith added to her tabulated statement the interesting fact 
that the representative of a large firm of absorbent cotton manu- 
facturers had told her that the association was the largest buyer of 
surgical gauze in the country. 

The report of the Publicity Committee made special mention 
of the courtesy of the Press in advertising the needs of the Hospital, 
and in particular of the invaluable assistance rendered by the 
ladies connected with the various daily papers. 

Cordial V3tes of thanks were given to Miss Gunn and the nurses 
at the General Hospital for the time generously given to the making 
of bandages and sterilising them. The Secretary, Mrs. V. E. 
Henderson, and all the officers spoke, too, of the gifts of time, 
material and money, which had come from many sources churches 
and church societies and organisations all over the country, and 
specially grateful emphasis was laid on the promptness and gener- 
osity of the response from the smaller towns and the country 
districts. 

Altogether the meetings proved, by actual figures, that the 
formation of the association had been an inspired move, and the 
harmony among the workers ir\ the past and the unity which makes 
them resolve in the present to grapple to the best of their ability 
with whatever calls may come in the future make an inspiring page 
in the history of Canada's connection with the great war. 

The Arts Convocation of Victoria College 
Victoria Convocation , . . , , , 

which of late years has attracted an audience 

rather too large for the space of the Chapel, was this year cele- 
brated in Convocation Hall on Friday, October 13th, being the 
eighteenth anniversary of the granting of the Royal Charter and the 
twenty-fifth of the removal of the College from Cobourg to Toronto. 
Dean Robertson reported for the Faculty of Arts that the attend- 
ance had fallen from ab >ut 500 two years ago to about 300, or, 
to take only regular students enrolled in the four years of the 
undergraduate course, from 450 to 273, the decrease being almost 
exclusively due to the enlistment of male students for active ser- 
vice. The enrolment of male students alone has fallen from 304 
to 94. Notwithstan Jing this decrease the list of medals, prizes, and 
scholarships showed the scholastic record of the College in the 
university examinations remained at the same high level as formerly. 
The Dean's report was followed by an interesting account of ex- 
periences with the first Canadian contingent in England, France, 



82 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

and Gallipoli by a recent graduate, Major H. A. Frost. Mr. N. W. 
Rowell delivered an eloquent address on the part played by France 
in the present war as he had seen it in his recent visit. Chancellor 
Bowles presided and Provost Macklem dismissed convocation with 
the benediction. N. W. D. 

The Theological Alumni Association of Vic- 
Clerical Alumni . ^ ,, , ,j ., , _ L . ^ 
Meetings, Victoria toria College held its annual meeting in the 

College buildings on September 19th-21st, 

with about one hundred members from the city and the country 
in attendance. Accommodation for the visiting members was 
provided in the North House of Burwash Hall, and the renewal of 
old friendships and old associations was most enjoyed. Each day 
began with a period of prayer and Christian fellowship. A pro- 
gramme covering three days produced a series of essays and dis- 
cussions of very great interest and value. The subject of Escha- 
tology in various aspects was treated by Rev. Amos J. Thomas of 
London, Rev. Thos. Voaden of Teeterville, Rev. W. B. Smith of 
Oakville, and Rev. Dean Wallace. Rev. C. E. Cragg of Napanee 
spoke on "The Old and the New Evangelism", Rev. A. P. Addison 
of Alliston on "The Student Life of the Pastorate", and Rev. 
Chancellor Bowles on "The Nature of Saving Faith". Certain 
movements in modern philosophy were discussed by Rev. J. F. 
Knight of Hensall and Professor Hooke; social and economic 
questions by Rev. W. J. Smith and Rev. R. Corrigan, both of 
Toronto. Professor Auger gave an address on "Poetry and the 
Preacher" and Professor De Witt on "The Vitality of Paganism". 
At a joint meeting with the Methodist Historical Society held in 
Central Methodist Church on Wednesday evening, Mr. John N. 
Lake of Toronto spoke on "The Progress of Canadian Methodism 
in the last forty- five years". Through the kindness of the Curator, 
Mr. Currelly, a very delightful visit to the Royal Ontario Museum 
was enjoyed on Thursday afternoon. 

After dinner on Thursday evening, the annual business meeting 
was held at which officers were elected and addresses given by 
Chancellor Bowles, and Rev. W. Norman, recently home from 
Japan. The officers for the coming year are: President Rev. Pro- 
fessor McLaughlin; Vice-presidents Revs. Isaac Norman, J. F. 
Chapman, R. H. Bell, J. H. Wells and J. C. Reid; Secretary Rev. 
W. A. Potter. 

J. F. McL. 



TORONTONENSIA 83 

A conference of Clerical Alumni was held in 
Trinity the College on September 18th to 21st. On 

the evening of the 18th a social reunion was 

held. The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of Ottawa presided at all the 
sessions and also gave an address at one of the Communion services. 
The following papers were read and discussed, the names of the 
writer and the leader of the discussion being added in each instance : 
The Moral Value of the Church's Creed in the Common Life The 
Rev. Canon Plummer, the Very Rev. Dean Owen ; The Forgiveness 
of Sins The Rev. C. Ensor Sharp, The Rev. W. H. White; The 
Supply of Men for the Ministry The Ven. Archdeacon Warren, 
The Rev. Canon H. H. Bedford-Jones; The Training of Men for 
the Ministry The Rev. R. J. Moore, The Rt. Rev. the Bishop of 
Kingston; The Church's Task in the New World after the War 
(a) a Layman's point of view Dr. W. F. Clarke, (b) a Clergyman's 
point of view The Ven. Archdeacon Paterson Smyth, The Rev. 
H. Symonds; "The Stewardship of Faith " (based upon Dr. Kirsopp 
Lake's recent book) The Rev. E. C. Cayley, Professor S. H. 
Hook; a Russian Pilgrim in Jerusalem in the Sixteenth Century 
The Rev. Professor Duckworth. Most of these papers are being 
reprinted in the Trinity University Review. 

There were present in all 120 clerical graduates and 20 Associate 
members at this gathering which proved to be the largest and most 
successful of its kind that has been held in the College. 

F.H.C. 



W liffe ^ e twenty-first reunion of the Wycliffe 

College Alumni Association was held during 

the first week of October. Seventy members were present. The 
special preacher at the opening service was the Reverend Canon 
Tucker of London. The daily Quiet Hours were conducted by the 
Reverend S. A. Selwyn. At the regular sessions the following 
papers were read and discussed : The Pulpit from the Pew T. A. 
Mortimer, Esq.; The Preacher and His Message The Rev. Pro- 
fessor Law of Knox College; The New China The Rev. W. E. 
Taylor, Ph.D., of Shanghai; The Church and Its Opportunities 
The Ven. Archdeacon Cody; The Christian Doctrine of the Resur- 
rection The Rev. C. V. Pilcher; "Present Grounds of Theistic 
Belief"- The Rev. Professor Griffith Thomas; Church Unity in 
the Light of Recent Events The Rev. H. Symonds of Montreal. 



84 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

At the luncheons the speakers were R. W. Allin, Esq., Editor of 
"The Canadian Churchman", G. C. Creelman, Esq., President of 
the Ontario Agricultural College, and President Falconer. 

In addition a reception was held on the evening of October 2nd, 
on the afternoon of October 4th a lecture on Biblical Archaeology 
was given by Professor C. T. Currelly, Curator, in the Provincial 
Museum, and on the evening of the same day a Round Table 
Conference was held, being led by Principal O'Meara. On the 
evening of October 5th the public meeting for the formal opening 
of the College for the Session was held, at which Dr. Taylor and 
Dr. R. J. Renison were the speakers. W.T.H. 

The University ^or manv years the women of University College 
College have needed a centre where they could meet 

Women's Union each other Lagt gpring g5 St George Streetf 

the old faculty residence, was given to meet this need. Under- 
graduates and graduates of University College can join the Union 
on payment of a small yearly fee. The house contains a large 
dining-room, a tea-room, common-room, library, committee-room, 
rest-room and a guest-room which is at the disposal of members 
and the guests of members. All meals are served in the Union and 
the tea-room is open every afternoon from four to five-thirty. 
Many members are coming to the Union for meals and the College 
societies are holding their meetings in the Common Room. 

The Union has been given as an experiment for one year and 
it is important that graduates and undergraduates should consider 
its possible use in the College. Much help has been given already 
by graduates and undergraduates and others who are interested. 
The library has been specially fortunate in receiving donations of 
books. These are much valued as the appropriation for magazines 
and books from the membership fees is only fifty dollars. The 
Union has been greatly honoured by the presentation of the late 
Professor Ky lie's books as a loan collection and by the gift of some 
of the late Lieutenant Garrow's books which together with several 
other donations form the nucleus of a valuable collection. 

M. W. 



It is necessary to hold over to the December Number several items, includ- 
ing additions to the Roll of Honour, and Personals. ED. 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, DECEMBER, 1916. No. 3 



Eitiiursitu 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 

Lieutenant Eyre Frederick Morton Dann; Applied Science, 
1906-09. 

Gunner Oliver Gordon Dalrymple; Dentistry, 1918. 

Lieutenant Francis Carl Howard; Medicine, 1919. 

Private John Howard Stewart; Applied Science, 1916. 

Private Richard Arthur Mitchell; Trinity College, 1916. 

Second Lieutenant James Douglas Aiken, R.F.A. ; Fores- 
try, 1916. 

Lieutenant Benson Wright; University College, 1918. 

Lieutenant William George Stanley Scott; B.A. University 
College, 1913. 

Lieutenant Ernest Richard Gilmer; Medicine, 1918. 

Lieutenant Ernest Corrigan Rainboth; University and 
St. Michael's Colleges, 1917. 

Lieutenant James LeRoy Whiteside; B.A.Sc., 1912. 

Sergeant Henry Stuart Hayes; B.A., Trinity College, 
1914. 

Lieutenant Bruce Hosmer Acton Burrows; B.A.Sc., 1913. 

Flight-Lieutenant Harold Staples Brewster; B.A., 
Victoria College, K14. 

Private Stanley Maxwell Vogan; Phm.B., 1914. 

Lieutenant George Edward Bothwell; B.Sc.F., 1913. 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Major John Redmond Walsingham Meredith; BA., Uni- 
versity College, 1899. 

Captain William Henderson, R.A.M.C.; M.D.C.M., 1898. 

Private Ernest W. Burwash, University of Toronto Over- 
seas Training Company. 

[85] 



86 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

WOUNDED. 

Lieut. A. Austin; Viet; 1918. 

Lieut. J. H. Horning; B.A. (V.) 1915. 

Sergt. O. H. Sloan; Dent. 1917. 

Br. H. W. Orr; Sc. 1918. 

Capt. J. L. McLean; D.D.S. 1901. 

Lieut. H. C. Buchanan; U.C. 1917 (slightly). 

Lieut. N. F. McDonald; U.C. 1918. 

Lieut. C. C. Wimperley; Sc. 1918. 

Capt. (The Rev.) W. H. F. Harris; Trin. 1910. 

Lieut. Cecil Copp Harcourt; U.C. 1916, Wycl. 

Major A. G. Poupore; U.C. 1917. 

Flight-Lieut. M. R. Helliwell; M.B. 1915. 

Pte. W. B. Hume; U.C. 1913-14. 

Sergt. W. B. Steinhauer; Med. 1918. 

Pte. R. J. Thompson; Sc. 1919. 

ACCIDENTALLY INJURED. 
Lieut. W. R. Macdonald; U.C. 1914. 

PRISONER OF WAR. 
Lieut. H. K. Devlin (previously missing); Arts (U) 1912-14. 

MISSING. 

Lieut. G. T. Davidson; B.A. (U) 1908. 
Lieut. W. M. Carlyle; B.A.Sc. 1911. 

HONOURS. 

C.M.G. Brig. Gen. J. F. Embury. 
D.S.O. Lt.-Col. E. B. Hardy, Capt. W. MaVor. 

Military Cross 

Lieut. H. H. Argue. Capt. V. H. K. Moorhouse. 

Lieut. H. M. Campbell. Lieut. J. A. Pearce. 

Capt. K. E. Cooke. Lieut. C. V. Perry. 

Capt. H. B. Jeffs. Major J. D. Simpson. 

Lieut. R. L. Junkin. Lieut. H. A. Sinclair. 

Capt. W. E. Kidd. Capt. G. M. Smith. 
Flight Sub-Lieut. A. G. Knight. Capt. A. H. Taylor. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 87 

Lieut. J. A. Linton. Capt. R. F. Thompson. 

Lieut. W. S. McClinton. Capt. W. L. Whittemore. 

Lieut. J. C. McCorkindale. Lieut. A. P. Wilson. 

Capt. A. H. McGreer. Lieut. R. Hodder Williams. 

Capt. K. A. Mahaffy. Lieut. C. R. Young. 

Bar to Military Cross previously won Lieut. J. C. Auld, 
Capt. J. A. Cullum. 

Military Medal Cpl. C. E. Ogden. 

Croix de Guerre Flight Sub-Lieut. E. R. Grange. 

Knighted by H.M. the King of Italy O.C. W. E. Doherty. 

XV. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY STAFF, GRADUATES AND 
UNDERGRADUATES NOW ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Continued from the October number. 

Lt.-Col. Adami, J. G.; C A.M.C.; Montreal; LL.D. '12. 

Lieut. Adams, S. M.; R.F.C.; London; B.A. (T.) '13. 

Pte. Albright, F. S.; Calgary; B.A. (V.) '08. 

Gnr. Armstrong, R. K.; 67th Bty. C.F.A., Oakville; Sc. '16. 

Capt. Aylesworth, A.; A D.M.S. Staff, M.D. 1; Windsor; V. '90. 

Capt. Ballantyne, C. C.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '14. 

Lieut. Banbury, T. R.; 63rd Bty. C.F.A.; Ingersoll; B.A.Sc. -'15. 

Lieut. Banks, H. R.; C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '14. 

Sub.-Lieut. Barber, H. C.; R.N.V.R.; B.A.Sc. '11. 

Cpl. Barker, J. J.; 183rd Bn.; Winnipeg; St. M. '17. 

Capt. Bates, G. A.; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. Tor.) Tor.; M.B. '07. 

Major Bell, C. C.; A.D.M.S., M.D. No. 1; Chatham; B.A. (U.) 

'96, M.A., M.B. 

Major Biggs, S. P.; C.E. Tor.; U. '00-03. 
Pte. Binch, W. R.; 4th Div. Am. Sub Park; Orillia; V. '19. 
Pte. Blatchford, E. A.; 182nd Bn.; V. '14-15 
Lieut. Bolte A. A.; C.A.SC.; Tor.; U. '17 
Major Boone, C. A.; 123rd Bn.; U. '01. 
Lieut. Brandon, H. E.; 184th Bn.; Winnipeg; B.A.Sc. '07. 

Brett, J. E.; 68th Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '14. 

Capt. Brogden, L. F.; C.A M.C. (Calgary) ; Stratford ; M B. '11. 
Cpl. Brown, D. E.; 228th Bn.; North Bay; St.M. '19. 
Lieut. Burnham, F. W.; M.G. Sec. 76th Bn.; Hton.; B.A.Sc. '06. 
Capt. Burwash, E. M. J.; Ch., 12th Bde. C.F A.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) 

'93, M.A., Ph.D. 



88 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Pte. Calder, R. C; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy.; Grimsby; V. '17. 
Pte. Cameron, W. A.; 243rd Bn.; Battleford; B.A. (U.) '07. 
Capt. Campbell, A. A. C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. Tor.); Change 

Islands, Nfd.; M.B. '06. 

Lieut. Carruthers, C. H.; C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '12, M.A., B.A. 

(Oxon.) 

Lieut. Cleaver, E. E.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '04, M B. '06. 
Lt.-Col. Clark, J.A.; O.C. 72nd Bn. (Seaforth High.); Vancouver 

U. '06, LL.B. '09. 

Lieut. Clendinning, C. S ; 112th Bn ; Walkerton; Sc. '07. 
Capt.Conron, M.E.; Ch. 140th Bn.; St. John; B.A. (V.) '06, M.A. 
Lieut. Cooper, E. H.; 198th Bn.; London Eng.; B.A. (U.) '00. 
Lieut. Corcoran, D.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M B. '16. 
Lieut. Cory, T. L.; R.N.A.P.; Ottawa; B A. (U.) '14. 
Sergt. Cunningham, J. N.; M.G. Instr.; Moose Jaw; B.A.Sc. '16. 
Lieut. Curzon, J H.; C.E ; Tor.; Sc. '11 
Lieut. Daly, R. O.; Motor Tpt.; Napanee; B.A (U.) 12. 
Capt. Donald, C. D.; Chaplain (Mesopotamia); Lindsay; B.A. 

(U.) '12. 

Capt. Drewry W. S.; 61st Bn.; Winnipeg; U. '05. 
Lieut Duthie, J.; Tunnelling Corps, C E.; Tor.; Sc. '07. 
Pte. Dyer, W S.; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy.; Tor. V. '17. 
Lieut. Edge, H. P.; 15th Bn.; Tor.; B.A (V.) '09. 
Capt. Farrell, A. C.; Ch., 175th Bn. Calgary; B.A. (V.) '01. 
Lieut. Ferguson, G. A. 241st Bn.; Vancouver; B.A. (V.) '00. 
Pte. Frair, H. E.; 235 h Bn.; Tor.; V. (Occ.). 
Sapper Geiger, R. M.; Div. Sig. Coy. C.E.; Zurich; V. '18. 
Lieut. Gillies, E.; C.A.M.C.; Port Hope; M.B. '16. 
Gnr. Gilroy, A. E. T.; 1st Res. Bty. C FA.; Mt. Forest; V. '19. 
Lieut. Graham, E. V.; 72nd Bn.; Bradford; U. 
Major Gzowski H. N.; French Red Cross; Tor.; Sc. '03. 
Lieut. Hagedorn, G. C.; C.E. (St. John's); Kitchener; B.A.Sc. '16. 
Lieut. Hall, K.; 151st Bn.; Penetanguishene ; B.A.Sc. '10. 
Sgt.-Major Hanley, W. J.; 218th Bn.; Midland; B.A. (U.) '01, 

LL.B. 

Lieut. Harcourt, F. Y.; Welland; B.A. (U.) '00. 
Sergt. Hazlewood, T. W.; 234th Bn.; Kirkton; V. '17. 
Lieut. Hogarth, C.E. ; C.E. (St. John's, Que.); Hton.; B.A.Sc. '15. 
Pte. Howard, G. E.; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy.; V. '17. 
Lieut. Howard, J. T.; 2nd Fd. Coy., C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '13. 
Capt. Howland, G. W. ; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. Tor.) ; Tor. ; M.B. '00. 



89 MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 

Capt. Huff, A. J.; 202nd Bn.; Edmonton; B.A.Sc. '02. 
Capt. Hunter, J. B.; 208th Bn.; Brampton; B.A. (V.) '11. 
Lieut. Hustwitt, S. A.; C.E. (St John's, Que.); Tor.; B.A.Sc. '14. 
Capt. Irwin, R J.; Ch. 227th Bn.; Sault Ste. Marie; V. '18. 
Lieut. Jamieson, E. A.; Hdqrs. Staff; Vancouver; Sc. '10. 
Pte. Jeffrey, H. G. S.; 67th, U. of T. Bty., C.F.A.; Puslinch; U. '17. 
Capt. Johnson, S. M.; 110th Bn.; Greenwood; B.A.Sc. '95. 
Lieut. Johnston, H. F.; R.N.V.R.; Kippen; B.A. (V.) '10. 
Lieut. Jolliffe, E. H.; Tor.; V. '03. 
Lieut. Jones, R. D.; 234th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '15. 
Sapper Julian, F. T.; Div. Sig. (Ottawa); Castlemore; Sc. '18. 
Lieut. Kennedy, H. G.; 73rd Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '11. 
Pte. King, G. F.; 133rd Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '16. 
Lieut. Kingstone, G. A.; 2nd Fd. Coy. C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '15. 
Lieut. Laird, W. A. C; Regina; B.A. (U.) '14. 
Capt. Lang, J. L.; 242 Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '07. 
Q.M.S. Lawrence, W. L. L.; 122nd Bn.; Cochrane; B.A. (V.) '07. 
Sapper Laycock, S. R.; Div. Sig.; Marmora; B.A. (V.) '11. 
Capt. Linton, A. P.; C.E.T.D. (Shorncliffe) ; Gait; B.A.Sc. '06. 
Gnr. Lyon, G. M.; 67th Bty. C.F.A.; Barrie; Sc. '19. 
Lieut. Macdonald, A. R.; R.A.M.C. (Mesopotamia); Jarvis; M.B. 

'16. 

Pte. McDonald, H. S.; C.A.M.C.; Hton.; V. '18. 
Lt.-Col. McKenzie, D. C.; 141st Bn.; Ft. Frances; M.B. '96. 
Capt. McMahon, V. P.; C.A.M.C.; St. Catharines; M.B. '16. 
Capt. McNichol, O. A.; C.A M.C. (Base Hosp. Tor.); Tor.; M.D., 

C.M. '07. 

Capt. Macpherson, C. K.; 161st Bn.; Goderich; Sc. '15. 
Capt. McPherson G. A.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '07. 
Sub.-Lieut. Macpherson, G. L.; R.F,C; Markdale; Sc. '18. 
Lieut. Mahaffy, A. F.; (O.S. Draft); Cromarty; B.A. (U.) '12. 
Pte. Mather, S. F.; 159th Bn.; Cobalt; U. '07-08. 
Sub-Lieut. Milne, C. P.; R.N.V.R.; Tor.; Sc. '19. 
Pte. Miskelly, L. W.; 150th Bn.; Merrickville; V. '19. 
Lieut. Moran, W. J.; 1st Pioneer Bn.; B.A. (U.) '91, LL.B. 
Capt. Munro, W. H. ; Am. Sub-Park, 3rd Div.; Peterboro; Sc. '04. 

- Nichol, W. J.; No. 1 Const. Bn.; Dunnville; Sc. '17. 

- Paul, R. A.; C.F.A.; Listowel; B.A.Sc. '15. 
Lieut. Pearce, G. L.; 74th Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; U. '19. 
Sub-Lieut. Potvin, J.; R.N.A.S.; Midland; U. '12. 

L.-Cpl. Railton, L. W.; Western Scots; Newport, Eng.; Sc. '11. 



90 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Lieut. Ramsay, J. A.; M.G. Depot (Shorncliffe) ; Hton.; U. '08. 

Lieut. Rankin, G.; C.E.; North Bay; B.A.Sc. '15. 

Lieut. Reid, F.A.; 70th Bty. C.F.A.; U. '06. 

Capt. Richardson, C. E.; 225th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '10. 

Capt. Robertson, D. F.; 13th Bde. C.F.A.; Ottawa; Sc. '03. 

Pte. Rodd, R. S.; C.A.M.C. (Winnipeg); Cobalt; B.A. (V.) '14. 

Lieut. Rolfson, O.; 241st Bn.; Walkervile; Sc. '06. 

Pte. Sanders, H. F.; C.A.S.C.; Tor.; V. '19. 

Cpl. Seymour, R. A.; No. 11 F.A.; U. '18. 

Lieut. Sheard, J. L.; C.E.F.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '11. 

Sapper Shephard, G. R.; Div. Sig. Coy. C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '18. 

Lieut. Sheppard, E. C.; 72nd Bn.; Tor.; U. '10 

Gnr. Smith, C. T.; 73rd Bty. C.F A.; London; Sc. '18. 

- Smyth, C. W.; C.A.M.C. (Winnipeg); Ft. Frances; B.A. (V.) 

'14. 

Ft.-Lieut. Spence, A. G. A.; R.N.A.S. Tor.; V. '17. 
Lieut. Taylor, R.; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; Islington; B.A.Sc. '12, 

Staff. 
Major Thistle, W. B.; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. Tor.); Tor.; M.D. 

'86. 
Lieut. Thomas, W. D.; 216th Bn.; B.A. (Oxon.), Staff (T.). 

- Thomas, Miss M. L; St. John's Amb. Mil. Hosp.; Tor.; B.A. 

(U.) '12. 

Pte. Thompson, A. O.; 3rd Div. Cyc.; Tor.; B.Sc.F. '18. 
Gnr. Timmins, H. A. W.; 67th Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; V. '17. 
Lieut. Trees, A. G.; 234th Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '15. 
Capt. Wallbridge, F. G.; M.O. 157th Bn.; Midland; T. '92, M.D., 

C.M. '95. 



Capt Walsh, W.; Ch., C.F.A. 
Pte. Watson, L. T.; 134th Bn. 
Lieut. Weir, D. H.; 215th Bn. 



Brampton; V. 
Woodstock; Sc. '15. 
Tor.; B.A.Sc. '13. 



Gnr. Weir, F. E.; 67th Bty. C.F.A. ; Burford; B.A.Sc. '15. 
Pte. Widdicombe, A. E.; No. 1 Const. Bn.; St. Catharines; B.A.Sc. 

'16. 

Pte. Willmott, A. R.; U. of T. O S. Tr. Coy.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '16. 
Major Wilson, A. D.; 72nd Bn.; Kerrisdale; U. '04, LL.B. '07. 
Major Wilson, N. R.; 196th Bn.; Winnipeg; B.A. (V.) '99. 
Sapper Wilson, R. L.; 5th Div. Sig.; Delhi; (V.) '19. 
Sapper Winchester, A. S.; 5th Div. Sig.; Tor.; U. '13. 
Capt. Windsor, Miss Frances E.; C.A.M.C. (France); Calgary; 

M.B. '08. 



IN MEMORIAM 

THE HON. JAMES STODDART DUFF. 
GEORGE CLARKE DUFF, B.S.A. 

THE sympathy of all will go out to the family of the late 
Minister of Agriculture in its double bereavement. The 
tributes paid by his colleagues in the Cabinet and many 
others of both political parties show that the Province, in thus 
suddenly losing the Hon. J. S. Duff, who was for long a member of 
the Legislature and for the past eight years had held what will 
always be one of its most important offices, has lost a most valuable 
public servant. The Hon. Mr. Duff was well qualified for his 
duties; he had lived all his life on the farm on which he was born, 
being thus a representative man, and personally was one who 
made many warm friends regardless of party views. Besides his 
position as a member of the Cabinet, as Minister of Agriculture 
he was indirectly connected with the University through the 
Ontario Agricultural College. From that College there came 
on to the University's graduate list his son, George Clarke 
Duff, now dead on the field of honour, whom his father survived 
only a few short days. 

CHARLES ALEXANDER MOSS, B.A., LL.B. 

Major Moss was my class-mate at school and college and 
Osgoode Hall for more than twelve years and an intimate 
friend for more than thirty years, and this is my excuse 
for writing a few words of appreciation of him. It may be said 
that our friendship was an hereditary one, as Major Moss's father, 
the late Sir Charles Moss, and my father were law students to- 
gether in the same office and the friendship then formed continued 
uninterrupted until Sir Charles' death. Major Moss attended the 
Model School at Toronto for a number of years, afterwards going 
to Upper Canada College for five years. He left Upper Canada 
College as Head Boy, taking a high honour stand at Matriculation. 
His course at the University was Political Science in which he took 
first class honours throughout, graduating as B.A. in 1894 and 
LL.B. in 1895. Throughout his college course he was a member 
of the Zeta Psi Fraternity. He was a scholarship man at the Law 
School and was called to the Bar in 1897, being sworn in as a solicitor 

[91] 



92 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

before his father who had been appointed to the Bench but a short 
time before. He married Miss Elizabeth Britton, daughter of the 
Honourable Mr. Justice Britton and she survives him. Major 
Moss had a very fine and keen mind and his successful scholastic 
training naturally developed it, but even if he had not had these 
educational advantages he was the kind of man who would have 
been bound to educate himself. He had unusual ability in grasp- 
ing quickly and with little effort the essential points of a problem 
however complicated it might be. He was very fond of outdoor 
sports and was a good athlete. Lacrosse particularly appealed to 
him and during the few years that game flourished at the Uni- 
versity he played on the team. For many years the Moss family 
has produced distinguished lawyers and it was natural that Major 
Moss should take up this profession in which he made a marked 
success. Some years ago he was elected a Bencher of the Law 
Society of Ontario and at each election he was either at the top 
of the poll or very close to it, thus showing the esteem in which he 
was held by the Bar of the Province generally. It is an interesting 
fact that his father also at a number of Benchers' elections headed 
the poll. Major Moss always continued after his graduation to 
take a keen interest in University affairs and this was particularly 
evidenced in 1914 when, largely through his efforts, a successful 
class reunion of the class of '94 was held. Many men who are of 
a scholarly type of mind lose touch to a certain extent with the 
human side of life, but Major Moss's kindly and generous nature 
gave him a wide range of popularity and his many activities in 
business and social matters as well as in public affairs, showed that 
he was not only a scholar but a citizen in the best sense of the 
word. When the war broke out Major Moss, who had had no 
previous military training, immediately began to prepare himself 
to take a part in it. The fact that a man of his age and responsi- 
bilities should have at once made up his mind to give up everything 
and place himself unreservedly at the disposal of his country con- 
stituted an example to others which must have had a marked 
influence, and this influence is made all the more powerful and last- 
ing by his death from wounds received in battle. 

MILLER LASH. 



IN MEMORIAM 93 

JAMES HENRY OLDHAM, B.A. 

J. H. Oldham, who graduated as B.A. in 1908 and was killed 
on the Somme front on September 24th, was a man of remark- 
able character. He was a retiring student, not widely known 
even in his own College, Victoria, and he took only a modest 
degree. He became a lawyer and a junior member of an important 
legal firm in Toronto. What was remarkable about him was his 
devotion to duty. He became interested in the Settlement work 
carried on at Evangelia House, in the Eastern part of Toronto, 
and for years he gave to this work almost his whole leisure time. 
Daily after he left his office he would go to his work and spend his 
evenings among the boys and men. He cared nothing whether his 
work was recognised or not. Many hundreds of people came under 
his influence and will remember his cheery helpful words and his 
kind deeds. 

Oldham was small and not very strong in physique, but he threw 
himself into the preparation for the front with great enthusiasm. 
He was devoted to the welfare of his men. Canada has never 
produced a finer spirit than that of this devoted good citizen who 
went out so blithely to die for his country. 

G. M. WRONG. 



JOHN REDMOND WALSINGHAM MEREDITH, B.A. 

"Thank God for such men as Major Jack Meredith," said Mr. 
Justice Riddell in the Second Divisional Court at Osgoode 
Hall in a tribute to Major J. R. Meredith, who died suddenly 
in England on November 25th. Major Meredith was the son of 
Sir William Meredith, Chief Justice of Ontario and Chancellor of 
the University of Toronto. Born in London, Ont., he was 38 years 
old. He had been educated at Trinity College School, Port Hope; 
the University of Toronto, and the Ontario Law School. When 
the war came, he was a member of the law firm of Hellmuth, 
Cattanach & Meredith. His widow, a daughter of I. F. Hellmuth, 
K.C., and one daughter survive. 

Major Meredith was a member of the Queen's Own Rifles some 
years ago, and later of the Mississauga Horse. He was attached 
to the Q.O.R. as Lieutenant in October, 1914, qualified at the 
School of Infantry, and went overseas as Adjutant and Junior 
Major of the 95th Battalion. Since the breaking up of the battalion, 
he had been engaged in officers' training work. 



94 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

At the University he was connected with football and baseball 
teams, and was a popular student. As a lawyer, he had displayed 
marked ability and a promising career lay before him. As a soldier, 
he left nothing to be desired in the discharge of his duties. Military 
men of Toronto all lament his demise. He was expecting to be 
sent to France shortly, where his qualities as a useful officer would 
have been of great service. 

Recently Major Meredith became well known to a number 
of the younger members of the University, as he accompanied the 
University O.T.C. to camp in May, 1915, as one of the examining 
officers and assisted in the training. 

Regret at Varsity is deep and widespread and heartfelt sym- 
pathy for the Chancellor and Major Meredith's family finds 
expression everywhere. 

E. C. CATTANACH. 



THE WORK OF THE ANTITOXIN 
LABORATORY 



PREVIOUS to May 1914, with the exception of smallpox and 
typhoid vaccines, none of the auxiliary weapons, of a pre- 
ventive or curative nature, with which the physician is 
armed in his fight against communicable diseases (diphtheria, menin- 
gitis, etc.), were prepared in Canada. 

This condition of affairs was not considered desirable, and 
various medical organisations, including the Canadian Medical 
Association and the Canadian Public Health Association, had 
urged the Federal Government to establish a laboratory for the 
preparation of these biological products, including diphtheria and 
tetanus antitoxin, antimeningitis serum, antirabic vaccine (Pasteur 
Treatment), as well as smallpox vaccine. It was further suggested 
that these products be distributed throughout Canada, free of 
charge, or at a nominal cost. No action of any sort, governmental 
or private, was taken until 1914. 

During the winter of 1914, the writer with the very cordial and 
hearty co-operation of Sir Edmund Osier, Chairman of the Medical 
section of the Commission of Conservation and a Governor of the 
University of Toronto, undertook to establish a laboratory in 
the University of Toronto where these products could be prepared 
and distributed at cost. In May 1914, the laboratory was formally 
opened. At that time very modest and very limited accommo- 
dation was available but better times were to come. 

It may be wondered why it was desirable to establish such a 
laboratory, if these products could be freely imported from the 
Mother Country or from the United States. The important 
reasons were three in number. The first of these was that no 
country in the world of the size of Canada is without laboratories 
for the purpose. Secondly the supply of a given product at any 
time might be insufficient and difficult to obtain; the outbreak of 
wa- in August 1914 and the consequent great shortage of tetanus 
(lockjaw) serum illustrated this point. And finally there was the 
strongest reason of all, the economic reason. 

[95] 



96 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The preparation of these substances requires the services of 
especially trained experts versed in the methods of immunity. 
Few such men are obtainable. Then the equipment of laboratories, 
stables, etc., is costly, and the profits of producers, middlemen and 
retailers meant that ihe antitoxin when purchased by the ultimate 
consumer was expensive, very expensive. To illustrate: diphtheria 
is a disease the ravages of which are felt mostly amongst the classes 
of our people who have least money with which to purchase medical 
supplies. A child in such a family is taken ill with diphtheria; the 
father goes to a nearby drug-store to buy the diphtheria antitoxin 
w r hich the doctor has ordered; he requires a dose of five thousand 
units; he is asked to pay from three to five dollars for this. He is 
unable to do so and he either buys a smaller dose of, say, one 
thousand units at a dollar, or he waits until next day with the hope 
that the child will then be better and he will not need to buy anti- 
toxin at all. Next day the child is worse and eventually dies, even 
though given antitoxin. The delay has been fatal. The child 
should have been given as large a dose as possible, at the very 
earliest moment after the disease was diagnosed. The entire 
success of treating diphtheria with antitoxin depends upon the early 
use of large doses. The use of diphtheria antitoxin in this way 
in New York State, has reduced the death rate, from diphtheria, 
from 99 per 100,000 in 1894 to 20 per 100,000 in 1914. The remedy 
was at hand, but was not always available, as has just been pointed 

3Ut. 

It is true that the larger municipalities and hospitals were 
able to obtain antitDxin at special rat is from the manufacturers, 
that is to say those who were best able to pay were charged the 
least, and, conversely, those whose need was often the greatest 
and whose purses were slim, were not so favoured. Immediately 
the Antitoxin Laboratory began the distribution of its products, 
a dose of antitoxin was made available for thirty-five cents, which 
previously had cost one dollar, and the dose which had been sold 
for from three to five dollars could be purchased for one dollar and 
a half. The enterprise at once received every encouragement from 
several Provincial and Municipal Boards of Health. The first of 
these was the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario, which through 
its Chief Officer of Health, Major J. W. S. McCullough, arranged 
for distribution through all local Boards of Health in Ontario of 
various antitoxins and serums at these greatly reduced prices. 
Dr. M. M. Seymour, Commissioner of Health for Saskatchewan, 



WORK OF THE ANTITOXIN LABORATORY 97 

and Dr. W. H. Hattie, Provincial Health Officer of Nova Scotia, 
did likewise for their Provinces. Several other provincial and 
local Boards of Health announced their intention of supporting 
the Laboratory and soon the movement became national in scope. 
The Colony of Newfoundland, though outside the Dominion of 
Canada, is in "the sphere of influence" of the Antitoxin Labora- 
tory, and for two years past all diphtheria antitoxin used in that 
far away island has come from the Antitoxin Laboratory of the 
University of Toronto. 

The next step in the work was the very advanced and pro- 
gressive action of the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario when 
they decided, commencing February 1st, 1916, to distribute free 
of charge in Ontario, diphtheria antitoxin, tetanus antitoxin, 
meningitis serum, rabies vaccine (the Pasteur Treatment) and 
smallpox vaccine. This move put Ontario in the fore front of public 
health work, and meant that henceforth no child's life should be 
lost because the parents could not afford to buy antitoxin. No 
other movement in public health work in Canada within the past 
decade has received such general endorsation as has this action 
on the part of the Provincial Board of Health of Ontario. 

To keep pace with the work in the preparation of smallpox 
vaccine, the Antitoxin Laboratory in January 1916, acquired the 
plant and good-will of the Ontario Vaccine Farm, Palmerston, 
from Dr. Coleman. 

Meanwhile with the outbreak of war the work of the Anti- 
toxin Laboratory was greatly increased. As has already been 
pointed out, soon after war was declared there was a great shortage 
in the world's supply of tetanus antitoxin. This was due to the 
fact that enormous quantities were required in the Western theatre 
of war. Within the first three months of the war, there were a 
great many deaths amongst the wounded from lockjaw. The 
medical authorities of the various armies decided that in future 
all .wounded men were to receive a protective dose of tetanus 
serum. Immediately there was a cessation in the number of cases 
of tetanus observed, and deaths from this dread disease, amongst 
those injected, became a rarity. To accomplish this, enormous 
quantities of tetanus antitoxin were required, and an acute shortage 
soon occurred. 

At this juncture, in the early spring of 1915, the Canadian Red 
Cross Society had been urgently requested to obtain ten thousand 
doses of the antitoxin and to send this amount to France. They 



98 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

endeavoured to do so and found that the lowest price at which the 
serum could be obtained from any manufacturer in the United 
States was one dollar and twenty-five cents a package. This came 
to the attention of the Antitoxin Laboratory. At once arrange- 
ments were made with a large municipal public health laboratory 
in the United States to obtain the much needed supply for the Red 
Cross Society. It was found that for the price of sixty-five cents 
each, the ten thousand packages could be obtained. This saved 
the Red Cross approximately one half the amount they proposed 
to spend. 

This incident focussed the attention of the Laboratory on the 
necessity, if at all possible, of at once undertaking the preparation 
of this serum. A member of the Board of Governors of the Uni- 
versity of Toronto, Col. A. E. Gooderham, who is also a member 
of the executive of the Canadian Red Cross Society, at once offered 
to equip a laboratory for the purpose of producing tetanus anti- 
toxin. At the same time, the Department of Militia and Defence 
agreed to make a grant of five thousand dollars ($5,000.00) on 
the condition that the entire output of the antitoxin should be 
available for the use of the Department if they required it. The 
Antitoxin Laboratory gladly agreed to this and went further and 
promised to supply tetanus antitoxin at approximately cost price. 
The special laboratory was at once established under the immedi- 
ate direction of Dr. R. D. Defries, and for over one year has been 
preparing and sending to France all the tetanus antitoxin required 
for the use of the Canadian Expeditionary Force, at a price lower 
than the lowest cut price quoted by any American manufacturer 
of tetanus antitoxin. Since the Laboratory began this work over 
fifty thousand packages have been sent overseas. 

The work of the Laboratory was much hampered at the outset 
t>y the lack of accommodation for horses and other necessary 
laboratory animals, and because the University did not possess a 
farm, the horses could not be kept under the best possible conditions. 
Also the available laboratory space was inadequate. When this be- 
came known to Colonel Gooderham he promptly increased his gift 
many times and purchased a fifty acre farm in York township about 
twelve miles north of Toronto. On this farm, a magnificent 
laboratory and stables have been built through Colonel Gooder- 
ham 's generosity, and the whole property given to the University. 
H.R.H. The Duke of Connaught has been much interested in this 



WORK OF THE ANTITOXIN LABORATORY 99 

work and has graciously consented to the Laboratories being 
called the Connaught Laboratories of the University of Toronto. 

So in the future the work of this Department will go on under 
ideal conditions, provided for in a truly splendid fashion by Colonel 
Gooderham. 

Canada now has an institution which is comparable in the scope 
of its activities to the Serum Department of the Pasteur Institute, 
Paris; the Lister Institute, London; and the Research Laboratories 
of the Health Department of New York City. These all derive 
a large part of their support from the preparation and sale of 
public health biological products, which are supplied to Boards 
of Health at low cost. The proceeds above the amount actually 
required to run the Laboratories are used to further research, 
in Preventive Medicine. As soon as the war is over this is to be done 
in the Antitoxin Laboratory of the University of Toronto. At 
present all the energies of the Laboratory are being bent in the 
direction of war-work, since this is the first duty of every loyal 
Britisher to-day. 

J. G. FITZGERALD. 



A SECOND VISIT TO LABRADOR 



THE desert has a strong fascination for a properly constituted 
human being and the more lonely and desolate the desert 
is the more compelling its attraction, so that my impulse 
to return to the grim mountains and treeless valleys and wave 
tormented cliffs of northern Labrador was a perfectly natural one ; 
but I desired a more expeditious method of travel than that of a 
year ago, when slow steamers, balky motor boats and heavy Eskimo 
skiffs used up most of my summer, merely going there and coming 
back. 

Schooners fished in Nakvak Bay, the natural gateway to the 
Torngats; why not go in a schooner? 

Accordingly on the 3rd of July I ended a rail journey across 
Newfoundland at Lewisporte and boarded the little steamer Clyde 
en route to Twillingate, an island 35 miles out in the stormy seas 
to the north east, where skipper Janes was fitting out the 70 ton 
schooner Gerfalcon for a "vyage" to Nakvak. I soon found that 
Twillingate with its 3,000 inhabitants, mostly fishermen, is a little 
world to itself with its own language, customs and modes of thought, 
not to be hustled out of its tranquil movements by a Canadian in 
a hurry to get "down north". It was in fact a whole week before 
salt and supplies and wood and water and nets and casks and new 
sails and an extra Manilla cable were on board and we were ready 
to hoist anchor. In the meantime there was opportunity to wander 
over one of the most picturesque islands off the coast of New- 
foundland, with bays and cliffs and promontories and clear waters, 
when the sun condescended to shine, almost suggesting the Mediter- 
ranean. The language of the inhabitants, one third Irish, one 
third Devonshire, and most of the rest Cockney, recalled anything 
else than Italy, however. 

Two fishermen were to be hired for my summer's work, and with 
the aid of a merchant, Alfred Gillard and Elijah Greenhan signed 
formidable documents as my "servants", the latter making his 
mark instead of writing his name, since like so many other New- 
foundland fishermen he had n'ever learned his letters. 

1100] 



A SECOND VISIT TO LABRADOR 101 

Alf and Uncle Lige joined me on board the Gerfalcon as passen- 
gers, and with the crew of eleven men and Mary, the cook, we 
made a ship's company of fifteen on a craft with its hold full of 
salt and trap nets and gear, and its decks loaded with firewood, 
casks of fresh water and puncheons for cod livers. We were un- 
doubtedly a little crowded, but the skipper gave up his bunk to 
me and chummed in with another man, and Alf and Lige had 
relatives on board who shared their berths with them. Though 
we had to keep very close together we were a harmonious party 
under an able captain and I enjoyed the fifteen days' voyage to 
Nakvak, 900 miles northwest of Twillingate. 

There was little fog, but we had our full share of gales on that 
stormiest of coasts and had to run for shelter into several harbours, 
the first one Indian Tickle. There we dropped anchor at the same 
moment as the schooner Car fin, which had left the Back Harbour 
of Twillingate a few minutes ahead of us but had been out of sight 
in the meantime. One of our crew explained that "E was stearin 
aff a pint to the west of we". Sixteen schooners gathered in before 
night and it was a pretty sight to see them all take wing together 
next morning in sunshine with a gentle, fair wind. 

Later, as we were almost rounding the tremendous cliffs of 
Mugford Cape, a gale from the north sent us scudding back under 
double reefs into Green Cove, where we tossed at anchor for two 
days; and Arctic ice streaming south forced us into Cutthroat 
Harbour for a night, and afterwards sent us into Tuckataway 
.Harbour, south of Hebron, and then into Bear Gut; since wind 
and ice together make a bad combination at night, though endurable 
by day. 

One did not regret these chances to land here and there upon 
the wild and splendid Labrador shores before we steered between 
the mountainous heads of Nakvak on the 25th of July and entered 
the grandest of all the Labrador fiords. My 17 foot punt was 
hoisted out, supplies loaded in it, and, after a call upon two Eskimo 
families camping on the shore of the Schooner Cove, we put up a 
little brown sail and soon began work on the opposite side of the 
fiord. The next month was spent in rowing, tramping and climb- 
ing among the grandest and most desolate mountains on the 
eastern coast of America. While exploring the valleys nearest 
the ocean there were not even bushes to feed the little fire beneath 
our tea kettle and if any one felt chilly after the hard day's work 



102 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



was over, he took another walk over the stony plain or else turned 
into his sleeping bag to get warm. 

Half way up the bay we came upon an old Eskimo village 
opposite the ruined Hudson Bay post abandoned years ago. At 
present there are only two winter houses in use, those of the two 
families we had met at the Schooner Cove. The Eskimo is not 
aspiring in winter and gets as nearly underground as possible, 
digging his dwelling out of a hillside and finishing its roof with 
warm sods. Only a sort of dormer-window glazed with seal in- 
testines projects above the general level. The whole surroundings 
suggested carnivorous feasts, for rotting fish heads, skeletons of 
seals and caribota and huge bones of whales were littered about. 
Caches of rotting seal blubber scented the air and the same delect- 
able odour reached a climax in the houses themselves, where the 
half moon shaped soapstone lamps in which the blubber was 
burned still lay on the floor. There had evidently been no spring 
cleaning when our friends left their winter residences. 

As our work progressed inland low bushes could be found 
growing in sheltered spots and dead twigs helped out the fuel 
supply, until at the west end of Nakvak willows and alders reached 
six or eight feet in height and we indulged in real camp fires where 
one could warm his toes at night when the thermometer sank to 
40 degrees and a chill fog drifted in from the sea. 

On the whole it was a warm summer, the warmest on record, 
according to the fishermen, and on one memorable day the reading 
at noon was 74 degrees and the sultry warmth of the sun sent up 
clouds of mosquitoes and black flies, making us long for more 
moderate weather. Lest you should get a false impression it should 
be' added that no other mid-day went beyond 68 degrees. 

Nakvak Fiord grows more splendid as one advances inland, 
and reaches its climax at the end, 30 miles from the open sea, 
where cliffs rise 3,500 feet with imposing mountains behind them, 
and a large river enters, its clear waters swarming with great trout 
on the way to their spawning grounds. 

The U shaped trough of the fiord runs 8 miles farther west, 
forming a narrow lake, really an extension of the fiord cut off 
by the stony delta of a side torrent. 

It had been my plan to strike across to Ungava Bay, 50 or 60 
miles to the west, but my two fishermen were not so keen on the 
journey as I was, and one day's tramp over the loose rocks of the 
lake shore with packs on their backs was as far as they could be 



A SECOND VISIT TO LABRADOR 103 

induced to go. The going was certainly bad and rain made the 
rocks terribly slippery, but the real reason for their defection was, 
I believe, simply their dread of the unknown. At our farthest point 
15 miles from tide water, the river roared through a canyon and 
plunged over beautiful falls. From a height near-by I could see 
that the wildest and highest mountains were past and that a 
wilderness of bare domes sank westwards towards Ungava Bay 
40 miles beyond. It was my only glimpse of a promised land which 
I was fated not to visit. 

We made two good climbs near the end of the fiord, one of 
5,000 feet, and the other 200 or 300 feet higher, over steep slopes 
and a final cliff ending with a wide, gently undulating summit 
covered with loose blocks of gneiss or with a square mile or two of 
snowfield. The edges of these flat mountain tops drop suddenly 
into valleys 3,000 or 4,000 feet deep, carved out of a former table- 
land by glaciers in the Ice Age. On the dizzy edge of these preci- 
pices, which my two fishermen carefully avoided, one could look 
down into the fiord and follow its blue pathway between mountain 
walls to the open sea where icebergs could be seen on their way 
southward. To the west was the long lake between frowning rows 
of cliffs whose tops were lost in mist ; and to the south a profound 
valley with snowfields and lakes, one still frozen, followed by 
higher summits than our own, largely snow covered. The thin 
vegetation of the valleys is invisible from these heights and the 
landscape of gray rock, dark water and white or sullied snow, 
generally roofed with dull clouds, has an unsurpassed grimness. 

Turning back from the end of the fiord we urged our punt 
against stiff headwinds to the Schooner Cove, where we found 
the crew of the Gerfalcon in the best of spirits, forking up from 
their motor boat tons of gasping fish, a writhing mass over which 
they trampled in their sea-boots. Still alive the fish were beheaded, 
stripped of their viscera and backbone, rinsed in a cask of sea 
water and salted in tiers in the hold, the fish passing from man to 
man for the different operations and the whole process being over 
in a minute. The hold was already nearly full and the great 
hogsheads on deck were overflowing with cod livers. The skipper 
and crew were working at full speed for 20 hours a day, barely 
stopping to eat and almost without sleep ; for the fish were running 
and the harvest of the sea had to be gathered now or never. They 
already had 750 quintals and only needed to round out the 1,000 
to finish the summer's catch. 



104 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The scene on the deck was not beautiful and I was not sorry to 
load our remaining supplies into the punt and steer the little 
craft for the open sea, to work our way past headland after head- 
land "up south" toward civilisation. 

After ten miles of the open Atlantic, where the punt rose and 
fell on the long swells dashing at the foot of tremendous cliffs, 
we rounded Gulch Cape and reached sheltered w r aters again. 
There in the sunshine on a sloping rock lay a big and shapeless 
sack-like thing which we cautiously paddled up to. When 15 or 
20 feet away, the thing stirred and lifted its head and Uncle Lige 
fired a charge of shot through its brain. It was a young walrus, 
weighing at least 300 pounds, as we discovered when hauling the 
bleeding carcass into the boat. Landing in the first sheltered cove 
the fishermen removed its skin and we made a meal of the reddish 
black flesh which cannot be recommended as a delicacy. 

After a night and a day in Rowsell's Harbour, where we camped 
near a schooner driven ashore and wrecked by a squall a few days 
before, we rounded another mountainous point and reached 
Nullataktok Fiord where the Moravians formerly had a mission 
called Ramah. The buildings are occupied by some families of 
Eskimos, and we landed to call upon them, stepping out into the 
shallow water and wading ashore amid greetings of men and 
howlings of dogs. The whole population, human and canine, 
awaited us with excitement. 

Here Uncle Lige exchanged his shot gun for seal skin boots and 
I bargained with an old lady to dress the walrus skin so that it 
might later adorn our Royal Ontario Museum of Zoology. My 
appearance was evidently unprepossessing, for she stipulated on 
payment in advance. Her gray bearded husband talked a few- 
words of English and told us that the animal was a "pickaniny 
woman walrus". 

Then came a week of rough exploration and mapping of the 
beautiful bay and mountains, ending with a long hard day in which 
Alf and I walked 20 miles over rugged country and ascended one 
of the highest mountains I have seen in Labrador. We reached 
its top, at 5,500 feet, in a snow flurry; but the skies soon cleared, 
giving wonderful views of Nakvak and Nullataktok fiords, more 
than a mile below us vertically, of the distant ocean with icebergs 
and of unknown billows of gray or snowy mountain north and west 
and south. 



A SECOND VISIT TO LABRADOR 105 

It Was near the end of August and my two fishermen were 
getting alarmed at the prospect of autumn storms to be faced on 
the open sea in our little boat; so next day we started homewards, 
picking up the walrus skin on the way. Later we helped ourselves 
to a bucket of salt on a schooner to preserve the skin on its round- 
about journey to Toronto. 

We took shelter from a storm in Bear Gut Harbour, then 
rounded Cold Feet Cape into Saeglek Bay, and on the 1st of 
September scudded before a squall of wind and rain into the Har- 
bour of Hebron, the Moravian Mission, where Mr. and Mrs. 
Simon made the wanderers welcome. The big clean mission 
house with its comfortable rooms and beds and meals was paradise 
after the chill gray sea and the hurried lunches of hard tack and 
canned beef; and the tempest that kept us here for three days 
was not wholly unwelcome. A white whale was captured just 
before we left this haven and most of the Eskimo population helped 
to pull it ashore and then rewarded themselves with slices of its 
thick, white, gelatinous skin to feast on while the animal was 
being disembowelled. The scene was more interesting than 
attractive. 

When the sea had somewhat fallen we set out under leaden 
skies for Mugford and Okak, climbing and descending the great 
rollers before a moderate, fair wind that took us bravely on our way. 
The swell made landing scarcely possible on the rocky coast, and 
toward evening of September 5th we were glad to run into Shark 
Gut, just this side of Mugford, and take refuge for the night on 
board a schooner which pitched and wallowed at anchor behind 
the poor shelter of a low island. It was skipper Saul White's 
schooner, the Norman Duncan of Twillingate, and my two men 
had relatives on board, as they seemed to have on half the craft 
along the coast. 

Next day the gale was still blowing but the schooner" had her 
full cargo of fish and put to sea close reefed. In a few hours we 
had passed the gray Mugford cliffs and entered the Tickle, even 
there feeling more of the wild northern storm than we wanted, 
fierce gusts sweeping over the mountains and whirling up the 
spindrift like strips of white fog. The skipper had promised to 
land me in Mugford Bay but found the storm too furious for that 
and ran before the wind to the sheltered harbour of Cutthroat 
twenty miles beyond the group of mountains I had planned to 
study. I was annoyed but it was plain that my men were delighted. 



106 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The Labrador coast had no charms for them after the beginning of 
September. 

I bowed to necessity and took passage for Twillingate on the 
Norman Duncan, bargaining with the skipper for transportation 
at the rate of 30 cents per man per day. Since the 50 ton schooner 
had her hold full of fish and her decks full of oilcasks, trap nets 
and boats, it was advisable to dispose of our punt for what it 
would fetch, and with Alf's assistance I sold her to an Eskimo for 
five pairs of skin boots. It may be mentioned that these five 
pairs of boots were afterwards sold for $15.00, exactly the price 
of the boat in the beginning. 

Short of most kinds of supplies, with eight of a crew, my party 
of three, and a girl taken from the wreck at Rowsell's Harbour, 
we set out for home, crowded to the gunwales with cargo and with 
no spare space for crew or passengers. 

How we bowled past the Kiglapait mountains before a brisk 
northwester, spent a day and a night becalmed at Paul's Island, 
had glimpses of Iron Bound, Ragged Island, and Indian Harbour, 
crossed Belle Isle Straits, for a wonder without fog, pounded along 
the Newfoundland coast at ten knots an hour with a rising gale 
from the north, and finally ran before a howling storm into Twillin- 
gate Harbour, need not be detailed. During the rolling and pitch- 
ing of these stormy days a powerful odour of bilge water invaded 
my bunk from the nether regions, no fresh water could be spared 
for ablutions, seas swept the deck, keeping me mostly to the dark 
little cabin, and the shipwrecked girl developed a tendency to sing 
lugubrious ballads, such as: 

"Oh God! she cried in anguish wild, 

If I must perish save my child." 

To these discomforts join an uninspiring diet of hard-tack, split 
peas and molasses, with not much of anything else, and it will be 
understood that Alf and Uncle Lige and I lost no time in landing 
amid darkness and tempest to seek refuge on shore. My former 
servants had before them a five miles tramp, while I took shelter in 
the little hotel till the whistle of the steamer Clyde should summon 
passengers on board. 

A few days later I was in Evangeline's country on a soft summer 
afternoon, driving a quiet horse through placid meadows and 
orchards loaded with ruddy fruit. Labrador had already become 
incredible, something that might have been dreamed but never 
could have been true. A. P. COLEMAN. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



En Temps de Guerre 

En Temps de Guerre. Recueil d'extraits de journaux, de documents 
diplomatiques , etc. Par JOHN SQUAIR. Toronto, The 
Copp Clark Company. 

Professor Squair has the good luck which no department 
(unless it be Italian), not even Greek, shares in the same degree, 
that he can bring out this book, which he has dedicated to his 
colleagues of University College, on his own subject, French, and 
yet illustrate at the same time the only subject of vital interest at 
the present moment, the war. 

This collection from French and Swiss newspapers, especially 
from the Journal des Debats, has a value for most readers not to be 
found elsewhere; few, if any one, in Ontario outside the staff in 
French of the University are in close -touch with French opinion 
and in daily receipt of French journals. 

Some of the happiest selections are of typical French irony; 
there is a charming piece of persiflage from the Journal des Debats 
at the expense of Herr von Jagow, who appears with characteristic 
German lack of humour to have started a crusade against the use 
of French words in Germany and to have banished "friseur" for 
Haarkunstler: the Debats suggests that coiffeur is simpler and 
more popular in France and quite German in origin, if one only 
approaches one's subject with a little more science than Herr von 
Jagow has the time or intelligence to devote to it. Is the minister 
prepared to follow up his crusade and withdraw the title of General 
from Mackensen and von Linsingen ? The German title is Marschall 
and means "groom". 

The various reflexions of a man past service, also from the 
Debats, are equally entertaining, so are the reflexions excited by a 
characterisitc paragraph from the Vossische Zeitung: "In our old 
graveyards slumbers good metal: let our school children rummage 
in the ancient abodes of our ancestors: these ancestors will rejoice 
in their everlasting homes in the thought that the last earthly 
receptacle of their bones contributes to the safety of their country ". 
There is the quaint German sentimentality; a redeeming feature 

[107] 



108 UNIVERSITY MONTH I. * 

at the present moment, as it seems, in their otherwise unrelieved 
bitterness and brutality. 

Lighter and more amusing is the sketch of the amateur strate- 
gists of the restaurants who all have a recipe for General Joffre which 
will quicken the pace of victory this too from the Debats: more 
instructive the article from the same paper on the pronunciation 
of the names of such places as Sainte-Menehould, Craonne, 
Laon, Briey, Longwy; it is not, it seems, the British only who are 
beaten by these names. 

The Englishman can never read a French book without finding 
words which have no place in his dictionary: such is "bourricots" 
(p. 55), such is "minteux" (p. 122), apparently patois for "men- 
teurs",and "galejade" (same page); ourownargo/, "gab", appears 
on the next page, apparently borrowed by us from France; some 
foot notes would have made these words easier. 

In other extracts appears the French gift of epigram. M. 
Deschanel speaks of the Catholic prelates of Belgium who belong 
to "the Faith" "whose Faith is one with good-faith." The Debats 
appreciates the modesty of the British Admiralty, which adver- 
tised so little after a victory that the advertising world to-day 
imagined a defeat. "The British won: all else is gas: asphyxiating 
gas for those who let it reach their heads." 

There are other epigrams more racy and of the street, coined 
by the female street car conductresses (p. 65). 

There are at least two extracts dealing, one in a lively and 
picturesque fashion, with the controversy which has just reached 
us here viH Quebec touching the attitude of the cures to the war, 
(extracts 48 and 61). In the first extract the cure returns on furlough 
so "poilu" that his own housekeeper cannot recognise him and is 
put to shame by the greater fidelity and keener memory of his dog, 
a variant on the old and touching legend of Odysseus and Argus. 

There is another, dealing with the impatience, wide-world now, 
felt by the plain man for the ways of politics and politicians (53), 
and an eloquent paragraph beginning "Ah! Parlement, Parlement, 
toi qui tiens entre tes mains souveraines 1'avenir et les esperances 
de tant de Frangais infortunes, h&te-toi." This is the same note 
that Mr. Frank Darling strikes in his similar crusade in this country 
for the victims of war. 

Other passages are more topical and purely Parisian, e.g., on the 
dearth of horses in the streets in the early months of the war (65) ; 



BOOK REVIEWS 109 

the charitable man was put to it to know whether the truer charity 
was to employ the ancient cab-driver or spare his ancient horse. 

There is a vivid picture, which most of us have read elsewhere 
in some form or another, of the generous reception by the Swiss of 
the wounded and released prisoners returning through Switzerland 
to their French homes (69). 

Few of the extracts are more interesting than the speech of 
the veteran de Freycinet in honour of the memory of his old col- 
league Gambetta. It is the great Gambetta of 1870 and 1871 
whom he celebrates, the tireless Demosthenes of France ; Gambetta 
at his best; before the pressure of opportunism modified his whole- 
heartedness and turned against French clericalism some of the fire 
and zeal which he had devoted before, wholly and only, to the 
battle with Prussia. 

But perhaps the best selections of the book are the two near the 
end, the last speech of Emile Faguet, made a whole year before 
the war, but full of a sort of prophetic patriotism, and a* recent 
speech by Anatole France. 

"The world," says M. Faguet, "used to call its great men ' fathers 
of their country'; the expression is fine we are its children, but 
its fathers also; for out of our patriotism it is born again every 
day ; without us it would dissolve into the void ; it gives us motives 
for living; we must give ourselves such a motive, the motive that 
by means of us there is born to life something greater than we are." 

M. Faguet made France greater by his love for it concludes 
the reporter of the Debats and that is the best funeral oration 
for his grave; he forbade any other. 

There is a different interest attaching to the recent speech of 
M. Anatole France. He shocked his countrymen by the heart- 
lessness and flippancy of his last book "La Revolte des Anges", 
which appeared most inauspiciously just as the war broke out. 
In this speech he makes amends ; the flippancy and cynicism are 
gone: "Young men, you who will enjoy for long the fruits of the 
peace which will have cost rude efforts and bloody sacrifices, 
remember always that your fathers, in alliance with Italy, in 
alliance with all civilised Europe, have fought, not like barbarians 
for plunder; not for cruel and arrogant world-power; but for 
liberty; for justice against injustice, for good faith and treaties 
against treachery; for peace against war. And may forever the 
example of the conquered foeman keep you from the brutal pride 
which has been his overthrow, from inordinate desires, from con- 



110 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

tempt for weaker peoples. Let his fall inspire you with reason 
and justice, and persuad eyou that force without wisdom destroys 
itself". 

The book is well printed and of a convenient shape and size: 
the poetical selections would be improved by a better printing of 
the Latin hexameters on page 136, such as would permit the first 
and second lines to scan : and by the addition of the charming poem 
by the Belgian Cammaerts which appeared this summer with the 
haunting refrain 

"Et Verdun tient toujours." 

MAURICE HUTTON. 



We have received reprints of four papers by Dr. Annie Homer, 
formerly Research Fellow in Medicine at this University, and 
now Assistant in the Serum Department of the Lister Institute, 
with the following titles: 

A Suggestion as to the Cause of the Lessened Production of Indol 
in Media containing Glucose. (Journal of Hygiene XV, p. 401. 
October 1916.) 

A Note on the Effect of Iron Salts on the Metabolism of Trypto- 
phane in the Dog. Proc. of Physiological Society, March 25, 1916 
(Journal of Physiology, L.) 

A Note on the Action of Tissue Enzymes on Tryptophane. Ibid. 

An Improved Method for the Concentration of Antitoxic Sera 
(Journal of Hygiene, XV, p. 388, October 1916.) 

The first three describe the results of researches conducted 
chiefly in the Laboratories of the University of Toronto. The 
last named is issued from the Lister Institute, and describes a 
modification and improvenmet of the process ordinarily adopted 
in the preparation of antitoxic sera. The papers are all highly 
technical in character and in consequence are hardly suitable for 
extended notice in the UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 

A. H. 
Also received : 

The Commonwealth of Nations, Part I, by LIONEL CURTIS. 
MacMillan's. 

Reprint of Evidence given before the Royal Commission, under 
Viscount Bryce, on German outrages in Belgium. 

Reports of the Dominion Conservation Commission 

Nelson's History of the War: JOHN BUCHAN; vols. XI, XII, XIII. 



TORONTONENSIA 



The following address was presented to 
Goveraor-Veneral H - E - Th ^ Governor-General on his first visit 

to Toronto, November 28th. 

"May it please your Excellency: 

"The Senate of the University of Toronto desires to take the 
opportunity of the first visit of your Excellency to this city to ex- 
press to you as the representative of his Gracious Majesty, our loyal 
devotion to the Crown and to convey our respectful welcome to 
you personally. This University is not only the largest in the 
Dominion of Canada, but one of the largest in the Empire, and we 
hope that in the near future it will be convenient to you to spare 
some time to visit our buildings and acquire some familiarity with 
the range and quality of the work which we are endeavouring to 
perform. That you will be able to do this with unusual insight we 
are confident, because we are aware how conspicuously you have 
served the University of Leeds as Chancellor, and with what care, 
broad understanding and wisdom you have laboured for that 
great seat of learning and science. 

"You will learn with gratification that this University has 
sought to play her part in the prosecution of this war; that of her 
graduates and undergraduates thirty-one hundred, and of her 
staffs of the past two years nearly one hundred, are on active 
service ; that different scientific departments have contributed their 
expert knowledge for war purposes ; and that the whole University 
has made the effort to interpret as fully as possible to those within 
its influence the causes of the present conflict, and to stimulate in 
our people the unalterable resolve to prosecute it until our civilisa- 
tion is freed from its present menace. 

"The Senate of the University desires at the same time to 
express to her Excellency its happiness that she has returned to 
Canada to share with your Excellency the duties of the high posi- 
tion which was filled with such distinction by her father and 
mother, the Marquis and Marchioness of Lansdowne, and cherishes 
the hope that her Excellency will also visit the University along 
with your Excellency in the near future." 

]1HJ 



112 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

A WELL-BELOVED LADY 

Ritfrtmen r t S " None know her but to love her ' 

None name her but to praise." 

College Version. 

The past two years, unparallelled in the history of our Univer- 
sity in consequence of the world-wide war, witnessed many changes 
some transitory, others alas! permanent among the officials, 
students, and professors. However, there is much satisfaction in 
the incontrovertible fact that each of those changes revealed the 
radiant truth that the daughters and sons of the University, pro- 
portionate to their natural and acquired ability, whether they 
were at home or overseas, were doing the duties that lay nearest 
as strenuously as health permitted; cheerfully, for Alma Mater 
inspired; honestly, for conscience directed; patriotically, for King 
and Country called; faithfully and loyally, for they believed that 
right is might. Moreover, to-day is as yesterday in that regard, 
and to-morrow will be as to-day. 

The special change that the writer has in mind is that caused 
by the regrettable resignation of Miss Salter. Among the women 
students of University College, to aid them and to direct them 
and to inspirit them as best she could both academically and 
patriotically, was their greatly beloved Lady Superintendent; the 
same gracious lady as for the past-thirty-two years guided women 
students so successfully, so triumphantly, that she has a sincere 
admirer and staunch friend in every woman that registered in 
University College. Miss Salter's work for the past two years of 
exacting stewardship, nobly accentuated a dogma that she incul- 
cated whenever possible never to sacrifice principles to expedi- 
ency. Under her administration, right w r as alw~ays might. The 
apoppthegm is aptly illustrated by the scholastic and patriotic work 
of her women students, graduates and undergraduates, since the 
outbreak of the war. 

Born in Sandwich, Ontario, and educated in the Ursuline 
College, Chatham, Ontario, Miss Salter readily understood the 
aspirations of the young women studying for degrees in Arts, 
and rendered most generously and tactfully whatever assistance 
she could. How often her patient presence imparted confidence 
to women attending sports, social gatherings, meetings, and 
lectures! How often her gentle hand warmed the fingers benumbed 
by battling pens, cooled the brow heated by stern encounters with 
knotty problems, banished the ugly wrinkles of despair that origin- 



TORONTONENSIA 113 

ated in the hieroglyphics of dead languages, wiped away tears of 
distress engendered by baffling philosophy or intricate philology, 
and imparted sympathy and encouragement in its mother-like 
clasp! How often her wise counsel, her sterling advice, her timely 
utterance, her judicious censure, her soulful warning, checked the 
incipient rashness of the freshette, the embryonic pseudo-sapience 
of the sophomore, the initial imprudence of the junior, the inchoate 
temerity of the senior, and even the inceptive precipitancy of the 
young graduate ! How often her winsome unobtrusiveness quelled 
self-aggrandisement and awakened modesty! How often her 
benignity and gentleness annihilated malignity and severity, and 
created amiability and charity! 

The women graduates that assembled in Queen's Hall, Thursday 
evening, November 23rd, to bid Miss Salter a formal farewell and 
to present to her a very substantial gift, felt a trenchant grief in 
the realisation of her resignation and a keen joy in her prospect of 
spending the winter in sunny California, where the salubrious 
climate will restore her health, which is somewhat impaired by 
years of continuous labour in the cause of the higher education 
of women. 

May many years of usefulness and happiness remain to Miss 
Salter ! And may the women graduates of University College have 
many occasions of greeting her as of yore at their gatherings! 

GERTRUDE LAWLER. 



FACULTY OF ARTS. 

Appointments, Physics Temporary Lecturer, H. F. Dawes. 

tc * Assistant Demonstrators, H. A. Braendle, H. 

J. C Ireton, R. J. Lang, A. C. Wilson, J. F. T. Young. 

Astro-Physics Class Assistants, G. A. Preston, H. R. Rowan. 

Biology Demonstrator, E. H. Craigie. 

Assistant in Systematic Biology, Miss B. K. Mossop. 

Class Assistants, R. G. Birrell, Miss D. Fraser, W. E. Henry, 
M. D. McKichan, W. W. Moffat, L. O. C. Skeeles, N. O. Thomas, 
H. G. Willson, D. B. Wilson. 

Botany Demonstrator, N. C. Hart (superseding previous 
appointment as Fellow). 

Physiology Fellow, W. E. Blatz. 

Assistant, Mrs. Margaret McFarlane. 

French Temporary Lecturer, Leon Feraru. 



114 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

Anatomy Assistants, Drs. C. J. Copp, N. D. Frawley, R. E. 
Gabyf, T. R. Hanley, R. Homef, R. E. Hooper, J. E. L. Keyes, 
J. H. McPhedranf, Geraldine Oakley, C. B. Parker, G. R. Philpj, 
J. X. Robert, F. R. Scott, Wallace A. Scottf, William A. Scott, 
J. S. Simpson, G. E. Wilsonf. 

Medicine Demonstrators in Clinical Medicine, Drs. A. G. 
Brown, E. C. Burson, F. A. Clarkson, R. W. Mann, A. J. Mac- 
kenzief, J. H. McPhedranf, W. F. McPhedran, C. S. McVicarf, 
B. O'Reilly, G. W. Ross, D. King Smithf, G. S. Strathyf, C. J. 
Wagner, G. S. Young. 

Assistants in Clinical Medicine, Drs. R. G. Armour, | G. Bates, 
G. F. Boyerf, B. Hannah, J. D. Loudon, F. S. Minns, J. A. Oille, 
T. J. Page, F. S. Park, E. J. Trow, M. B. Whyte. 

Lecturer in Tuberculosis Clinic, Dr. C. D. Parfitt. 

Surgery Demonstrators in Clinical Surgery, Drs. M. H. V. 
Cameron, R. E. Gabyf, W. E. Gallic, J A. Roberts!, N. S. Shen- 
stonef, G. E. Wilsonj, A. B. Wright. 

Assistants in Clinical Surgery, Drs. H. W. Baker, F. A. Cleland, 
R. R. Graham, C. H. Hair, O. R. Mabee, J. A. McCollum, P. K. 
Menziesf, B. Z. Milner, A. S. Moorhead, Robin Pearsej, A. H. 
Perfect, D. E. Robertsonj, L. B. Robertsonf. 

Obstetrics and Gynaecology Demonstrators, Drs. M. M. Craw- 
fordf, W. J. Mabee, S. J. N. Magwoodf (Obstetrics); A. C. Hen- 
drick (Gynaecology). 

Assistants, Drs. N. D. Frawley, Wm. A. Scott, J. G. Gallic 
(Obstetrics)f, H. E. Clutterbuck (Gynaecology) f, R- W. Wesley 
(Gynaecology). 

Ophthalmology Assistants, Drs. Colin Campbell, Mortimer 
Lyon, W. W. Wright. 

Oto-Laryngology Demonstrators, Drs. Perry Goldsmithf, Gil- 
bert Roycef. 

Psychiatry Special Lecturer in Psychology, Dr. C. M. Hincks. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE. 

Applied Chemistry To give lectures in Sanitary Chemistry, H. 
M. Lancaster. 

Electro-Chemistry Demonstrator, H. V. Ellsworth. 
Architecture Instructor in Architectural Design, John M. Lyle. 
Drawing Demonstrators, O. Margison, F. E. Watson. 

fOn Active Service. 



TORONTONENSIA 1 15 

Engineering Physics and Photography Demonstrator, G. L. 
Wallace. 

Lectures in Accountancy, W. S. Ferguson, A. R. Clute (Limited 
Companies) . 

The following changes should be noted with regard to those 
previously notified: 

E. A. Dale has been granted leave of absence for 1916-17. 

Miss M. C. Marsh's appointment has been cancelled. 

R. C. Dearie's appointment as Assistant Demonstrator in 
Physics has been superseded by an appointment as a Research 
Fellow. 

The following have not taken up their appointments: 

Miss A. W. Foster, Department of Physics. 

W. B. Buchan, Ross Taylor, Department of Electrical Engi- 
neering. 

H. J. Brownlee, Department of Electro-Chemistry. 

c . One of the effects of the expansion of graduate 

Senate Notes . . %? 

work has been to increase interest in fellow- 
ships. Originally the Mackenzie Fellowships, of the value of $375, 
were open to graduates who had met certain conditions in the 
Fourth Year undergraduate work. Last spring, the Senate, on 
the report of a special committee, amended the statute, providing 
for two graduate Fellowships of the value of $500 each. The first 
award was made to Miss McKenna, but when she accepted an 
appointment in the Dominion service she surrendered the Fellowship. 

In June the terms of the American Alumni Fellowship were 
accepted by the Governors and the Senate. The wishes of the 
Alumni were followed, and the first award w,as made to Mr. A. 
L. McKay, of the Department of Physiology and Biochemistry. 

Through the generosity of three members of the Board of 
Governors, Sir Edmund Osier, Col. Leonard and Mr. Flavelle, four 
graduate Fellowships were established. Three of these have been 
awarded one in the Department of Botany, to Miss Mary Currie, 
B.A. (McGill), one in the Department of Physics to Mr. R. C. 
Dearie, M.A. (Toronto), and one in the Department of German to 
Mr. Paul G. Hiebert, B.A. (Manitoba). 

Then at the first meeting of the Senate in October they learned 
of the establishment of a Scholarship in the First Year by Mrs. 
Balmer, in memory of her daughters. This is to be open in the 
Department of Science to students of University College. 



116 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The most important change within the Faculties was the pro- 
posal to make the course in Medicine one extending over six years. 
The matter came up in April, was debated at several of the meet- 
ings, but was not passed until the meeting in October. After the 
first of July, 1918, every student entering the course in Medicine 
must spend at least six Sessions of eight months each. 

At the June Meeting the Regulations of the Board of Graduate 
Studies were approved and appeared in pamphlet form during the 
summer. 

In June, after more than two years work, the revised regulations 
respecting Specialist Certificates were approved by the Council of 
the Faculty of Arts and by the Senate informally the Depart- 
ment of Education also approved of them. The new regulations 
are much more simple than those to which both bodies agreed in 
1910. There is more uniformity of treatment than at any previous 
time. By the establishment of a minimum requirement in the 
various Sciences it is now possible for a student in any of the 
Honour Science Courses to become a Specialist by meeting the 
minimum requirement. A new feature of the agreement is the 
provision for Inspectors' Certificates and High School Assistants' 
Certificates, for both of which a definite course is outlined. Under 
the new regulations it will not be possible for every graduate in 
the General Course to teach in a High School. Such teachers 
must follow lines of work which are likely to be of service to them 
in teaching and must obtain Proficiency standing in each of the 
four years of the Course. 

At the October Meeting Mr. William Houston, was appointed 
in the place of the late John King, Esq., M.A. 

At the November Meeting a Special Committee was appointed 
to consider and report upon the possibility of introducing the study 
of Russian into the University Curriculum, and in view of the 
present conflict and the results which are likely to flow from it, a 
Committee was appointed to inquire into the means of relating 
the University more closely to the needs of the Province. 



TORONTONENSIA 117 

The University The following letter written by Professor 

No. 4 General C. K. Clarke, Dean of the Faculty of Medi- 

cine, has recently appeared in the public press. 

"The public have recently been given the impression that it 
was a mistake to send No. 4 Canadian General Hospital (Uni- 
versity of Toronto) to Salonika. The composition of the staff has 
been criticised, statement being made that it was a pity to have had 
so many brilliant men, who might be classed as specialists, on the 
unit. 

Anyone who knows what the hospital has done and realises 
how much it has contributed to a proper development of the 
Imperial spirit, regrets that such statements should go abroad. 

The hospital was organised to serve as a University unit, and 
if it had been broken up we should have regarded the departure 
from the original plan and promise as a calamity. The work it 
was supposed to do could not have been accomplished without the 
services of the splendidly qualified men who are attached to the unit. 

It must be remembered that this hospital was equipped by the 
friends of the University in a way that made it possible to do 
scientific work in a thorough manner. How well it has succeeded 
will soon become a matter of history, is, in fact, already well known 
to the Imperial authorities. Canada has never had a better adver- 
tisement than No. 4 General Hospital, and the compliments 
showered on it by the military authorities in Greece and elsewhere, 
we are certain, have been well deserved. A few facts about its 
work may be of interest. About twenty thousand patients have 
been treated in its wards in Salonika. The medical and nursing 
staffs, although often overworked, have risen to every emergency 
and have done magnificently. Owing to the fact that the equip- 
ments of other military hospitals in Greece, both in men and 
apparatus, were not comparable to that of No. 4, Canadian General, 
it naturally became the scientific centre for all of these hospitals, 
and received no end of praise for its brilliant showing. 

A young Scottish medical officer writing to me has said: "The 
hospital has played a part in that great aggregation of British, 
French, Serbian and Russian people of which Canada may well 
be proud. I do not think Canada could possibly have had a finer 
advertisement, or could have adopted a better policy in order to 
inform the world of the high position she occupies in medical and 
allied sciences." 



118 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The point to be made, though, is this: That no one associated 
with the organisation or development of the unit has regretted 
the fact that it has been used chiefly for the treatment of others 
than Canadians. If there is such a thing as the Imperial spirit, 
surely we should rejoice at the ability of the University of Toronto 
Hospital to play its part in the Imperial game." 

The readers of THE MONTHLY offer their con- 
gratulations and best wishes to one of the 
University's graduates who while yet com- 
paratively young has reached the high position of Prime Minister 
in his Province. William Melville Martin, B.A. (U.C.) 1898, has 
succeeded the Hon. Walter Scott as Premier of the Province of 
Saskatchewan. After graduating from the University in Classics, 
W. M. Martin taught for two years in the High School at Harriston. 
He then spent two years at Osgoode Hall, leaving to take his final 
work at Regina, where he was called to the Bar in 1904. In 1908 
he was elected to the House of Commons as a Liberal, to represent 
the constituency of Regina. He was re-elected at the general 
elections in 1911. When the Provincial Premiership became vacant 
through the retirement of Hon. Mr. Scott, he was asked to lead 
the Government. On his acceptance he was elected to the Legis- 
lature without opposition. F. M. 

Industrial Research. ^ n address on this subject was delivered to 
Lecture by the Members of the Royal Canadian Institute 

Prof. McLennan Qn November 4th> 1916 The key note of the 

lecture was the Conservation of our national Resources and the 
scientific development of our national Industries. The three chief 
sources of wealth are our agricultural lands, our cheap electrical 
power and our minerals. Of these the agricultural industry is by 
far pur greatest national asset, yet if the lands were more intensely 
fertilised they might be made to produce as much again. We 
have the electrical power at Niagara to produce the nitrates and 
there are enormous deposits of calcium, potassium and phosphate 
bearing minerals that could be worked to supply all the fertilisers 
needed. 

At the outbreak of the war it was found that many absolutely 
necessary metals were controlled entirely by the enemy and this 
compelled the Government to develop those that were found 
within the Empire. This led among other things to the establish- 



TORONTONENSIA 119 

ment of the molybdenum industry in Canada. As an outcome of 
the difficulties there is likely to be established a Department of 
Mines and Metals for the whole Empire. 

It has been stated that the history of the war in Great Britain 
has been a history of grave and threatening difficulties courageously 
faced and successfully overcome. Some of the means by which 
this has been accomplished are the Industrial and Scientific Research 
Commission, the formation of Trade Associations for common 
action, and the utilisation of the scientific men in Industrial Re- 
search. In the United States the great organisations have research 
laboratories, manned by the ablest scientific men obtainable, 
connected with their work and hundreds of thousands of dollars are 
spent annually on them. 

These examples serve to indicate what is being done in Great 
Britain and the United States to increase their production, and the 
problem before Canada is how to bring an organisation into being 
that will stimulate and foster research as a basis for our manu- 
factures and industries with the greatest possible efficiency and 
the least possible friction. The view is held in some quarters of 
Canada that the direction of research work, both industrial and 
purely scientific, should be placed under the control of the Univer- 
sities and that it should be fostered by grants of money from the 
Dominion Government. The functions of a university are, how- 
ever, primarily educational, and education is under the control 
of the Provinces. Then the educational aspect of university work 
imposes definite limits both as to the time for and character of 
researches. The problems are generally of fundamental or aca- 
demic interest. Problems of a secret nature which many manu- 
facturers would want to have solved cannot be conveniently carried 
out in university laboratories; in the first place it is difficult to 
maintain secrecy and in the second place it is likely to produce lack 
of harmony in the staff; also it is doubtful if public funds should 
be used either directly or indirectly for work of this character. 
Universities could, however, under Government subsidy conduct 
researches which are of a public character and for the public good. 
If, however, a serious attempt is made to meet the needs of our 
country in an adequate manner, it will be found that university 
organisation possesses limitations in the way of space require- 
ments, continuity of effort, and administrative machinery which 
effectively preclude them from assuming the direction of anything 
more than a minor part of the industrial work of the country. 



120 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

What is wanted is an Industrial Commission that will co- 
ordinate all the existing agencies and extend and direct their 
efforts. In the second place the facilities afforded by the universities 
should be supplemented by the establishment of a few research 
bureaus at industrial centres. These bureaus could undertake 
researches of a secret nature, establish information departments, 
and technical libraries. This is a field that is not pre-empted by 
any existing interest. The Bureau of Industrial Research which 
the Royal Canadian Institute is endeavouring to establish, would 
perform these functions. 

Any person interested in the subject can obtain a copy of the 
address by writing to the Secretary, Royal Canadian Institute, 
198 College Street. J. P. 



COLLEGE AND FACULTY NOTES 

Faculty of The announcement of the retirement of Dean 

Medicine Clarke from the Superintendency of the 

Toronto General Hospital is a matter of regret to all who have the 
welfare of the Hospital at heart. Dr. Clarke's abundant energy, 
his long experience in administrative work, and his genial person- 
ality have all made for that efficiency which has characterised his 
superintendency, and while his counsels will be greatly missed by 
the Hospital Executive, it is a matter of congratulation that the 
University will still retain his services as Professor of Psychiatry 
and Dean of the Medical Faculty. 

The graduation of the members of the Fifth Year in Medicine 
which takes place during the present month, has necessitated the 
holding of a new election of officers for the Medical Society, with 
the result that the Executive of the Society for the current year 
will be: President, J. W. Reddick; Vice-President, D. M. Low; 
Secretary, J. H. Howell; Treasurer, W. E. Johnston; Curator, W. E. 
Stoddart ; together with the presidents of the various years. 

The first open meeting of the Medical Society was addressed 
by Dr. Primrose, who gave a most interesting illustrated talk upon 
the conditions in the Balkans and especially upon the work of the 
University Base Hospital. The second open meeting, held in 
November, was addressed by Dr. Bingham who took as his subject 
"Medical Ethics". 



TORONTONENSIA 121 

The Annual Medical At-Home was held in Columbus Hall on 
the evening of November 19th, and was a success in every respect. 

J. P. M. 

Faculty of During the past three sessions the registra- 

Education t j on o f fa e Faculty of Education has been in 

the neighbourhood of 300. This year there is a slight decrease in 
attendance, the final figure being 292. Of these, the large majority 
are women. The proportion of women has steadily increased since 
the beginning of the war from 2.1 to 4.1. These figures are ex- 
clusive of 26 students registered as extra-mural candidates, and 
of 47 registered in the D.Paed. of B.Paed. courses. 

In the courses for D.Paed. and B.Paed. held during the Summer 
Session, 21 students were registered. The majority of these will 
write on one or more of the examinations held on the successive 
Saturdays of December. 

The Faculty of Education has recently been the recipient of 
64 pictures presented by the Imperial Order of the Daughters of 
the Empire. The pictures, which now adorn the walls of the build- 
ing, represent striking scenes from English history, and portraits 
of historical personages. The formal presentation will take place 
on the afternoon of the Annual Reception to parents of the boys 
attending the University Schools, which will be held during the 
second week of December. P. S. 

Victoria College The Colle e has recentl Y received a gift from 
one of its graduates, Dr. H. F. Biggar of 

Cleveland, B.A. (V.) 1863, who has set aside the sum of $5,000, the 
interest of which is to be used annually for a scholarship in accord- 
ance with conditions to be determined by the authorities of the 
College. Dr. Biggar is one of the older graduates of the College 
and has never lost interest in his Alma Mater as his generous gift 
shows. 

Mr. H. E. Ford, recently appointed to the Professorship of 
French in Victoria College, comes from Washington and Jefferson, 
a college in South-western Pennsylvania, founded over one hundred 
years ago under Presbyterian auspices and honourably associated 
with the Civil War and with the early history of education in the 
near West, being the oldest college in the United States west of 
the Alleghenies, and a sort of parent to many other colleges in 
adjoining States. Professor Ford studied French under the late 



122 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Professor Fetch and Italian and Spanish under Professor Eraser, 
graduating in 1895 ; later, he pursued graduate courses in Romance 
Philology under the direction of the late Professor Marshall Elliott 
at Johns Hopkins University. 

St. Hilda's The semi-annual meeting of St. Hilda's 

College College Alumnae Association took place at 

the College on Saturday, November 18th, at 3 p.m., the President, 
Miss Waugh, being in the chair. The large number of graduates 
present showed that "war time" had not destroyed the interest 
of St. Hildians in their Alma Mater. A report of recent work at 
Evangelia Settlement was given by Miss Walker, '05, and of the 
St. Hilda's Bureau of Occupations by Miss McClung, '04. A 
hearty vote of thanks was passed to Miss McClung to whose 
ability and untiring efforts the success of the Bureau is due. In 
view of the fact that the work of the St. Hilda's Bureau will be 
included within the scope of the recently established Provincial 
Employment Bureau, it was thought wiser to discontinue the 
former and co-operate as much as possible with the new Bureau, 
to the staff of which we are pleased to note an old St. Hildian, 
Miss Winifred Harvey, '11, has been appointed. An interesting 
address was given by Miss Margaret Lowe, '11, on her work in 
connection with the Juvenile Court, Miss Lowe having recently 
been appointed Probation Officer. At the conclusion of the busi- 
ness tea was served, followed by the toasts which are always a 
feature of the Convocation festivity. 

Miss Cartwright is lecturing in English at Trinity College and 
Miss Waddington, '11, in Classics during the absence of Mr. 
Thomas arid Mr. Mozley on active service. 

Miss Laila Scott, '05, has been appointed Lecturer in German 
in Trinity College. 

We regret to note the death on October llth of Mrs. Powell 
(Bessie King, '05), the wife of the Reverend F. E. Powell, Rector 
of St. Barnabas Church, Danforth Avenue, also of Lieut. Eyre 
Dann, of wounds in France, the husband of Kathleen Thompson, 
'09, of Penetanguishene. 

C. L. 



TORONTONENSIA 123 

Under the auspices of the Newman Club 
Laurier 's Address t ^ ie Catholic University Undergraduates' 

Society Sir Wilfrid Laurier spoke in Con- 
vocation Hall on the night of November 1st. The meeting was 
presided over by the Hon. Justice Latchford, President of the 
Newman Society. Upon the stage were Archbishop McNeil, 
President Falconer and other prominent citizens of Toronto. 
The subject Sir Wilfrid chose to speak upon, was a murder trial 
held in the town of York, now the City of Toronto, in October 1818. 
It originated in a battle between the Hudson's Bay Co. and the 
North West Co. for the supremacy in Canada's great new North- 
land. The prosecutor was the Earl of Selkirk, a dreamer who first 
conceived the great possibilities of the Western prairies. Opposed 
to him was Sir Alex. MacKenzie, the explorer, after whom the 
MacKenzie River is named. Behind Selkirk was the Hudson's 
Bay Co.; behind MacKenzie was the North West Trading Co. 
The quarrel was a bitter one. Eventually Fort Douglas was 
destroyed. A band of bushmen and Indians of the North West 
Co. at Fort Qu'Appelle encountered Governor Simcoe and 20 men 
near Fort Douglas and in the fight that ensued, the North West 
Company's men were victorious. Several of the representatives 
of the North West Co. were brought to Toronto for trial on a charge 
of murder. The trial was a bitter one but resulted in an acquittal. 
Lord Selkirk returned to England heartbroken and shortly after- 
wards died. Eight months after his death, the two Companies 
were amalgamated under the name of the Hudson's Bay Co. 
This is the story in brief related in a vivid way by Sir Wilfrid 
Laurier. The consensus of opinion of the great audience was that 
he was seldom in better form. He left an impression as a lecturer 
on historical subjects that will remain for many years. 

J. E. BURKE. 

On October 23rd, Dr. Mitchell Carroll 
Carroll Secretary of the American Archaeological 

Association gave a lecture to members of the 

Toronto branch, and of the Classical Association of University 
College and other societies, on Pre-Homeric Art. Partly by his own 
concise descriptions, partly by the use of numerous slides, illus- 
trating ancient works of art from those found in the caves of 
Altamira to the Cretan and "Mycenean" discoveries, Dr. Carroll 
was able to give his hearers a large amount of interesting informa- 



124 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

tion in a single hour. Principal Hutton, in introducing the lecturer, 
and Professor De Witt of Victoria College, in moving a vote of 
thanks, referred to the valuable work done by many American 
archaeologists and to the fine Museum equipment now available 
in numerous centres in the United States. Dr. Carroll in his reply 
paid a tribute to the valuable collections in the Royal Ontario 
Museum and promised a chapter on "Toronto as an Art Centre" 
in a forthcoming number of "Art and Archaeology" which is 
published monthly by the Association. 

O R *tal During the past term the recitals have been 

given by Mr. F. A. Moure. The programme 
for the Spring Term is as follows : 
January 16th Mr. G. H. Knight, Toronto. 

" 23rd Professor F. B. Stiven, Oberlin, Ohio. 

" 30th Mr. T. J. Palmer, Toronto. 
February 6th Mr. Arthur H. Egg, Montreal. 

" 13th Mr. Healey Willan, Toronto. 

" 20th Mr. R. Tattersall, Toronto. 

" 27th Mr. W. H. Hewlett, Hamilton. 
March 6th Mr. G. E. Holt, Toronto. 

11 13th To be announced. 

11 20th Mr. F. A. Moure, University of Toronto. 

The amounts contributed in the October 
rOSS collection by the members of the University 

are: 

Staff $3,862.65 

Students. . 1,919.95 



TORONTONENSIA 



125 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
" The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



Among those who have recently re- 
turned from the front are*: 

Major D. King Smith, M.B. '96, 
Staff, from the Hospital at Salonica. 

Lieut. H. H. Ellis, B.A. (U.) '11, 
who was severely wounded in the hands 
last June. 

L.-Cpl. A. C. S. Trivett, B.A. (U.) 
'12, Wycliffe, who after several months 
of service in Flanders was wounded 
when taking a course qualifying for a 
commission. He has now been or- 
dained and hopes to return shortly to 
the front as a chaplain. 

Captain H. B. Jeffs (Military Cross), 
C.A.M.C., M.B. '14, who went with 
the First Contingent in No. 2 Field 
Ambulance, and having been recently 
wounded has returned home on leave. 

Lieut. S. Y. Walsh, R.A.M.C., M.B. 
'15, who has been home on sick leave 
after several months' service, first at 
the Dardanelles and later with the 
forces in Mesopotamia. 

Captain F. H. Marani, Sc. '16, who 
left in 1914 as a sergeant in the 3rd 
Battalion, and was promoted at the 
front. He was wounded last June. 

Lieut. R. B. Sinclair, C.F.A., B.A.Sc. 
'15, wounded and home on leave. 

Lieut. W. B. Redman, C.E., B.A.Sc. 
'15, who was wounded while serving 
with the 5th Field Company, Canadian 
Engineers. 



Lieut. W. H. B. Bevan, C.E., Sc. '05, 
who went as a corporal in the 2nd 
Field Company, C.E., and subse- 
quently obtained a commission. He was 
wounded early in the year, and has 
won the Distinguished Conduct Medal. 

Lieut. G. W. Rutter, C.M.R., 
B.A.Sc. '15, who was wounded last 
June. 

Lieut. R. W. Harris, Sc. '15, who 
went with the First Contingent, and 
subsequently obtained a commission 
in the Royal Engineers. He was 
wounded some time ago and since his 
return has been acting as instructor in 
trench warfare. 

Sergt.-Major C. B. Ferris, C.E., Sc. 
'13, who went with the First Con- 
tingent in the 2nd Field Company, 
C.E. He was in the second battle of 
Ypres and by his gallantry on that 
occasion won both the Distinguished 
Conduct Medal, and the French Croix 
de Guerre. He was wounded early in 
the present year. 

Sergt. F. S. Rutherford, C.E., 
B.A.Sc. '14, who went as a sapper with 
the 2nd Field Company, C.E., in the 
First Contingent and was subsequently 
promoted. Since his return he has 
been acting as instructor in trench 
warfare. 

Pte. J. A. Simmers, P.P.C.L.I., Sc. 
'18, who went in the Second Universi- 
ties Company and was in the Machine 
Gun Section of the battalion. After 
a short time in Flanders last year, he 
was invalided with severe fever which 
has rendered him unfit for further 
service. He has now resumed his 
course in the Faculty of Applied 
Science. 

Sapper A. G. Code, C.E., B.A.Sc. '10, 
who went with the First Contingent, 
and after being severely wounded has 
been discharged. 

Lieut. C. E. Gage, C.F.A., Sc. '16, 
who left in the ranks of the 4th Divi- 
sional Ammunition Column and was 



120 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



subsequently promoted; home on 
special leave. 

Captain P. Goforth, B.A. (U.) '14, 
who went with the First Contingent 
and for several months was adjutant 
of one of the Base Depots in France, 
and is home on leave owing to ill 
health. 

Cpl. N. A. Burwash, C.E., Viet., son 
of Dr. Burwash of Victoria College, 
who was recently wounded. 

Lieut. H. V. Hearst, B.A. (U.) '13, 
son of the Premier, who was wounded 
in a recent engagement. 

Sapper N. Reynolds, Viet. '17, of the 
Divisional Signal Company whose eyes 
were seriously injured by an accident 
in England. 

Lieut. J. P. Magwood, R.F.A., Viet. 
'17, who left in the ranks of the Eaton 
Machine Gun Battery and obtained a 
commission in the Royal Field Artil- 
lery. He was wounded in the summer. 



The Editor will be grateful for news 
regarding all members of the Uni- 
versity who have returned from active 
service, either temporarily on leave, or 
permanently as discharged. 

For the details concerning several 
of those here named the Editor is 
indebted to Varsity which gave an 
account of a reception recently given 
by the Engineering Society of the 
Faculty of Applied Science to its 
members who have returned from the 
front. 

Professor A. B. Macallum has been 
appointed to deliver the Herter lec- 
tures, five in number, for the year 
1916-17, January 8 to 12, in the 
University and Bellevue Hospital 
Medical College, New York. This 
lectureship, founded by the late Dr. 
Christian A. Herter who endowed a 
similar lectureship in the Johns Hop- 
kins University, has been held in the 
past by a number of Europeans, 



Germans, Swedes, French, and Eng- 
lish, and by two American physio- 
logists and biochemists. 

Professor A. H. Abbott has been 
appointed Director for Ontario of the 
Department of Labour under the I m- 
perial Munitions Board. 

Miss B. J. McKenna, B.A. (U.) '10, 
has been appointed supervisor of 
women workers under the Department 
of Labour. 

Miss Ethel C. Weaver, B.A. (U.) 
'00, and Miss Winifred Harvey, B.A. 
(T.) '11, M.A. '12, have been appointed 
as directors of the Women's Appoint- 
ment Bureau under the Provincial 
Trades and Labour Departments. 

R. S. Tyrell, M.D. '76, who has been 
absent for some months has now re- 
turned to his home at 1 Rusholme 
Road, Toronto. 

Dr. Robert Edwin Clapp, M.B. 79, 
M.D. '83, Ex M.P.P., has been ap- 
pointed Registrar of the Surrogate and 
County Courts of Bruce. The office 
is at Walkerton. 

J. B. Tyrrell, B.A. (U.) '80, B.Sc. 
(V.) '89, who was. last winter in Eng- 
land, spent most of the summer in the 
mining districts of British Columbia. 

J. W Tyrrell, C E. '89, spent part of 
the summer in Muskoka with his 
family, including his wounded son. 
After a trip to the provinces of Alberta 
and Saskatchewan he is now at his home 
on Fairholt Road, Hamilton, Ontario. 

The degree (honoris causa) of Doctor 
of Divinity was conferred on the 
Reverend E. A. Henry, B.A. (U.) '93, 
Knox '95, by Westminster Hall, Van- 
couver, B.C., at Convocation Sep- 
tember 29, 1916. 

William L. Lawson, B. A.Sc. '93, who 
for some years has been manager of the 
Great Western Sugar Company's Mon- 
tana Branch, has been made Assistant 
General Manager of the Great Western 
Sugar Company, with special juris- 
diction over the Montana District. 



TORONTONENSIA 



127 



H. G. Tyrrell, C.E. '94, author of the 
" History of Bridge Building ", et cetera, 
is now living in Detroit, Michigan. 

Mies Agnes R. Riddell, B.A. (U.) '96 
M.A. (U.) '97, has been taking a 
graduate course at the University of 
Chicago, where in 1914-15 she was 
President of the Graduate Women's 
Club, and in June 1916 she received 
the degree of Ph.D. in the Department 
of Romance Languages. Since Sep- 
tember 1915 she has been Dean of 
Women and Professor of Romance 
Languages in the College of Emporia, 
Kansas, the Presbyterian College of the 
State of Kansas. 

Miss Caroline Goad, B.A. (T.) '99, 
M.A. '04, has received the degree of 
Ph.D. from Yale University and is now 
lecturing in English at Wells College, 
Aurora, N.Y. 

Miss Gertrude Morley, B.A. (T.) '05, 
M.A. '07, has retired from the prin- 
cipalship of St. Clement's School and 
is now in the head office of the Do- 
minion Bank. 

Miss Marguerite Burnett, B.A. (T.) 
'11, has been placed in charge of a new 
branch of library work in Portland , 
Oregon. 

Miss Margaret Lowe, B.A. (T.) '11, 
has been appointed Probation Officer 
in the Juvenile Court, Toronto. 

Miss Hildegarde Grenside, B.A. 
(T.) '14, is in the Carnegie Library, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

Marriages 

BEATON Ross In October 1916, at 
WRitby, Lieut. Blake Byron Beaton, 
Army Dental Corps, D.D.S. '15, of 
Whitevale, to Miss Amy Winifred 
Ross. 

BEVAN CREIGHTON On October 7, 
1916, at Chatham, Lieut. William 
Henry B. Bevan, 3rd Divisional 
Engineers, to Miss Gwendolen Annie 
Creighton. 



BULLEN WINCHESTER On October 
5, 1916, at Toronto, Joseph Max 
Bullen, B.A. (U.) '13, to Miss 
Gracea Aldis Winchester. 

BURGESS HUNTER In October 1916, 
at Toronto, Kenneth Edward Bur- 
gess, B.A. (U.) '13, M.A. (U.) '14, of 
Houghton, Michigan, to Miss Ethel 
Letitia Hunter. 

CLARK ROBINSON On October 21, 
1916, at Toronto, Hial Jackson Clark, 
B.A.Sc. '12, of Wellington, to Miss 
Elizabeth Florence Robinson of 
Toronto. 

CLARKE DUNNETT In July 1916, E. 
H. Clarke to Miss Carrie Beatrice 
Dunnett, B.A. (V.) '09, M.A. (V.) 
'10, of Toronto. 

CLEEVES STOREY On Septe mber 26, 
1916, at St. Mary's Priory, Fulham 
Road, London, England, Alfred 
Christain Cleeves, B.S.A. '14, of 
Guelph, to Miss Janet Clave Storey 
of Guelph. 

COCKBURN WILLIAMS On Novem- 
ber 11, 1916, at Toronto, Leslie Star- 
rock Cockburn, B.A.Sc. '11, of 
Wyandotte, Michigan, to Miss Lil- 
lian Williams of Acton. 

COYNE TAJT On November 10, 
1916, at St. Catharines, Arthur 
James Coyne, Phm.B. '09, of 
Niagara-on-the-Lake, to Miss Mary 
Alena Tait. 

GILCHRIST GORDON On November 
1, 1916, at Tottenham, James Gil- 
christ, B.A. (U.) '08, LL.B. '16, of 
Toronto, to Miss Jean Gordon, 
B.A. (U.) '13, of Tottenham. 

GILLIES McQuEEN On October 26, 
1916, at Toronto, Capt. John Z. 
Gillies, Toronto Artillery Brigade, 
B.A. (U.) '11, M.B. '13, to Miss 
Isabella Douglas McQueen of Tor- 
onto. 

GOULDING MASSEY On October 3, 
1916, at Toronto, Arthur M. Gould- 
ing, B.A. (U.) '10, of Toronto, to 
Miss Dorothy Massey of Toronto. 



128 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



GRAY SPENCER On July 29, 1916, 
Lieut. Arthur Graham Gray, 122nd 
Battalion, B.A.Sc. '13, of 8 Dale 
Avenue, Toronto, to Miss Florence 
Spencer. 

HALL Cox On November 15, 1916, 
at Toronto, William Henry Hall, 
B.A.Sc. '14, to Miss Lillian S. Cox of 
Toronto. Address, Oaklands Ave. 

HEWITT Dow On September 6, 

1915, at Kent, England, Capt. 
Samuel Ross Delap Hewitt, Cana- 
dian Army Medical Corps, M.B. '14, 
to Miss Mary Edna Dow, nursing 
sister in the C.A.M.C. 

HUNTER THOMSON On October 7, 

1916, at Hamilton, A. Franklin 
Hunter to Miss Bertha Richmond 
Thomson, B.A. (T.) '13, of Hamil- 
ton. 

JOHNSTON LOVEYS On November 8, 
1916, at Hickson, Capt. Eric Frank- 
lin Johnston, B.A. (V.) '13, B.D., of 
Toronto, to Miss Jessie Louise 
Loveys of Hickson. 

LOWE MACNEILL On November 15, 
1916, at Toronto, William Arthur 
Lowe, M.B. '16, of Haileybury, to 
Miss Ethel Augusta MacNeill. 

MCMILLAN AXTON On October 18, 
1916, Neil Lamont McMillan, 
Phm.B. '07, o Toronto, to Miss 
Elsie Elizabeth Axton. 

MORTON MEREDITH On October 28, 
1916, John Pettigrew Morton, 
F.R.C.S., M.B. '97, of Hamilton, to 
Miss Lillian Louisa Meredith. 

O' BRIAN ST. GEORGE On October 
10, 1916, at Doncaster, Yorkshire, 
England, Lieut. Geoffrey Stuart 
O'Brian, Royal Flying Corps, of 
Toronto, to Miss Katherine Van 
Rensselaer St. George of St. Louis, 
Mo. 

PARLOW RYAN On September 12, 
1916, in London, England, Capt. 
Allan Edward Parlow, llth Sher- 
wood Foresters, B.Sc.F. '13, to Miss 
Grace Lee Ryan of Victoria, B.C. 



ROBERTSON BICKNELL On June 21, 
1916, at Toronto, Arthur Howard, 
Robertson, B.A. (U.) 12, to Miss 
Kathleen Bicknell. 

ZIMMER WOODCROFT In June 1916, 
Albert Russell Zimmer, B.A.Sc. '07, 
Staff, of 32 Delaware Avenue, 
Toronto, to Miss O. M. Woodcroft 
of 60 St. Ann's Road, Toronto. 
Address, 80 Pine Crest Road, Tor- 
onto. 
Corrected Notice. 

MARTIN HAWKEY On August 16 
1916, at Russelldale, Walter Harold 
Martin, B.A.Sc. '10, Staff, of 649, 
Euclid Avenue, Toronto, to Miss 
Ella Louise Hawkey, B.A. (U.) '12, 
of St. Mary's. 



Deaths 

BEITH On November 10, 1916, at 

Bowmanville, Alexander Beith, M.B. 

'66. 
BRODIE On September 30, 1916, at 

Claremont, Ralph Brodie, M.D., 

C.M. (T.) '93. 

HENDERSON In October 1916, Cap- 
tain Dr. W. A. Henderson, 
M.D., C.M. (T.) '98, who had re- 
turned to his home in Sarnia after 
serving one year in R.A.M.C. in 
England. 

HENRY On October 30, 1916, James 
Henry, M.B. '63, of Orangeville. 

LAZIER On October 4, 1916, at 
Hamilton, Stephen Franklin Lazier, 
B.A. (V.) '60, M.A. (V.) '64. 

TRENCH On October 21, 1916, at 
Hillsdale, the Reverend William 
Lawson Trench, B.A. (V.) '07, B.D. 

BOYD On November 23, at Toronto, 
Sir John Alexander Boyd, K.C.M.G., 
Chancellor of Ontario; B.A. (U.C.), 
1860, M.A., LL.D., B.C.L. (T). 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, JANUARY, 1917. NO. 4 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 
Charles Edmund Keemle; St. Michael's College, 1911- 

1912 (in June 1915). 
Second Lieutenant Harold Verschoyle Wrong, B.A., 

University College, 1913 (in July 1916). 
Lieutenant John Arthur Cullum, Military Cross and 

Bar, Croixde Guerre; M.D.C.M., 1905. 
Lieutenant Bertram Howard Landels; B.S.A., 1911. 
Lieutenant Charles Greatley Saunders; B.V.S., 1901. 
Corporal Joseph Alburn Bassett; Victoria College, 1917. 
Lieutenant Lincoln George Hutton; B.A., Victoria 

College, 1915. 
Lieutenant Harold Gladstone Murray, C.F.A.; B.A., 

University College, 1915. 
Aubrey Melchoir William Patch; B.S.A., 1908. 
Lieutenant George Edward Bothwell; B.Sc.F., 1913. 
Lieutenant Gerald Gait; B.A.Sc., 1908. 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Lieutenant-Colonel Andrew Robertson Gordon, C.A.M.C.; 
M.D., 1890, Staff. 

ACCIDENTALLY KILLED. 
Captain George Herbert Bowlby; M.D.C.M., 1888. 



WOUNDED, 

Cpl. R. C. Paul. C.F.A., For. 1918. 
Lieut. H. R. Smith, R.A.M.C., M.B , 1915. 
Gnr. V. D. Speer, Dent, 1918. 
Pte. H. Hart, B.A. (U.) 1911, M B., 1913. 

]129J 



130 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

PRISONER OF WAR. 
Lieut. C. Glover; U.C. and Wycl., 1917. 

HONOURS. 

C.B. Col. J. A. Roberts. 

D.S.O. Lt.-Col. J. J. Creelman; Major L. R. Parsons; Major 
F. S. Morison; Temp. Col. A. E. Snell. 

Military Cross 

Lieut. C. A. Bell. Capt. G, G. Greer. 

Lieut. P. V. Binns. Lieut. H. M. Rowe. 

Lieut. L. A. Carr. Lieut. V. Stock. 

Lieut. C. P. Coatsworth. Capt. D. H. Storms. 

Lieut. D. W. Ferrier. Lieut. C. S. Wynne. 

Lieut. O. W. Grant (killed). 

Bar to Military Cross preiiously won Capt. H. W. A. Foster. 

D.C.M. Cpl. E. R. Allan; Cpl. A. R. Mendizabal. 

Military Medal Gnr. F. B. Houston; Sergt. H. S. Hayes 
(killed). 

Mentioned in Dispatches (Partial List) 
Lt.-Cols.: E. B. Hardy, D.S.O. ; W. W. Denison, D.S.O. ; J. J. 

Creelman, D.S.O. 

Majors: D. H. C. Mason, D.S.O.; A. E. Taylor; G. B. Gordon. 
Captains: C. E. Kilmer, D.S.O.; D. E. Robertson; D. H. Storms; 

J. M. Langstaff. 

Lieuts.; C. A. Bell; C. K. C. Martin; K. H. McCrimmon; G. T. 
Scroggiet. 



EDITORIAL 



ON successive days, December 28th and 29th, were announced 
the deaths of Professor W. H. Fraser and Dr. James Loudon, 
former President. A few days later, Dr. W. Oldright 
passed away. They were close personal friends; for long years 
they worked together in loyal service to their University; and in 
death they have not been divided. The news came when this 
number was already in the press, and for the moment this brief 
reference must suffice. Fuller memoirs will be published in the 
next issue. 

RECRUITS FOR THE 67th BATTERY AND THE 
TRAINING COMPANY 

At the close of last session the claims of these two University 
of Toronto actice service units were set forth in THE MONTHLY. 
The work which both have done since then has amply justified their 
authorisation. The 67th Battery was recruited up to strength in 
a very short time, seventy-five per cent, of the first enlistment being 
from the University itself. Three drafts of fifty or more have 
been sent overseas, and several of those who went in them have been 
in France for some months. During the summer the Battery had, 
naturally, to fill up the gaps in its ranks by recruiting from outside 
sources. But now that the University session has been resumed 
and the battery is in Toronto again, after its summer training at 
Petawawa, it is looking once more to the University to supply the 
men needed to fill the places of those who have gone. It was made 
a Depot battery just because the Government felt that it could rely 
upon the University to live up to the fine record which it had 
already established and to supply a continuous stream of men to 
take the places of those who went forward. 

The Training Company has already sent to England four 
drafts of its members who have been accepted, after personal 
interviews, by General Gwatkin, Chief of the General Staff in 
Canada, and recommended by him as candidates for commissions 
in the Imperial Army. Many have also been accepted for com- 

[131] 



132 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

missions in the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air 
Service. In addition, a number have received appointments as 
officers or N.C.O.'s in the Canadian forces. Thus it will be seen 
that the Company has established its reputation and has no 
difficulty in "placing" its men. 

Graduate readers of THE MONTHLY are asked to consider 
earnestly the claims of these two units and to lose no opportunity 
of bringing them before their friends. 

Applications should be made to Lieut. W. J. T. Wright, O.C., 
67th Battery; and Captain G. H. Needier, O.C., U. of T. Training 
Company. 



ALUMNI REUNIONS 

A letter has been received from Mr. Kendall B. Castle, B.A. 
(U.) 1889, of Rochester, N.Y., in which he says: 

"Would it not be proper to increase the membership fee of 
the Alumni Association, particularly in view of the fact that 
the small fee includes subscription to THE MONTHLY? 

"Would it not be desirable for the Association to endeavour 
to have the classes hold quinquennial reunions? This is 
common in the American colleges. It helps to keep the 
Alumni in touch with the College and its work. The Class of 
'89, to which I belong, has never had a reunion. I suggested 
such a reunion to one of the prominent members of the class 
in Toronto prior to both the twentieth and the twenty-fifth 
anniversaries". 

With regard to the first point raised by Mr. Castle's letter, 
it may be stated that THE MONTHLY does not as a rule pay its way, 
and an increase in the subscription might reasonably be asked. 
But those responsible for THE MONTHLY will be well content if 
more Alumni will join the Association with its present subscription, 
and thereby help the journal to meet its expenses and increase its 
circulation. 

With Mr. Castle's plea for more frequent reunions every one 
will agree. At present they seem to be a matter of chance, depend- 
ing on the enthusiasm or indifference of individuals, or of the class 
executive where such exists Perhaps the smaller College reunions 
might be left to individual effort; but we see no reason why the 
University itself, in the happier days which we trust are not so far 



EDITORIAL 133 

off, should not officially take a more active part in arranging for and 
undertaking the expenses of, say, quinquennial reunions of the 
graduates of a given year from all Faculties and Colleges. The 
practice which is common in the American universities might well 
become an established institution here also. Incidentally it might 
be very profitable to the University in more senses than one, as 
experience elsewhere has shown. As things have been, despite the 
efforts made by the Association, too many Alumni may have felt 
that their Alma Mater is indifferent to them and have become 
indifferent to her in turn. But the experiences of the last two years 
have brought us all more closely together, and more frequent 
reunions will help to give expression to this better feeling. 



IN MEMORIAM 



SIR JOHN BO YD, K.C.M.G., B.A., 1860; M.A., 1861; 
iLL.D., 1889; D.C.L. (Trinity) 1902 

Chancellor of Ontario and President of the High Court of Justice. 
"Omnes omnia bona dicere." 

BY the death of Sir John A. Boyd, Ontario has lost the last of 
her Chancellors, Toronto a highly respected and life-long 
citizen, and the University one of her most distinguished 
Alumni. Indeed on the principle that the King is the fountain 
of honour, the late Chancellor might claim the highest distinction 
won by a graduate of Toronto, for he was the first to be decorated 
as a Knight Commander of St. Michael and St George, to which 
dignity he was admitted on the Accession of the late King Edward, 
by the present King, as Duke of York, at Government House, 
Toronto, October llth, 1901. Nor is it without significance that 
this badge of royal favour was received with appreciation by the 
organ of the Toronto workingman. 

For Sir John Boyd was himself one of the hardest workers in his 
profession. He maintained this reputation on the Bench and 
continued his work up to the week before his fatal illness. His 
last judgment was signed on his deathbed, within forty-eight hours 
of his decease. 

He was born in the Bay Street Academy, south of King Street, 
in what at that time was the fashionable West-end residential 
quarter. His father, the principal, gave him his early training 
and sent him in his eleventh year to Upper Canada College. On 
his fifth birthday, April 23rd, 1842, he had seen the boys of U. C. C. 
march up through the newly laid out Queen's Avenue to watch 
Sir Charles Bagot lay the corner-stone of King's College, of which 
he was to be so successful a graduate. By way of contrast, we may 
mention the fact that he also saw Sir Edmund Head place the cope- 
stone on the tower of University College, on October 4th, 1858. 

In the previous year he had entered the University with the 
scholarship in English, for in those days the mother tongue was 

[134] 



IN MEMORIAM 135 

not bunched with the modern languages nor burdened with history. 
At that time, too, the honour lists were put on record, and so it is 
possible to state that the future judge won prizes for both prose 
and verse, his poem on the Atlantic cable having been read by him 
at the first opening of the Convocation Hall, June 8th, 1859. He 
graduated the foil owing year as gold medallist in Modern Languages. 

That was a transition period in the history of Canadian law, 
and the young graduate always accounted it his good fortune to 
have been trained in the office of Read, Leith, and Read, where 
both the branches of law and equity were in active operation. 
In later years it was to be his fortune to preside over the old Court 
of Chancery and over the new High Court of Justice created by the 
Judicature Act, which swept away all the cumbrous forms of 
pleading and made Stephens' book as obsolete as Selden on Tithes. 
That his opportunities as an articled clerk were not neglected 
may be inferred from the way in which Chancellor Spragge wrote 
to Sir John A. Macdonald, in recommending his appointment. 
"He stands well with the common law as well as with the equity 
judges; in short with everyone." His instalment as Chancellor 
followed May 3rd, 1881. Details as to his very important work 
on the bench may be found elsewhere ; what concerns us here is his 
connexion as a graduate with his Alma Mater. 

After being called to the Bar in 1863, Mr. Boyd was married 
to Elizabeth, daughter of the late David Buchan, Bursar of the 
University and Colleges, who then lived on the corner of Adelaide 
and Simcoe Streets. In this way the young barrister became 
connected with the College and University circles of the day, and as 
the years passed and his nine sons were successively students 
of the College and the University, he never lost his interest in 
either institution. His long association with the firm of Blake, 
Kerr and Boyd was not without influence in the same direction. 
Hence when the attack on the University endowment seemed likely 
to be renewed and a dinner of the Toronto Alumni, was held for the 
purpose of founding an Alumni Association, it was Chancellor 
Boyd who was called upon to act as Chairman. Again when the 
Modern Language Association was formed as an independent body, 
he was an Honorary President and gave an able address on the 
influence of foreign literatures upon English, showing that like 
Selden he had kept up his interest in a wide range of literature, 
while making a high reputation as a hard working lawyer and an 
ndefatigable judge. So when in 1900 his former partner, Mr. 



136 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Edward Blake, retired from the Chancellorship of the University, 
Sir John was asked to take the position, but declined the honour, 
having too high a sense of its importance to assume it as an empty 
dignity and having already a sufficiently engrossing extra-judicial 
function in the presidency of the Toronto Conservatory of Music, 
one of the largest in the world and the most important of the 
institutions affiliated with the University. 

Notwithstanding all these cares the Chancellor found time to 
take an active part in the work of the Bloor Street Baptist Church, 
of which he was a deacon ; and to act as a governor of McMaster 
University, in which one of his sons-in-law, W. S. W. McLay, B.A. 
(Tor. 1891), is professor of English and Dean of the Arts Faculty. 

Another of his sons-in-law, Dr. Graham, and his sons Geoffrey 
and Edward, are on the Medical Faculty of the University of 
Toronto. His eldest son, Major Alexander J Boyd, was a famous 
athlete. He fought in the Northwest Rebellion and in the South 
African War. Later he enlisted in Baden-Powell's Constabulary 
there, and died of fever in 1902. The loss of this son was a great 
grief to Sir John, who was a model father, delighting to see his 
family about his hospitable board, where they formed a goodly 
company. The outbreak of the war also affected his kindly nature 
very painfully, and caused him many sleepless nights. By spending 
his summers in the Georgian Bay he had retained to an extra- 
ordinary degree his youthful vigour, but when the end came his 
illness lasted only a few days. He died November 23rd, 1916, and 
was buried the following Saturday, his six sons acting as pall- 
bearers. The other two are at the front. 

The lines that follow are a tribute to his memory May they 
also serve as some consolation to those who mourn his loss ! 

IN MEMORIAM. 
SIR JOHN A. BOYD, K.C.M.G., LL.D. 

Six stalwart sons have borne thee to the tomb, 

In which thy mortal part alone is laid, 

Resting from labours long and unafraid, 
Just souls like thine in higher place find room. 

On earth to thee for justice men did come, 

High place was thine, high honours to thee paid, 
Not without cause ; such earthly honours fade, 

But o'er the just eternal flowers bloom, 



IN MEMORIAM 137 

Oh, may the friends whom thou hast left behind, 

Yearning for thee as sorely they must yearn, 
Death ne'er deprived men of a better friend, 
Kindred nor child ne'er missed a love more kind, 

May friends and kindred to thy Helper turn ! 

Grant this, O Thou, to whom our prayers ascend! 

D. R. KEYS. 

ANDREW ROBERTSON GORDON, M.B. 

In the death of the late Prof. Andrew R. Gordon, the Univer- 
sity has lost one of the most capable members of its staff, and the 
staff a congenial, loyal colleague. Dr, Gordon was a capable 
student, and as a physician, he was an ideal family physician, 
genial painstaking and always devoted to the interests of his 
patients. 

He graduated with distinction in 1889, and on entering the 
practice of medicine, he rapidly obtained a large and increasing 
clientele until he relinquished general practice in 1913 to devote 
himself to special work on disease of the heart. He spent much 
time at home and abroad extending his knowledge and perfecting 
himself in this special work, into which he entered with enthusiasm. 

On the formation of the University of Toronto Base Hospital 
No. 4 for overseas duty, he was one of the first to offer his services 
and spared no pains to prepare himself for this work. He went 
overseas with the Hospital staff in May 1915, but a few months 
later his health gave way and, to his great disappointment, he had 
to be invalided home. He soon recovered and was then attached 
to the local Camp Hospital, where he did strenuous work for several 
months when he was injured in a fall from his horse. From this 
he did not recover completely. He gradually lost ground, yet 
he was always hopeful to the last that he might soon be well and 
able to do "his bit". 

The late Dr. Gordon was appointed to the staff in Clinical 
Medicine in the late nineties, and became an Associate Professor 
in 1903. He brought the same zeal to his work as instructor that 
he had shown in his duties as a family physician. He was a capable 
instructor and inspired the students with a large measure of his 
own enthusiasm in the work 

Dr. Gordon was well-endowed with the scientific spirit, but he 
had been too busy a physician to have had the opportunity of duly 
cultivating it and had therefore not published much. With the 



138 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

relinquishment of general practice, his aim was to devote much of 
his time to research work on the circulation, and in time to publish 
the results of his observations observations which, we hoped, 
would have added to our knowledge and to his reputation as well 
as to that of the University. 

By his death, the country has lost a loyal son, the University 
a devoted alumnus, his colleagues a genial associate; and, it may 
be added, the undergraduate a friend always solicitous for his 
welfare. I became attached to the Medical staff in the last year 
of Dr. Gordon's undergraduate course. A friendship then formed 
grew more close as the years went by, so that his death is a grievous 
loss to me, as our association was very intimate. 

ALEXANDER MCPHEDRAN. 



HENRY STUART HAYES, B.A. 

On November 23rd, a rumour came to Trinity College that 
Sergeant Henry Stuart Hayes had been killed "somewhere in 
France". The rumour brought anxiety to many who held him in 
affection, especially to his old classmates of '14. The evening 
papers of the same day contained an official report that he had 
been wounded on November 2nd; but on the 29th his family 
received tidings of his death. 

One of the hardest things the war is doing to Canada is that it 
is taking so many promising young men, who would have been her 
future leaders and whom she can ill afford to lose. Among these 
Harry Hayes was one of the best, A good student in college, with 
great executive and business ability, he bade fair to do honour to his 
chosen profession, the law, and was a man of whom the University 
of Toronto, and especially Trinity College, his Alma Mater, had 
reason to be proud. 

During his college career he played an effective part in rugby, 
running and basketball, which gained him the presidency of the 
College Athletic Association. The College magazine, ihe TRINITY 
REVIEW, claimed him for business manager, and the "Lit." as a 
debater. 

He was possessed of a strong will, broad sympathies and sterling 
character. His friends considered his friendship an honour, and 
looked upon him with affection and admiration. After graduating 
he became the first General Secretary of the Students' Adminis- 
trative Council, and in this office his genius for organisation and 



IN MEMORIAM 139 

management soon became apparent, and he did much to place the 
various activities of the Council on a sound business basis. 

No man undertook responsibility with a deeper sense of duty; 
this strong feeling of obligation as a citizen and his high sense of 
honour and right led him to give up his study of the law and took 
him to France, and made him a fearless soldier, although he had 
no liking for war for its own sake. 

In a personal letter to his parents his Commanding Officer 
states that he considered Harry Hayes the most efficient N.C.O. 
who had served with him, and commended his conduct very 
warmly. For an act of bravery under fire, in endeavouring to 
rescue a comrade from a burning gun-pit, he was recommended for 
the Military Medal, which he did not live to receive. A loyal 
friend, an indefatigable citizen, a lover of righteousness and truth, 
and a true gentleman such is the priceless contribution made to 
Empire, King and God by the bereaved parents of Henry Stuart 
Hayes. SIDNEY CHILDS. 



GERMAN DEFEAT THE PRICE OF 
LASTING PEACE 



IT may be well to point out that publicists and orators who are 
interesting themselves in the subject of peace, whether it be a 
peace which looks to the immediate end of the present hostili- 
ties or a permanent world peace at the normal conclusion of the 
war predicated upon an international court with sufficient power to 
enforce its decrees, would do well if they grew more specific and 
considered some few of the numerous essential and underlying 
difficulties which beset this question, and if they limited their 
proposals to things within the possible range of concrete achieve- 
ment instead of painting for us beautiful pictures of a world such as 
there is no justified hope of seeing this side of death. 

Let us begin by giving an example. If we are to have an imme- 
diate end of the present war as the result of negotiations between 
the belligerents, such peace must be based upon a treaty, which is a 
contract between nations instead of individuals. Now when two 
individuals enter into a contract, they do so with the expectation 
that the contract will be kept and they base their expectation on the 
reputation and the antecedent behaviour of the parties thereto. 
No wise business man ordinarily makes a contract with a competitor 
who has shown in the past that he will not keep a contract when 
made or respect the law which supports it. Yet our friends who 
propose a negotiated peace at the present time are asking the Allies 
to make a new contract with Germany, when Germany started this 
war by a breach of existing contracts, which breach the Imperial 
Chancellor in the Reichstag publicly acknowledged in the damning 
phrase, " Wir haben das Voelkerrecht verletzt", and when she has 
followed this act by so many other violations of the law of nations, 
that her general contempt for international law is now accepted as 
axiomatic by most Americans. 

Is a new contract to be made with Germany before she has shown 
remorse for her infamous breach of her late contract to respect 
Belgium? Is a fresh contract to be signed with this Teutonic 
Power so long as she shows no sense of shame for having treated 

[1401 



GERMAN DEFEAT THE PRICE OF PEACE 141 

as a scrap of paper a contract as solemn as any she ever entered 
upon, and when she has, within the month, again shown that in her 
eyes might makes right and laws exist to be broken or at least 
to be evaded on the flimsiest of pretexts? For here she is com- 
pelling the Poles to fight under her colours and against their own 
countrymen and her excuse is that she has declared Poland to be an 
independent (!) Kingdom, though without a king, and a new 
Country, though without a boundary, by which subterfuge she 
affects to believe she has avoided those provisions of basic law which 
forbid a conquerer during the continuance of war to impress the 
conquered into his own armies, on the theory that Poland being 
now independent (sic) is no longer conquered territory. The next 
thing on the cards will be for Germany to declare, on paper, that 
Belgium is free, although Germany alone is enslaving her, and to 
'use this as a sufficient ground to force the Belgians into German 
trenches. Before publicists go into details as to the terms of 
possible treaties upon which peace might be based, it will be well 
for them to tell us how the Allies can make any treaty of any sort 
with Germany until she shows some realisation of the fact that 
treaties are made to be kept and international law is made to be 
respected and not to be broken or interpreted by sophistry and 
equivocation, and that those nations which break treaties and 
violate laws and seek to circumvent them by artifice and evasion 
are guilty of such gross outrages upon the rights of mankind, that 
new treaties may not be made with them until they either repent 
of their immoralities or at least discharge the rulers who were 
guilty of the crimes. 

We are told, however, though in a vague and general way, that 
the world is about to create some new instrumentality by and under 
which all future treaties may be enforced. We may easily find 
reams of speculation upon this subject, yet what we cannot do is 
to get details, and these are precisely what should interest us. But 
again let us try to fix ideas by way of concrete example. If we, 
with all the knowledge we have gained in the last two years, can 
suggest no world organisation, no supreme body, no powerful 
combination of military apparatus by which the present war could 
have been stopped before it was started, will any one ask us to 
trust such instrumentality, whatever be its nature, to stop the next 
war? Surely not. 

Now what possible collection of armed forces could have 
prevented Germany, which during the closing week of July, 1914, 



142 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

had assumed a more or less innocent air of detachment in the 
Russo- Austrian differences, from suddenly sending her ultimatum 
to Russia on the very day on which Russia and Austria had resumed 
negotiations in an attempt to secure a peaceful settlement, from 
thereupon immediately mobilising her armies and then instantly 
striking with all her might. Germany started this war with such 
speed that no conceivable aggregation of military forces in the 
nature of a police, which would or could normally be maintained 
by the world at large, could have been expected to have exercised 
a forcible restraint upon her. 

But it may be suggested that under the new arrangement a 
nation which springs to arms before the International Police can 
be brought into operation will be subsequently punished. If this 
suggestion be made, the complete answer is that this is precisely 
what the Allies are trying to do to Germany at the present writing. 
In other words, the Allies are trying to do to-day what the assumed 
International Police, under the plan proposed, is intended to do to a 
nation which has violated its contracts, broken its treaties and 
suddenly precipitated a war upon the world, and, what is more, 
there is every reason to believe that the Allies have a far greater 
chance of success than would an International Police. If we of the 
United States wish to round out what is already, in effect, a great 
International Police which is seeking to re-establish order on this 
sphere, we have merely to join the Allied armies in the present war. 
Then we shall have, as nearly as we may ever hope to reach it in 
this imperfect world, a practical embodiment of a strong armed 
instrumentality constituted by practically all the great nations of 
the earth, bent upon preserving, as against an outlaw nation, the 
very foundations of law and morality upon which civilisation must 
rest. So much for the proposed International Police force, at least 
in this discussion. 

Let us now come to the International Court or body of men 
who are to be empowered to decide the various questions upon 
which the nations themselves cannot agree and who are to control 
the International Police which is to execute its decrees. We need 
not point out the difficulties which surround the selection of the 
membership of such a court, whether the number of judges ap- 
pointed by each nation is to be in proportion to its population, for 
instance ; nor need we lay stress upon the comparatively small body 
of recognised basic international law upon which such a court could 
base its decisions or enumerate other difficulties which it would take 



GERMAN DEFEAT THE PRICE OF PEACE 143 

volumes to adequately set out and -to describe which volumes have 
been written. One thing is certain. Such a court, if it is not to be 
more autocratic and absolute than Caesar with an overlordship 
extending from Pole to Pole, would have to proceed upon the basis 
that the territorial status quo is to be preserved. 

If South Americans should seek to compel the United States 
to sell the Panama Canal or at least to give them a share in its 
operation ; if Japan should claim the right to buy Hawaii because of 
the large number of Japanese there found; if Mexico should insist 
on her right to keep insurrection alive near our border without let 
or hindrance from us ; if India should ask for its independence from 
Great Britain, Algiers from France, Tripoli from Italy or Formosa 
from Japan, the answer would have to be a negative absolute and 
the nations concerned would certainly refuse to even discuss the 
questions raised, just as we should decline to entertain suggestions 
about parting with Texas or California which we acquired, in effect 
by conquest from Mexico, or of giving up Alaska which we bought 
from Russia, or of doing without Wisconsin which we took upon our 
defeat of Black Hawk or of yielding, against our will, the Philippine 
Islands which we have so recently conquered and taken from Spain. 
How similar, in the large, are the histories of Great Britain and the 
United States in this regard! 

It is, therefore, inconceivable that any sets of peoples will ever, 
within periods with which we are concerned, enter into a general 
contract to establish a Super-Supreme Court which shall have 
the power of dismembering them or of taking land from one of them 
and giving it to another. It may be a splendid thing to thrust the 
Turk from Europe, but any tribunal which should have power to 
do this would at the same time have the right to eject the United 
States from Porto Rico or Alaska. If we are to have an International 
Super-Supreme Court, its functions will, therefore, clearly have to 
be restricted by an absolute prohibition in at least one particular, 
and that is in any attempted exercise of rights to decrease the 
existing territory of any nation against that nation's consent. 

Now it is interesting to note that, in the last analysis, Germany 
engaged in this war because she was not satisfied with such pi ogress 
in the acquisition of territory as she could make on the basis of a 
peaceful or gradual development of the status quo. Bismarrk did 
not believe in colonies and did but little to acquire them; he pre- 
ferred to use them as counters by which to set France, Italy and 
Great Britain by the ears, with the result that Italy stuck by his 



144 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Triple Alliance and France and Great Britain were kept in constant 
hot water until they signed the Entente. Before Bismarck's death 
however, the German people got to want colonies and to, want 
them badly, and this at a stage when the good ones were about gone, 
which was the reason for their cry for a place in the sun. That 
England, in an attempt to preserve the balance of power was, 
for a time, not friendly to extensions of Germany's spheres of 
influence is a fact; but it is equally true that in the years imme- 
diately preceding the war Anglo-German relations had been growing 
increasingly cordial and that England was in the way of consenting 
to Germany's realisation of her wishes in the direction of Baghdad 
and the Persian Gulf. But the speed of enlargement of its terri- 
torial influences by peaceful means was not sufficient to satisfy 
German aspirations. Her writers insisted that since Great Britain 
had obtained many of her colonies by what they conceived to be 
forceful methods, Germany should not suffer for the accident of 
coming too late upon the scene and be restricted to a peaceful 
and, therefore, slow and minor enlargement of her territorial 
interests, especially as she excelled, as she thought, in all the arts 
of peace and at the same time possessed the most efficient army in 
the world. 

We repeat that an International Court must necessarily proceed 
upon the basis that the existing and settled territorial distribution 
of lands among the nations of the globe is beyond its power to 
change against the objection of any party in interest, just as a civil 
court cannot arbitrarily give property long ow r ned by one man to 
another. But Germany's writers and thinkers have contended 
and still contend that this principle is wrong, and that a nation 
which quickly develops great powers both in the arts of peace and 
of war is entitled to make that power felt in the shape of a larger 
territorial influence quickly arrived at. It follows that an effective 
International Court is the very thing which would most seriously 
interfere with German's chief unrealised ambition and the very 
thing which she could under no circumstances, in the long run, 
tolerate. Germany does not want arbitration or decisions such as a 
court can give, for such methods will withhold from her the very 
things to which she thinks she is entitled. Her Chancellor a few 
days ago expressed his lack of faith in such expedients and frankly 
acknowledged Germany's similar attitude in times past. The 
entourage of the Kaiser, Prof. Kuno Francke tells us, sees after this 
war yet another peace based upon military prestige. Nor will it be 
uninstructive to add that, though Great Britain has signed an 






GERMAN DEFEAT THE PRICE OF PEACE 145 

arbitration treaty with us of limited scope and was willing to sign 
one as broad as that which was recommended by our great and 
good President Taft, which was so unfortunately emasculated by 
our Senate, Germany has never signed any such treaty with us, 
although given the opportunity to do so. 

All this is most natural, Great Britain and the United States 
have all the territory they need or desire; if anything, they each 
have a wee bit more than is good for them. Why should such 
nations not be ready to arbitrate or to submit their differences 
to a tribunal which must decide their cause upon principles which 
safeguaid property rights? It is the man who has not, and not the 
man who has, who wonders whether courts are all they are cracked 
up to be. An International Super-Supreme Court must necessarily 
be guided by principles of law and jurisprudence and must respect 
established rights. It cannot safely become a mere dictator or a 
modern Caliph, dispensing justice upon no other basis than its own 
conceptions of what may be good for mankind. War is terrible, but 
more horrible still would be a world governed by an autocratic 
committee with absolute powers unrestrained by any settled body 
of law and precedent; a Czar of Czars as Czars existed centuries ago. 
We see, then, why Great Britain, France, Russia and the United 
States, all of them nations with an abundance of land, may be 
expected to cheerfully acquiesce in submitting their claims as to 
boundaries to an International Court as against Germany, and 
why Germany, which wants more land, looks with no favour upon 
such a tribunal. Bismarck may have been in error when he decided 
against colonies for the Fatherland, although it might be well to wait 
another fifty years before reaching a conclusion on this point, but 
Germany, which owes her all to his genius, must accept, in the 
bargain, the results of his minor mistakes, if such they be. 

It may, therefore, be properly urged that if Germany should 
not be ready to put her claims, whatever they may be, before an 
impartial court, then the other nations should join hands and compel 
her so to do. But from one and a very fundamental point of view 
this is precisely what the Allies are attempting to do to-day. Great 
Britain has repeatedly and truthfully declared that she is fighting 
for the inviolability of treaties and for the rights of small nations 
to live their lives in their own way, and these are the root causes 
which Great Britain started out to defend. The fact that this 
paramount issue has since been somewhat clouded by the Germans 
inhumanities and atrocities only strengthens the correctness of the 
original position. 



146 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

It is clear nonsense to talk about International Courts in a 
world in which treaties themselves have recently been considered 
as scraps of papers by one great nation now at war, with no present 
sign of a change of heart. The very first step toward the creation 
of a condition in which an International Court is thinkable is a 
world in which international law shall again be respected. Great 
Britain is now fighting to secure this end, to rebuild the foundations 
of the edifice in which international law resides which Germany has 
done her best to destroy. Before we talk of an ultimate court of 
last resort which is to rule the world's affairs by law and justice and 
established right, let us create a respect among the peoples of the 
earth for international law itself and a determination either to 
bring the nation which has so ruthlessly, fundamentally and 
repeatedly violated it to a realisation of a sense of its guilt, or to 
reduce it to a second class power where its guilt or innocence will no 
bnger be of moment to seriously affect the destinies of mankind. 

It may be well at this point to go back to our own Civil War. 
The history of the world shows no more humane character than 
Lincoln, and no man ever lived who felt the horrors of war more 
deeply than he, and yet, when there arose an endless agitation for a 
cessation of hostilities, with nothing as yet definitely achieved, 
what did he do? He said that if any responsible person would come 
to him from the South with power to negotiate a peace on the basis 
of the abolition of slavery and the integrity of the Union, the two 
things which the war was being fought to secure, he would grant 
a safe conduct and show himself most liberal on collateral issues; 
but he never for a moment considered stopping the war before he 
had encompassed the ends which the North was fighting to achieve. 
Our humanitarians who are talking peace to-day have no greater 
dislike of war than had Lincoln, and the publicists who are discussing 
a negotiated peace at the present time have no profounder know- 
ledge of state-craft than was possessed by him, so that we shall all 
do well to learn some of the lessons our great President, perhaps 
our greatest, has taught us. 

After all, the issues in our Civil War were less irreconcilable 
than are those in Europe to-day. The South fought for what it 
believed to be a correct interpretation of our fundamental law, our 
Constitution. Germany is fighting to show that might is superior 
to all law, however fundamental. The South fought like gentlemen 
and Jonnie Reb was respected by his antagonist. In Europe to-day 
a new word has had to be invented in an effort to express the 
profundity of the contempt which the Frenchman feels for the 
Teuton in the trenches across the way. 



GERMAN DEFEAT THE PRICE OF PEACE 147 

We are not fighting this fight and the Allies, attempting as they 
are to establish the principles that treaties must be kept and the 
rights of small nations respected, are fighting our battles for us. 
It seems that the least we can do is to stop meddling, more especially 
as there is no antecedent probability that we advise as experts. 
Our railways are the finest on the globe, our business men are 
second to none, our manufacturies are the admiration of all man- 
kind, our captains of industry peerless and even our scientific 
achievements, in certain branches, stand on a par with the world's 
best. But our political leaders are largely of the second class 
because our first-rate men do not go into politics but into business, 
and our experience with the administrative machinery in their 
hands has been so unfortunate that we have not gotten entirely 
past that stage of our progress at which we seek a royal road to 
perfection and a short cut to governmental efficiency, the "ism" 
part of our career, as it were. When legislatures fail us, we swear 
by the initiative and referendum; when segregation fails in the 
matter of the social evil, we try spreading it broadcast. In these 
international matters we have but little knowledge, except for that 
we have so recently acquired, and even less experience, and naturally 
being unacquainted, as it were, with the topography of such 
questions of state, we are all too likely to think we see short cuts 
across country which, on close acquaintance, would prove com- 
pletely impracticable. We should not, then, allow our sympathy to 
affect our judgment or undertake to give advice to peoples who are 
far better informed on the questions in hand than are we, and who 
are led by men whose experience in international affairs far tran- 
scends that of any men in our own land. 

In conclusion, let us not forget this fact. Any attempt on our 
part to urge the Allies to negotiate a treaty of peace at the present 
time will set the stamp of our approval upon the proposition that a 
nation may take years to prepare for war while other nations are 
relatively unprepared ; that it may thereupon plunge into war with 
the object of securing a larger share of world dominion; that in 
case of success it will get what it wants and in case of failure it can 
count on the United States to come to its aid to close hostilities 
before the nations attacked have gotten completely ready so that 
it may have another try later on. War may be Hell, but if so 
another word will have to be invented to describe the condition 
of the world under a peace thus effectuated. 
New York, GUSTAV BISSING. 



LETTRE D'UN COMBATTANT DE PICARDIE 



Un abound de " L* Opinion" lui a communique la lettre suivante dont 
il a autorise la publication a condition qu'elle ne serait suivie 
d'aucune signature, mais on sait qu'elle emane d'un tr&s jeune 
sous-lieutenant d'infanterie qui combat sur le front de la Somme: 

"Maman, 

Je me suis battu, nous nous sommes battus, nous les avons 
battus! Et je t'ecris ce petit mot assis sur 1'affftt d'un canon 
boche dans un village reconquis. Helas! pour le reconquerir il 
a fallu le detruire de fond en comble. Tout, autour de moi, est 
pulverise, tout est lamentable, sordide, et le tas de ruines et la 
terre inculte et le ciel bas. Cependant une grande joie emplit notre 
coeur a tous, et cette joie, maman, je ne trouve pas de mot pour te 
dire son etendue, sa profondeur, sa gravite, sa plenitude. Mais 
si tu voyais les yeux de mes hommes, tu comprendrais ; tu com- 
prendrais, maman, ce que c'est que la victoire pour un soldat, tu 
comprendrais comme c'est bon, comme c'est doux d'etre le plus 
fort. Sur mon afftit, je suis plus heureux qu'un roi sur son tr6ne, 
qu'un archange sur son nuage et que la tante Adrienne sur son 
fauteuil crapaud. Je veux, maman cherie, que tu gotites un peu 
de mon bonheur, je veux que tu sois heureuse aussi d'etre la maman 
d'un jeune vainqueur, qui n'a pas pay sa victoire d'une seule 
egratignure, et qui, ras6 de frais, oui, ras de frais, t'offre, 
comme jadis les pages a leur reine, son premier brin de laurier. 

Ah! je t'affirme qu'il n'a pas ete difficile a cueillir! Nous 
avons quitt6 nos paralleles de depart & neuf heures. A neuf heures 
et quart j'allumais ma pipe dans X. . . . Et je n'y suis arriv6 que 
le second, cet animal de R. . . . y etait avant moi, je me demande 
par ou il a pu passer! Au moment ou je me glissais dans un boyau 
a 1'entree du village, je 1'ai trouv6 qui s'expliquait avec deux Boches 
peu empresses a se rendre. II faut toujours que R. . . s'explique: 
il est reste conferencier et propagandiste. Et il a toujours une 
pleine musette d'arguments. Personne au bataillon ne les lance 
mieux que lui. 

Le "travail" de 1'artillerie a et6 merveilleux. Les obus et 
quels obus! precedaient notre marche d'une maniere si parfaite 
que j'avais 1'impression qu'ils etaient lances par mes hommes a 

[148] 



LETTRE D'UN COMBATTANT DE PICARDIE 149 

mon commandement. Tu n'imagines pas la securite qu'une telle 
liaison donne aux troupes d'assaut. Devant nous plus une seule 
mitrailleuse valide, plus un seul canon de tranchees intact. Aussi 
les Boches couraient vers nous en levant les mains. 

Papa me plaisantait toujours sur ce que je n'avais pas encore 
vu de Boches. Apprends-lui que j'ai fait leur connaissance. J'ai 
mme echange quelques mots avec un feldwebel blesse, louche 
individu, qui se disait etudiant en droit. "Etudiant en droit, 
grommelait R. . . . allons done! Est-ce qu'on connalt le droit 
chez vous? F . . . le camp si tu ne veux pas que je t'apprenne le 
droit, moi!" Pour monter le coup a R. . . . nous avons essaye de le 
convaincre que ce Boche aux yeux hordes de jambon etait le petit- 
fils de Karl Marx, mais R. . . . n'etait pas d'humeur a plaisanter, et 
d'ailleurs, il n'attache pas grande importance a Topinion philoso- 
phique des Boches, qui appartiennent tous, selon lui, au genre 
"salaud". 

Je "verse dans 1'anecdote", petite maman, et tu prf6rerais 
que je te raconte la bataille. Mais la bataille, vois-tu, ga dure si 
peu! Et tout le temps de 1'assaut on est hors de soi. Le moment 
le plus pathetique, pour employer le langage de mon professeur de 
rhetorique, c'est avant, quand on sait. Alors on repasse sa vie 
comme on repasse ses cours le matin du bachot. On la revit en 
quelques minutes. J'ai pense a toi, a papa, a M. . . J. . . Les plus 
fortes empreintes sont celles de 1'enfance et de ce qu'on aime. 
Je n'ai jamais si bien connu ce que j'aimais. Tout cela tournerait 
peut-tre a rattendrissement, si on n'etait pas tre^ occup a rgler 
mille details. Je suis content d'avoir vecu ce moment-la. Je 
n'avais qu'une peur: la peur d'avoir peur. Mais on n'a pas eu 
le temps de trembler, et puis on est entour6, et dans une atmosphere 
si pure, si noble, si fraternelle. . . . 

Mais le plus chic moment, petite mere, c'est celui ou on les 
a .... A ma derniere permission, ga t'agagait d'entendre mon 
refrain: "On les aura". Eh bien, on les a eus, maman, et on les 
"zaura" et, apres la victoire, tu verras si la France sera belle! Elle 
sera aussi belle que toi! Et tu connaitras un bonheur pareil au 
mien tu sentiras comme je 1'ai senti, une poche de joie crever 
dans ton cceur. Malheureux, bien malheureux ceux qui n'auront 
pas senti cela! Eux et nous, nous ne nous comprendrons jamais. . . . 
Ne t'en fais pas! . . . Je t'embrasse, je vous embrasse tous, 

Et envoie cent sous de ma part a tes filleuls de 1'artillerie. On 
leur doit ca! . . . 



BOOK REVIEWS 



The Wrack of the Storm. MAURICE MAETERLINCK. Dodd, Mead 
& Co., 1916. 

The tragic history of Belgium since the publication of Maeter- 
linck's last book, invests a new volume from his pen with a two-fold 
interest the interest which Belgium's most famous dramatist 
and essayist always creates for himself and the interest which all 
the world feels for a victim of the greatest national crime ever 
perpetrated. 

In the early days of the war, Maeterlinck was found by an 
American newspaper correspondent working in the fields, helping 
the women to gather in the crops. "I offered to enlist", he said, 
"but they declared me too old, so I am doing what I can. I cannot 
write! The thought that only a few kilometers away, millions of 
men are ranged against one another to kill, maim and destroy blots 
out every other thought." 

A few months after these words were uttered, Maeterlinck 
pulled himself together to write one of the bitterest arraignments 
of Pan-Germanism yet printed ' ' After the Victory ' ' and from time 
to time since then, he has given expression to his opinion regarding 
almost every phase of the conflict. These essays for it is in this 
form he has expressed himself have been published recently in a 
single volume, entitled "The Wrack of the Storm." Although 
somewhat fragmentary, the book reveals Maeterlinck not only as a 
poet, but as a patriot, who is deeply moved by the misfortunes of 
his country and also, as a philosopher with a message of hope for 
suffering humanity. 

Maeterlinck's patriotism blazes forth when writing of King 
Albert, whom he calls "the young and great King of my little 
country, who was truly the providential man for whom all were 
waiting. He embodied in beauty the deep will of his people. 
Suddenly he was all Belgium revealed to herself and to others. 
He had the great luck to take and give confidence in most tragic 
moments when the stoutest conscience may, momentarily, lose 
courage. Had he not been there, things would have happened 
doubtless in a different manner and history might have lost one of 
her noblest pages." 

[150] 



BOOK REVIEWS 151 

In the essay on "Edith Cavell," Maeterlinck's righteous 
indignation is expressed in language which will serve as a memorial 
more lasting than stone or marble, and when writing on "Poland", 
he pleads for that unhappy country the same justice at the hands 
of the Allies as shall be shown to Belgium and Serbia. " I need not 
recall the fate of Poland," he writes. "It is in certain respects 
more tragic and more pitiful than that of Belgium and Serbia. She 
had not even the opportunity to choose between dishonour and 
annihilation. Three successive acts of injustice which were, until 
to-day, the most shameful recorded by history, deprived her of 
glory and of that heroic choice which she could have made in the 
same spirit, for she had already thrice made it in the past, a choice 
which this day sustains and consoles her two martyred sisters in 
their profoundest tribulations. It would be too unjust if an ancient 
injustice which, even yet, weighs upon the memory and conscience 
of Europe, should become the sole reason of yet a last iniquity, 
which this time would be inexpiable." 

The poetry and mysticism of "The Might of the Dead," "The 
Dead do not Die" and "The Life of the Dead", show Maeterlinck, 
as one of those rare spirits who stand very close to the veil which lies 
between the seen and the unseen, and who, through its veil, catch 
glimpses now and then of inexplicable things. He is penetrated 
with the feeling that between the invisible world and our own, 
there is undoubtedly an intimate connection which, alas! we are 
often too blind to discern. "The Might of the Dead" has been 
described as a beautiful homily on two texts. The first is the same 
idea expressed in "The Blue Bird", that the dead really live in our 
thoughts, die only when we forget them and come to life again when 
we remember them. The second text is "What he saved, he lost." 
Maeterlinck w r rites thus: "There is one place where our dead 
cannot perish . . . and this living abiding-place is in us. 
. . . And what was always true of all the dead is truer still 
to-day, when only the best are chosen for the grave. In the 
world which we call the kingdom of shadows, and which really 
is the ethereal kingdom of light, there are now as deep pertur- 
bations as those we feel on our earth. The young dead flock 
thither, and since the beginning of the world never were they 
as many as strong, and as ardent. . . . 

"Our memories are peopled by a multitude of heroes, 
stricken in the flower of youth, and far different from that 
procession of yore, pale and worn-out, which counted almost 



152 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

solely the aged and sickly, who were already scarcely alive 

when they left this earth. To-day in all our houses, in town, 

in country, in palace and in cottage, a young man dead lives 

and rules in all the beauty of his strength. He fills the poorest, 

darkest dwelling with glory, such as it had never dreamed of , . . 

"There are losses which are priceless gain, and there are 

gains in which one's future is lost. There are dead whom the 

living cannot replace and whose thought does things which no 

living bodies can do, and we are almost all now mandatories 

of someone greater, nobler, braver, wiser, and more alive than 

ourselves. He will be, with all his comrades, our judge." 

No review of "The Wrack of the Storm" would be complete 

without reference to the remarkable preface, which; in a few 

striking words, sets forth the feelings of a Belgian for Germany 

as she was thought to be and Germany as she really is. " I loved 

Germany and numbered friends there, who now, living or dead are 

alike dead to me. I thought her great and upright and generous 

and to me, she was ever kindly and hospitable. But there are 

crimes that obliterate the past and close the future." 

CONSTANCE B. LAING. 



The Commonwealth of Nations, Part I. Edited by LIONEL CURTIS, 
London. Macmillan & Co. 

There are few brighter gems among the treasures of ancient 
wisdom than the profound critisism and warning : pkya. |8i/3Xioi , jueyo, 
KCLKOV. The maxim is strictly relative ; it is a challenge to every book 
to justify its dimensions. It is specially difficult to apply this maxim 
to the writings of Mr. Lionel Curtis, modestly described as the 
editor of them, which are destined to appear as serial parts of "The 
Commonwealth of Nations" for some time to come. The relative 
quantities of bulk and substance must be judged from the present 
instalment which is, it seems, not more than a third of the whole. 

This part is an extended presentation of certain political 
hypotheses w r hich the author deems relevant to a discussion of the 
present and future organisation of the British Empire. Since a 
boDk is more readily appreciated if some kind of order is discernible, 
Mr. Curtis has relied on the use of chronological as distinguished 
from logical order. In an argumentative treatise the latter 
is to be preferred, but almost the same effect is here obtained by 
repetition. The result is a dogmatic philosophy consisting of 



BOOK REVIEWS 153 

reiterated definitions of the state and its incidents diluted with 
many hundreds of pages of history. 

As history the book is tolerable, but not therefore fully justified. 
It cannot claim to represent any considerable amount of original 
work. It consists largely of plentiful extracts from well-known 
historians such as Lecky, with numerous quotations from contem- 
porary speeches and letters, which add, however, little, if anything. 
to that knowledge of the past which is easily accessible to all 
persons with the time and inclination to read ordinary standard 
works, including the Encyclopaedia Britannica. For those who 
do not yearn for scholarship, but would be satisfied by a sketch 
of the development of the political institutions of Athens, England, 
Scotland, Ireland and the United States of America, in a popular 
style, good of its kind, the book may be recommended. The maps 
and diagrams are in harmony with the reading matter. No 
historical errors of consequence are observed, although the author 
is sometimes careless of details; for instance, he exaggerates the 
size of Charlemagne's empire and he antedates by some centuries 
the time when England became legally homogeneous. 

In his philosophy, Mr. Curtis is not a hedonist. The attaining of 
happiness by the living human race he subordinates to a vague duty, 
so vague that its only possible expression seems to be the formation 
of states. 

From the frequency of its repetition one would suppose that the 
favorite dogma of Mr. Curtis is that every citizen is under an 
absolutely unqualified duty toward his state. The essential 
quality which distinguishes the state from all other organisations 
is this infinite claim. Sovereignty is a synonym for this quality, 
and is itself defined as "legal omnipotence." Such omnipotence, 
based upon an absolute duty, a categorical imperative, and not 
upon the shifting sands of self-interest, gives the state the admirable 
quality of "immutability." Not "compact" (which is conceived as 
essentially revocable), but perpetual "dedication," whatever that 
may be, must bind the subject to the state. Such is the abstract 
philosophy which is chanted monotonously from page to page 
throughout the volume. There is no explanation of its derivation 
or of its object. Fortunately Mr. Curtis has much to say of 
practical importance which does not depend for its verity upon his 
political creed. 

His inquiry into the affairs of men should have taught him that 
the state is not more essentially immutable than some other human 



154 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

institutions, of which the Roman Church is an example. The truth 
may be that the strongest organisation in a given territory exer- 
cising political power is called the state; and that whatever legal 
omnipotence there may be consists of superior strength. A single 
political dogma cannot solve the infinite complexities of human 
duty. Mr. Curtis admits that there may be a duty to oneself and 
to one's neighbour which at least qualify the claim of the state, 
that there may be a time when, in the interest of the state, a man 
ought to disobey the law. He approves the resistance of the 
American Colonies to taxation without representation. It was 
"almost a religious duty." Apparently one may disobey the law 
in the interest of a state which exists only in aspiration. Moreover, 
there seem to be times when the citizens of a state are under a 
duty to destroy it and become citizens of a larger state. One 
wonders if, should Germany formally annex Belgium, Mr Curtis 
would impose on the ex-Belgians an absolute duty to support 
Teutonic immutability. Perhaps he means that the absolute duty 
is owed to any state to which one would wish to belong. If so, he 
brings not peace, but a sword. 

A Commonwealth, according to Mr. Curtis, is a variety of state, 
but it is peculiar in having freedom, i.e., in being adaptable accord- 
ing to experience, in being, as far as possible, a government of, for 
and by the people. Freedom is the Apple of Eden, the knowledge 
of good and evil gained by experience, and the power to use such 
knowledge. 

When Mr. Curtis comes to consider whether the British Empire 
is a state he speaks in a tone of uncertainty: " It is a state, yet not a 
state." The explanation is that it is a state on the outside, but 
not on the inside. How legal omnipotence can be so constructed 
Mr. Curtis does not explain. It is stated on the authority of 
Alexander Hamilton that power without revenue is but a name. 
It follows that, inasmuch as none of the colonies are taxed by the 
Imperial Government, that Government is not sovereign. Yet 
Mr. Curtis does not hesitate repeatedly to call the British Empire 
a Commonwealth; and possibly he would admit that the central 
government has sovereign authority over the Crown colonies (which 
it does not tax) , although the power of the central Government is no 
more questionable legally in the great Dominions. The difference 
is that a small island is more easily ruled from without than a large 
one. 



BOOK REVIEWS 155 

Mr. Curtis is led astray by words which may simplify a problem 
when rightly used, but which should not be applied before the facts 
are thoroughly assimilated. "Sovereignty in law" is a concept of 
legal thinking carried systematically and consistently to its con- 
clusion . "Sovereignty in fact' ' is the name of a potentiality. Legally 
there is no limit to the possible activities of the Imperial Parliament ; 
practically the effect of any particular measure depends upon 
varying circumstances in the future. Whether the Imperial 
Government may have sovereignty in fact can not be predicted 
with any great degree of certainty, at all events not without the 
most profound investigation. 

Much in the book is of supreme value, but might have been 
stated with more brevity and more effect. It should not have taken 
so many pages to demonstrate the theorem that no man can serve 
two masters and the corollaries thereof: that independence and 
subordination are mutually exclusive alternatives which cannot be 
bridged by a common monarchy without legal authority; and that 
any combination of states which does not itself bind their citizens 
can have but a precarious existence and an ineffective. 

A modern idol of the market place is the doctrine that there is 
some sort of virtue in the independence of small states. Mr. Curtis 
is not thus deluded. He sees that to disorganise the world is to 
create causes for war; that the benefits of civilian security can be 
obtained only, if at all, by mitigating the independence of localities. 
He sees, moreover, that great results are not achieved without 
intelligence; that "cut and dried" plans must be made and well 
made before the human race, or any great part of it, can be united 
under law. He thus rebels against the great, but generally un- 
wholesome, influence of Edmund Burke on English political theory. 

To all persons who have time to read it, the book will afford 
food for much thought; and it will convince many that "the British 
Empire as at present established cannot endure". 

H. A. HARRISON. 

Sons of Canada. BRIDLE, AUGUSTUS. Toronto, J. M. Dent & 

Sons, 1916. Pp. VIII -280. Price $1.50 net. 
We all love gossip. How else can we explain our fondness of 
biography, the lays of minstrels, and the like? We would sooner 
learn about burnt cakes and malmsey wine than the provisions of 
Habeas Corpus and Magna Charta. It is this inherent love of gossip 
that has made Gardiner's "Prophets, Priests, and Kings" such a 



156 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

very great success. Gardiner in his own inimitable way gave us 
details of the lives of the great that we were all thirsting to know. 
So with Bridle. He has given us a "Prophets Priests and Kings" 
for Canada. At the outset, it must be confessed that the characters 
dealt with are not so fully in the public eye as those discussed by 
Gardiner. But the method of treatment in the two books is 
essentially the same. There is a keen analysis made of the charac- 
ter of each person, coupled with a wealth of anecdotal detail about 
his life. And there the likeness ends. The styles of the two men 
are poles asunder. Gardiner hates to use a phrase or word not 
drawn from the "well of English undented"; Bridle freely uses 
' ' j ournalese ' ' bordering on slang. ' ' I wish Bridle were not slangy ' ' , 
said a friend to me. But, truth to tell, if the smart sayings were 
eliminated, Bridle would be eliminated also. 

The book contains thirty-six sketches of notable Canadian men, 
and each one grips the reader. Prophets, priests, and financial 
kings are included in the collection. The University of Toronto 
is represented by President Falconer and Professor Mavor. The 
book is illustrated by sixteen excellent portraits drawn by F. S. 
Challoner, R.C.A. But why, oh why, has Challoner made Professor 
Mavor look so burly and truculent? P. S. 

The Varsity Magazine War Supplement, 1916. Toronto. The 

University of Toronto Press. 

This elaborate volume is issued by the Students' Council and is 
the product of much time and labour on the part of its editors. 
It is well printed and the numerous illustrations are well reproduced. 
Articles and letters are contributed by prominent public men, 
among them Mr. Winston Churchill and the Premiers of the 
Dominion and all the Provinces. Others are written by the 
President and member of the Board of Governors and the Staff. 
Graduates and students at the front in various parts of the world 
have written of their experiences. In the central portion of the 
book are given the portraits of hundreds of Alumni who are on 
active service, those of the fallen being reproduced on a larger scale. 
Despite the efforts made by the editors, it was not possible to obtain 
portraits of all. It is hoped that those now missing will be available 
for another issue next year. It is to be regretted that for the 
meantime a list was not given of these latter. Apart from this 
omission, the book gives a good record of the work that the Univer- 
sity of Toronto and its sons have done in war service of every kind. 



LETTERS TO THE EDITOR 



To THE EDITOR OF 

THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 

Sir- 
Suggestions for improving THE MONTHLY may not always be 
practicable, but I believe that something could and should be done 
in that direction. The thing that strikes me after thirty years of 
graduate life, is that most of us seem content to serve as relays, so 
to speak, in the transmission of knowledge, and have no message 
to send to the world ourselves, or at least if we have, it seldom or 
never reaches the world through the medium of our University 
organ. Am I not right? Take the present war. Can Toronto 
University send forth no inspiring or assuring words, born of her 
deep insight into history, to steady and direct the masses who may 
justly expect this of her? Perhaps THE MONTHLY is not the best 
medium for doing this, but there are possibilities of influencing 
public opinion indirectly through such an organ by first influencing 
the thinking classes who read it and transmit their ideas to others. 
Would it be too much to expect that our scientific men, for instance, 
might find a medium for the dissemination of their views through 
the University press, rather than as now through the columns of 
the Scientific American Supplement, or other such publication? 
Surely we may expect in the future something better in the way of 
facilities for giving and receiving first ideas of the University kind 
than we now have in Canada! And why should not our greatest 
University provide it? I remain, 

Yours truly, ' 
Thorold, Ontario. H. BONIS. 



[157] 



158 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

To THE EDITOR OF 

THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY. 
Sir- 
After two years of fairly intimate association with the work of 
THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY I have been impressed with the fact 
that the chief handicap under which its usefulness remains is diffi- 
culty of distribution. 

Contributions of articles and correspondence have been forth- 
coming in a really gratifying manner, considering the relatively 
small number of the graduates who see the magazine month by 
month. The difficulty of canvassing and recording is such, how- 
ever, that it is clear to one at any rate of the Editorial Committee 
that further progress is dependent upon obtaining the services of 
an expert business manager, who will undertake the circulation of 
all graduates from a constantly revised mailing-list. It will be 
granted that this is work to occupy all the time of a skilled executive 
and that such an one would be unobtainable except at a high 
enough salary to warrant his giving all his time to it. The 
answer to all objections raised on the ground of expense is that 
such a manager would be responsible for an increased circulation, 
and so for more income also, we may hope, for an increased 
output of contributions from the wider circle so covered. 

Yours, etc., 

ROBERT BEATTIE. 



TORONTONENSIA 

FACULTY AND COLLEGE NOTES 

Faculty of A special Convocation was held on Monday, 

Medicine December llth, for the purpose of conferring 

Convocation ^ degree of M B upon ^ose students of the 

Medical Department who had taken their fifth year in a Summer 
Course which extended until the end of November. Nearly all of 
those who received the degree had already seen service overseas, 
and again offer themselves for further service in the Army Medical 
Corps. 

After the ceremony of conferring the degrees, President Falconer 
delivered a brief address to the new Alumni, congratulating them on 
having answered the call for service for the Empire, and for the 
world at a time when such service was of the greatest moment 
and when the call for greater effort was most urgent. The President 
spoke with evident emotion of the members of the University who 
had already made the supreme sacrifice and expressed his belief 
that those now going forth would prove faithful to the high stand- 
ards of loyalty and devotion set by those who had gone before. 

Degrees were conferred on the following: J. F. Adams, F. G. 
Banting, W. W. Barraclough, B.A ; H. N. Bethune, T. W. Bleakley, 
D.D.S. ; F. H. Boone, A. J. Boyce, B.A. ; W. E. Brown, B. S. Cornell, 
D. I. Davis, B.A.; G. M. Dobbin, J. S. Douglas, H. A. Elliott, B.A.; 
C. Farquharson, D. G. Findlay, C. E. Frain, R. K. George, B.A.; 
J. A. Gilchrist, B.A.; M. G. Graham, A. R. Hagerman, R. J. Hard- 
staff, F. W. W. Hipwell, E. D. Hutchinson, W. G. Jamieson, A M. 
Jeffrey, F. M. Johnson, W. J. Johnston, C. V. Mills, H. A. Mitchell, 
B.A.; A. Montgomery, H. C. McAlister, J. C. McClelland, J. M. 
McDonald, C. S. Macdougall, A. Mackay, R. MacKinlay, F. S. 
Parney, T. W. P. Peacock, G. R. Scott, W. E. L. Sparks, W. P. 
Tew, N. O. Thomas, B.A.; C. E. Thompson, A. Thomson, M.A.; 
H. D. Veitch, T. E. White. J. P. McM. 

Faculty of Dr. Seath of the Department of Education 

Education o f Ontario paid a friendly visit to the Faculty 

of Education on November 30th and December 1st, to observe its 
workings. 

[159] 



160 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The students of the Faculty of Education gave two excellent 
dramatic performances of "The Cricket on the Hearth" on Decem- 
ber 19th and 20th. They were trained by Mrs. Frank Halbus. 
The proceeds were devoted to patriotic purposes. 

Dr. Peter Sandiford has been re-appointed secretary of the 
Faculty of Education for the Session 1916-17. P. S. 

v ~ The attendance at the meeting of the Knox 

Knox College . . 

College Alumni Association was not quite so 

large as usual this year but nothing was wanting in the satisfaction 
of those who did come. They were pleased with the entertainment 
in the new residence, and were pleased to meet old friends. They 
were pleased with the three days' programme. The papers showed 
gratifying understanding of modern theological thought. The 
daily lecture was given by the Reverend Thomas Eakin of Toronto. 
His subject was "The Art of Preaching." The other papers were: 
" Religious Education," by the Reverend J. C. Robertson of Toronto 
and the Reverend W. J. Knox of London; U A Minister's Reading," 
by the Reverend Andrew Robertson of Toronto; "Early Church 
Life," by the Reverend W. W. Bryden of Woodville, and the 
Reverend John Mutch of Stouffville; and "Mohammed" by the 
Reverend Professor Davidson. At the business meeting the 
Reverend G. B. Wilson, of Toronto, was elected President; and the 
Reverend Edward Cockburn, Secretary. 

Between sixty and seventy Knox students have left the classes 
to go to the front. Apart from special students and men taking 
partial courses, only thirty-one men remain. In normal times the 
first year is drawn mostly from last year's B.A. class; but not one 
man who was in the University last winter has entered our Junior 
Class this autumn. R. D. 

Enlistment of the The whole freshman class of the Royal College 
First Year, of Dental Surgeons has volunteered for 

R.C.D.S. service in the C.A.D.C. A vitally important 

need is being met by this patriotic offer, as will be realised by every 
one who reads what the demand is for skilled men in this service 
aid stops to think how greatly the health of the troops has been 
benefitted by the work which the C.A.D.C. has done, not only for 
the Canadian, but also the British forces. In a letter from Col. 
Primrose written from Salonica and published in THE MONTHLY 
some time ago, it was shown that the small handful of C.A.D.C. 



TORONTONENSIA 161 

men attached to the University Hospital alone were able to perform 
an invaluable service for all the British troops on that front, and 
more could have been done if there had been more dental surgeons 
and their assistants available. The work is heavy and the appli- 
cants have to pass the usual medical tests Our congratulations 
are due to both those who are accepted and those who cannot pass 
the test for their public spirit and the example they have set. 

The C.A.D.C. overseas has during the past three months 
requisitioned 200 graduates, 270 sergeants, and 200 batmen. 
Of the 670 thus required, 225 have proceeded overseas. It is 
estimated that of those now volunteering, about 70 will be accepted 
as medically fit, and will serve as sergeants. To supply the balance 
needed and to meet further demands the directors of the Royal 
College of Dental Surgeons, by arrangement with the Militia 
Department and the University, are planning to begin a special 
first-year class, to commence about February 1st, and to continue 
for from three to six months according as the demands of the 
C.A.D.C. require. 

The California ^ n ^ e evening of September 30th, a meeting 

Branch Alumni was held at the University Club, San Fran- 

cisco, for the purpose of completing the 

organisation of a local branch of the University of Toronto Alumni 
Association. The following Alumni were present: W. L. Argo, 
1911; Rev. Andrew Beattie, 1892; W. C. Bray, 1902; W. J. Caesar, 
1897; E. C. Dickson, 1904; Professor H. R. Fairclough, 1883; 
J. W. Henderson, 1889; F. B. Kenward, 1899; Professor A. C. 
Lawson, 1883; Harvard McNaught, 1897; Rev. E. A. Wicher, 1895 
and Mr. Langlois. Communications favouring organisation were 
received from B. M. Aikens, 1898; E. J. Boyes, 1890; H. D. Boyes, 
1891; John A. McDonald, 1898; J. H. McHaffie, 1897; Duncan 
McLean, 1891; R. A. Peers, 1899; C. P. Thompson, 1905; W. F. B. 
Wakefield, 1899; T. G. Watson and Mrs. E. A. Wicher, 1899. 

It was moved and seconded that a branch of the University of 
Toronto Alumni Association be organised in California, and that 
it should be known as the California Branch of the University of 
Toronto Alumni Association. Carried. 

It was moved and seconded that Professor H. R. Fairclough 
be elected president of the organisation and that Dr. E. C. Dick- 
son be elected secretary- treasurer. Carried. 



162 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

It was decided that a cordial invitation be extended to President 
Falconer to visit the association at the time of his next visit to the 
Pacific Coast, and to any members of the Faculty of the University 
of Toronto who may be visiting California. 

An attempt is being made to reach all Alumni of the University 
of Toronto who are resident in California and it is hoped that this 
branch may soon have a flourishing and active membership. 

The address of the president is Stanford University, Cal., and 
that of the secretary is Stanford University Medical School, San 
Francisco, Cal. 

The University The University Settlement is a phase of the 

Settlement recent development of University activity 

which should interest a large number of our graduates and should 
command their support. This work was begun over six years 
ago in quarters on Adelaide Street, west of Spadina Avenue. 

Two years ago the present quarters at the corner of Adelaide 
and Peter Streets were leased and the work has been completely 
organised by Miss Sara Libby Carson on the community welfare 
plan, The settlement is by no means simply a charitable institu- 
tion; the whole underlying principle is to help the people to help 
themselves, to aid them in the betterment of their home life and 
neighbourhood environment. On the other hand, the settlement 
is not merely an amusement centre, although, in every line of effort, 
our workers seek to infuse joy into the lives of those they touch. 

Being situated in a section of the city contiguous to the central 
down-town shop and factory district, an important element of the 
work is with working boys and girls. For these our settlement has 
become a social centre and an opportunity for extra educational and 
industrial instruction which the boys and girls sadly need As far 
as the neighbourhood is concerned, no part of the work is more 
important than that among the mothers and the small children. 
Under a working arrangement with the Toronto Playgrounds 
Association, whereby some of the rooms at the Ogden Public School 
are placed at the disposal of our workers during the late afternoon 
or evening, we are enabled to undertake gymnasium, chorus and 
concert work which would be otherwise impossible. Apart from 
the classes in English for foreigners, the work among men has not 
developed very greatly as yet; as a matter of fact, over 75 per cent, 
of the men connected with our settlement families have enlisted 
for the service of their country overseas. 



TORONTONENSIA 163 

From a purely academic point of view, the Settlement offers a 
field of practical experience for our students in the new Department 
of Social Service. There are six resident workers, four of whom 
have taken courses at the University of Toronto, and fifty-four 
voluntary non-resident workers, thirty-four of whom are University 
men and women. We have here an up^to-date social service 
laboratory. 

The Settlement is under the management of a Board of Directors 
of which President Falconer is chairman; Miss May Skinner, B.A., 
secretary; and Professor R, W. Angus, treasurer. The work is 
supported entirely by voluntary contributions from graduates and 
friends of the University. Owing to the present conditions in the 
country, a number of the former supporters are not now available, 
so that the Settlement finished its last year with quite a large 
deficit, and is therefore in need of the support of the graduates. 
It may also be pointed out that this is the only organisation appeal- 
ing to the graduates as a body. 

E. F. B. 

Recent Public Professors A. B. Macallum and J. C. Mc- 

Appointments Lennan have been appointed members of the 

new Advisory Council to the Dominion Government on "Industrial 
and Scientific Research." The functions of this Council will 
be similar to those outlined in the recent lecture delivered by 
Prof. McLennan to the Royal Canadian Institute (see p. 118 of the 
December MONTHLY). Professor McLennan remains at the 
University, but Professor Macallum having been appointed 
Chairman of the Commission will be leaving shortly to devote all his 
time to this important work. This is not the time to speak at 
length on the services rendered by Professor Macallum to the 
cause o f scientific education and to his University, to which fuller 
reference will be made in a later issue. But a brief mention may 
here be made of the active interest which he has always taken in the 
welfare of the Alumni Association -and in THE MONTHLY, which he 
edited for two years, during which it reached the highest point 
known in its circulation. It is hoped that he will still be able to 
contribute to its pages and give its readers information on the work 
that the Commission will be doing under his guidance. 

Professor A. H. Abbott has been appointed Director of Labour 
for Ontario under the Imperial Munitions Board, after serving some 
months as Secretary of the Ontario Parliamentary Committee on 



164 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

resources. His previous success in organising the Speakers' 
Patriotic League, and the British Red Cross campaigns in 1915 
and 1916 are well-known. In recognition of his services to the 
Red Cross he has been elected an Esquire in the Order of St. John 
of Jerusalem; and the members of the Alumni Association join in 
offering him their congratulations on this merited honour. 

Reception to ^ n tne afternoon of December 15th, the 

Returned President and members of the Faculty Union, 

with representatives of the Students' Council, 

were at home to graduates and undergraduates of the University 
who have returned from the front. Thirty-five guests were present, 
and a pleasant hour was spent. It is proposed to hold these 
gatherings every third Friday of the month, and the next will be 
held on January 19th. As far as possible individual invitations will 
be sent, but as there will be some of whose return those here may 
not have been informed, all concerned are asked to accept this 
notification and pass it on to others of whom they may know. 
Returned members, both in Toronto and elsewhere, are asked to 
notify Professor G. O. Smith, giving their present address. 

Those present at the first gathering were: Lt.-Col. C. G. 
Nasmith, C.M.G., CA.M.C.; Capt. J. J. Mackenzie, C.A.M.C.; 
Capt. B. P. Watson, C.A.M.C.; Capt. L. B. M. Loudon, 15th Bn.; 
Lieut. P. W. Beatty, M.C., 8th Bn.; Lieut. H. R. Rutherford, 27th 
Bn.; Lieut F. L. Letts, C.A.M.C.; Lieut. W. J. Watts, Royal 
Warwickshires; Sec.-Lieut. R W. Harris, R.E.; Lieut. C. A. Roy, 
4th Bde., C.F.A.; Sergt. -Instructor F. S. Rutherford, C.E.; Sergt. 
H, N. Bethune, 2nd F.A., C.A.M.C.; Lieut. T. D'A Leonard, 5th 
Bn. ; Lieut. H V. Hearst, 58th Bn. ; Sergt. J. S. Crawford, C.A.M.C. ; 
Surg. Prob F. R. Mitchell, R.N.V.R.; Sergt. R. P. Cromarty, 
C.A.M.C.; Sergt. O. .Carlisle, C.A.M.C.; Lce-Cpl. C. H. Archibald, 
C.A.MC.; Sergt. G. H. Stevenson, C.A.MC.; Acting Sergt. 
E. Nettleton, C.A.M.C,; Lieut. H, W. B. Locke, 4th Bn.; Sergt. 
I. R Smith, C.A.M.C.; Bombr. W. R. Lane, C.F.A.; Fit. Sub-Lt. 
R. A. Courtnage, R.N.A.S.; Fit. Sub.-Lieut. G. R. S. Fleming, 
R.NA.S.; Lieut. W. G. Bowles, C.F.A.; Sergt. G. F. Sykes, 
C.A.M.C.; Pte. J. A. Simmers, P.P.C.L.I.; Pte. C. V. Scott, 5th 
F.A., C.A.MC.; Sergt. J. G, Strachan, C.A.M.C.; W. S. Quing, 
American Ambulance. 



TORONTONENSIA 165 



The Toronto A SGTIGS of papers and discussions on con- 

Branch of the temporary writers was initiated by the 

h Association Engl{sh Association on November 15th at 
Victoria College, when Professor Barker Fairley read a paper on 
"John Masefield." In contrast to those who regard Masefield 
principally as an exponent of realism in stories of low or humble life, 
Professor Fairley emphasised the idealism of Masefield 's poetry, as 
revealed particularly in the "Sonnets" and "Good Friday." 
Describing the author as haunted and intoxicated by the spirit of 
beauty he drew a comparison and contrast between Wordsworth's 
prevailing sense of beauty as immanent in nature and Masefield 's 
frequent conception of beauty as transcendent. Masefield 's grow- 
ing interest and mastery in the drama were also pointed out, 
particularly in the use of the old half-crazed fiddler's disordered 
but beautiful imagery of the Severn tide and the coach-horn (a kind 
of folk-poetry) to relieve and idealise the intense gloom of "The 
Tragedy of Man." 

Professor S. H. Hooke's paper on "Thomas Hardy," read on 
December 13th, drew a parallel between Hardy and the Greek 
dramatists. Though unlimited like the latter by restrictions of 
place, time, and choice of subject, Hardy's novels, like the Greek 
tragedy, are dominated by a single theme. Both represent the 
struggle of the individual agaist fate, but for Hardy the Greek 
conception of an over-ruling deity has given place to a belief in 
blind, inexorable, impersonal law. Thus the sense of emotional 
release, of "calm of mind, all passion spent", with which we finish 
reading a Greek tragedy, is absent from the tense and painful 
conclusion of "Tess" or "Jude the Obscure," where the hero or 
heroine seems the mere sport of ironic chance. But the feeling of 
reconciliation, essential for all tragedy, was found by the speaker, 
first, in the ennobling influence of Hardy's art, which redeems from 
pessimism a gloomy and sordid story; and secondly, in the poetic 
drama "The Dynasts," which must be regarded as an epilogue 
to the novels, and which, in its choruses by the Spirits of the Pities, 
voices a conviction of a benignant force beneath the remorseless 
current of circumstance. 

The remaining meetings for the session will be held as follows: 
January 17: "H. G. Wells" by Professor H. C. Simpson; February 
14: "Joseph Conrad" by Professor W. P. M. Kennedy; March 14: 
"Henry James" by Dr. A. F B. Clark; April 11: "Rudyard 
Kipling" by Principal Hutton. Those interested in membership 



166 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

may communicate with the secretary, W. H. Clawson, University 
College. The annual fee of $1.00 entitles each member to the 
pamphlets and bulletins issued by the central body of the Associa- 
tion. 

Farewell The Alumnae Association of University Col- 

Reception to lege held a meeting at Queen's Hall on the 

Miss Salter evening of November 3rd. From the begin- 

ning it was quite obvious that it was an unusual meeting. Graduate 
after graduate appeared, from the earliest years and from the 
latest years. The numbers were phenomenal. For this was a 
farewell reception to Miss Salter. She stood by the door a 
picturesque figure that few will forget. As all her one-time pro- 
teges approached, she had a word and a welcoming smile for each. 

The graduates had gathered together, eager to give some token 
of their appreciation. Miss Benson, president of the Alumnae 
Association, voiced briefly the feelings of those present. Miss 
Hillock then spoke a few words of tribute and reminiscence, and 
presented to Miss Salter pink roses, and a small envelope, half- 
hidden among them. That envelope was wonderful in its way, 
for it contained a sunny winter in the South. 

All business was deferred, and the whole evening was social. 
The time was spent in searching out familiar faces, and in attending 
to the music and refection arranged by Miss Livingston. At 
length all departed, glad to have participated in the "bon voyage" 
to Miss Salter. J. B. READE. 



TORONTONENSIA 



167 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
" The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



Professor W. P. Mustard, B.A. (U.) 
'86, of the Johns Hopkins University, 
was one of the speakers at the Thanks- 
giving meeting of the Virginia Educa- 
tional Convention. His subject was 
"Good Old Mantuan a textbook of 
the Elizabethan Schools." 

W. H. Metzler, B.A. (U.) '88, Ph.D., 
is now Dean of the Graduate School 
at Syracuse University, Syracuse 
N.Y. 

R. V. Bray, M.D. (V.) '90, of, 
Chatham has been chosen as Kent 
jail physician by the County Council. 

George Black, B.A. (U.) '98, for 
twelve years prior to 1915 President 
of the Lewiston, Idaho State Normal 
School, is now President of the Ellens- 
burg, Wash., State Normal School. 

Nanthan Lamont Wilson, B.A. (U.), 
'00, formerly managing editor of the 
Salt Lake, Utah, Herald-Republican, 
is now on the editorial staff of the 
Deseret Evening News, Salt Lake. 

Colin V. Dyment, B.A. (U.) '00, 
professor of journalism at the Univer- 
sity of Oregon, Eugene, Ore., has been 
appointed professor of journalism and 
administrative head of the department 
of journalism of the University of 
Washington, Seattle, Wash., effective, 
February 1, 1917. Simultaneously 
Mr. Dyment was appointed to have 



charge of the Summer Session courses 
in journalism at the University of 
California, Berkeley, Cal., for the 
Session of 1917. 

Robert J. Clark, B.A. (V.) '98, is 
now secretary-treasurer of the Kansas 
City Light and Power Company, 
Kansas City, Mo. 

The Reverend J. Roy VanWyck, 
B.A. (V.) '02, pastor of St. Andrew's 
Presbyterian Church, Chatham, has 
accepted a call from the Presbyterian 
Church in Bay City, Michigan. 

Miss Jessie L. Galloway, B.A. (U.) 
'07, is on the teaching staff of the 
Stirling High School. 

Miss Margaret K. Munro, B.A. (U.) 
'07, formerly a teacher at Glen Mawr, 
is now on the staff of the Thorold High 
School. 

The Reverend J. B. Fotheringham, 
B.A. (T.) '08, rector of St. George's 
Church, Goderich, has been invited to 
Grace Church, Brantford. 

Henderson Lynde Bryce, B.A. (U.) 
'11, M.B. '13, is now at Stave Fall, 
B.C. 

John Franklin Reed, B.A. (V.) '11, 
M.A. (V.) '12, has been granted a 
Founders' Scholarship, amounting to 
#450, in the Harvard Divinity School. 
This scholarship is one of the largest 
beneficiary funds at the disposal of the 
Divinity School. 

C. W. Stanley, B.S.A. '14, recently 
of Perdue University, LaFayette, 
Indiana, has joined the staff of the 
Chemistry Department at the Ontario 
Agricultural College, Guelph. 

Marriages 

COLEMAN MILNER On December 
16, 1916, in Seaforth, England, 
Capt. Theo Coleman, B.A. (U.) '92, 
M.D., C.M. (T.) '93, of Toronto, to 
Miss Edythe Milner. 



168 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



GEORGE HEATON On December 12, 
1916, Captain Ruggles Kerr George, 
B.A. (U.) '11, M.B. '16, of Toronto, 
to Miss Helen Heaton of Toronto. 

GILLIES DICKSON On December 6, 
1916, at Toronto, Duncan Brown 
Gillies, B.A. (U.) '03, to Miss Eliza- 
beth Mary Dickson, B.A. (U.) '03. 

GORDON HOGG On November 30, 
1916, at Toronto, Murray Gordon, 
B.A. (U.) '09, LL.B. '13, of Totten- 
ham, to Miss Ida Gertrude Hogg of 
Toronto. 

JACKSON HAMILTON On December 
14, 1916, at Simcoe, Capt. Alan Bert 
Jackson, A.M.C.; M.B. '16, to Miss 
Gertrude Eileen Hamilton of Simcoe. 

KERR CROSS On December 14, 1916 
at Toronto, Dr. W. A. R. Kerr, B.A. 
(U.) '99, M.A. '01, Dean of the 
University of Alberta, to Miss Edith 
Cross. 

LINDSEY GZOWSKI On Wednesday 
the 15th of November, 1916, at the 
Church of St. Andrew, Ashley Place, 
Westminster, London, by Colonel 
the Reverend R. H. Steacey, Princi- 
pal Chaplain of the Canadian forces 
in England, Charles Bethune Lind- 
sey, Staff Captain, 4th Canadian 
Infantry Brigade, on active service 
in France, to Wanda Casimira 
Gzowski, youngest daughter of Casi- 
mir Stanislaus Gzowski. 

MCLEAN CARRICK On November 
29, 1916, at Toronto, W. T. Taylor 
McLean, M.B. '10, of Toronto, to 
Miss Marguerite Ursula Carrick of 
Toronto. Address, 113 St. Clair 
Ave. West, Toronto. 



SCOTT GOLD On November 18 
1916, John W. Scott, B.A.Sc. '12, 
to Miss Madeline Christine Gold. 

SHEARD GRAY On November 18, 
1916, at Springhill, N.S., Lieut, 
Joseph Louis Sheard, C.A.S.C.. 
B.A. (U.) '11, to Miss Helen Mar- 
jorie Catherine Gray. 

SISSON MELDRUM On December 9, 
1916, Capt. E. W. Sisson, C.A.D.C., 
D.D.S. '09, to Miss Mary McLean 
Meldrum. 



Deaths 

FRASER On December 28, 1916, Wil- 
liam Henry Fraser, B.A. '80, M.A., 
Professor of Italian and Spanish, 
University of Toronto. 

GORDON On December 16, 1916, at 
Toronto, Andrew Robertson Gordon 
M.B. '90. 

LOUDON On December 29, 1916, 
James Loudon, M.A. '64, LL.D., 
formerly President of the University 
of Toronto. 

Me DONALD In South Africa, Thomas 
J. McDonald, M.D. (V.) '86, formerly 
of Barrie, Ontario. 

NIDDRIE On November 29, 1916, at 
Toronto, Keith Temple Niddrie, 
Med. '20. 

WHITE At LaSalle, Manitoba, George 
G. White, B.S.A. '06. Professor of 
Rural Economics and Farm Manage- 
ment at Manitoba Agricultural 
College, accidentally killed on his 
farm. 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, FEBRUARY, 1917. No. 5 



Ittniforaitg 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 
Second Lieutenant Guy Pierce Dunstan, B.A., University 

College, 1915 (in August 1916). 
Lance-Corporal Arthur Stuart Anderson; Applied Science, 

1913 (in June 1916). 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 
Lieutenant Charles Everest Thompson, M.B., 1916. 



IN HOSPITAL FROM SHELL SHOCK. 
Second Lieut. H. C. Buchanan, U.C. 1917. 

SERIOUSLY ILL. 
Lieut. W. R. West, B.A. (U.) 1916. 

HONOURS. 

D.S.O. Major H. J. McLaughlin. 
Military Cross Lieut. L. W. Klinger; Capt. D. T. Eraser; 

Lieut. R. Rose. 

D.C.M.CpL J. E. McGillivray. 
Mentioned in Dispatches Cpl. H. K. Wyman. 

XVI. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY STAFF, GRADUATES AND 
UNDERGRADUATES NOW ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Continued from the December number. 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit. Home College Year 

Lieut. Adams, J. F.; C.A.M.C. Training Depot; Hanover; M.B. '16 
Gnr. Anderson, N. M.; 67th Depot Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; U. '18 
Lieut. Andrew, A. T.; A.V.C.; Oakville; B.V.Sc. '16 
Capt. Archer, G. B.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '04 

[169] 



170 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Arnold, H. G.; 164th Bn.; Tor.; Ed. '10-11 
Capt. Ball, H. D.; Moore Barracks Hosp., Shorncliffe; Tor.; 

M.B. '11 

Lieut. Banting, F. G.; C.A.M.C.; Alliston; M.B. '16 
Sub-Lieut. Barber, H. C; R.N.V.R.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '11 
Lieut. Beaton, B.B.; C.A.D.C.; Whitevale; D.D.S. '15 
Lieut. Bleakley, T. W.; C.A.M.C.; Ottawa; D.D.S. '10, M.B. '16 
Lieut. Boone, F. H.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Bourne, O. B.; C.E.; Winnipeg; Sc. '07 
Lieut. Boyce, A. J.; C.A.M.C.; Goderich; B.A. (U.) '14, M.B. '16 
Lieut. Bright, S. G.; A.V.C.; Camlachie; B.V.Sc. '11 
Lieut. Brinsmead, H.; R.F.A.; Tor.; B.V.Sc. '16 
Lieut. Brown, W. E.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Burns, H. S.; R.A.M.C. (Mesopotamia); M.B. '07 
Lieut. Burt, A. C.; A.V.C.; Simcoe; B.V.Sc. '13 
Lieut. Bussell, E. I.; 208th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '19 
Lieut. Carpenter, T. A.; C.A.M.C.; Port Dover; M.B. '15 
Sapper Carruthers, C. H.; Div. Sig. Coy.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '12, 

M.A. 
Pte. Cockburn, R. S.; U. of T. Training Coy., Hton.; U. '18 

Cook, Miss F. H.; V.A.D. (Bermondsey Hosp. Ladywell, 

Eng.); Tor.; B.A. (T.) '14, M.A. '15 

Lieut. Cornell, B. S.; C.A.M.C.; Athens; V. '10-12, M.B. '16 
Gnr. Coulter, S. L.; 67th Depot Bty.; Windsor; Sc. '19 
Lieut. Crashley, J. W.; 204th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '14 
Gnr. Creelman, J. M.; 64th Bty., C.F.A.; Guelph; B.S.A. '15 
Lieut. Daniel, T. E.; 164th Bn.; Brantford; Ed. '11-12 
Lieut. Davidson, D. J.; Impl. Transport See. ; Dhar, Central India; 

B.A. (U.) '01 

Lieut. Davis, D. L; C.A.M.C.; Pt. Coquitlam, B.C.; M.B. '16 
Major Deacon, F. H.; C.A.S.C., M.D.; V. '95 
Lieut. Dobbin, G. M.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Cpl. Dore, H. C.; 198th Bn.; Wingham; Ed. '12-13, '15-16 
Lieut. Douglas, J. S.; C.A.M.C.; Dunnville; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Elliot, H. A.; C.A.M.C.; Midland; B.A. (U.) '14, M.B. '16 
Lieut. Elliott, C. F.; C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '12 
Pte. Ellwood, A. L.; B.E.F.; Purley, Eng.; U. '08-11 
Gnr. Evans, E. V.; 67th Depot Bty. C.F.A.; Tor.; U. '20 
Lieut. Farquharson, C.; C.A.M.C.; Agincourt; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Findlay, D. G.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 171 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Finlayson, D. R.; C.A.M.C.; Lucknow; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Firstbrook, H. M.; 216th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '15 
Pte. Fisher, C. B.; U. of T. Tr. Coy.; Lindsay; V. '17 
Lieut. Frain, C. E.; C.A.M.C.;' Norwich; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Frisby, W. G.; Victoria Square; U. 10-12 
Pte. Garden, J. H.; U. of T. Tr. Coy.; Calgary; V. '17 
Lieut. Gait, G.; Tunnelling Coy., C.E.; Rossland, B.C.; B.A.Sc. '08 
Lieut. Gibson, F. R.; Mech. Tpt.; Tor.; Sc. '17 
Lieut. Gilchrist, J. A.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '14, M.B. '16 
Capt. Gillam, M. H.; Adj., 71st Bn.; Woodstock; U. '10-11 
Co.S.M. Glenn, E. H.; 164th Bn.; Wingham; Ed. '09-10 
Lieut. Graham, M. G.; C.A.M.C.; Rodney; M.B. '16 

Guest, Miss E. J.; V.A.D. Northampshire War Hosp., 

Dunstan N.; Belleville; B.A. (U.) '99, M.A. '01 



Lieut. Hagerman, A. R. 
Lieut. Hamilton, G. M. 
Lieut. Hardstaff, R. J. 



C.A.M.C.; Parkland, Alta.; M.B. '16 

7th Fd. Coy., C.E.; Sc. 

C.A.M.C.; West Devonport, Tasmania; 



M.B. '16 
Sapper Harris, R. S. ; Sig. Tr. Depot, Ottawa; North Bay; Phm.B. 

'16 

Healy, M. G.; Tor.; U. '19 

Capt. Hetherington, H. B.; No. 2 F.A.D.; St. Catharines; M.B. 

'16 

Heward, G. C.; Tor.; T. '93-96 

Lieut. Hipwell, F. W. W.; C.A.M.C.; Base Hosp., M.D. 2; Allis- 

ton; M.B. '16 

Lieut. Hutchinson, E. D.; C.A.M.C.; Sarnia; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Irwin, H.; 67th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '10 
Lieut. Jamieson, W. G.; C.A.M.C.; Camborne; M.B. '16 
Capt. Janes, R. M.; No. 2 F.A.D.; Watford; M.B. '16 
Capt. Latimer, H.; Ch. 15th Bde. C.F.A.; V. 
Lieut. Jeffrey, A. M.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Locke, C. E.; C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '14 
Lieut. Johnston, W.J.; C.A.M.C.; Craigvale; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Kelley, J. D.; C.F.A.; Tor.; B.A. (T.) '11 
Capt. Kortwright, F. H.; 177th Bn.; St. Kitts, B.W.I.; Sc. '05-06 
Lieut. Little, N. H.; C.A.M.C. (Conval. Hosp., M.D. 2); Trenton; 

M.B. '16 

Lieut. McAlister, H. C.; C.A.M.C.; Ridgetown; M.B. '16 
Capt. McAndrewJ.B.; Adjt., 176th Bn.; St. Catharines; B.A.Sc.'12 



172 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Gnr. McCamus, W. R.; 67th Depot Bty.; London; B.A. (V.) '14 
Lieut. McCarter, D. S.; C.F.A. (Kingston); T. '14-16 
Lieut. McClelland, J. C.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Pte. McClenahan, W. S.; Div. Cyclists; Milton West; B.A. (U.) 

'16 
Pte. McComb, T. A.; 170th Bn.; Menanchtin; V. '14-16 

- Macdonald, A. D.; Cobalt; B.A.Sc. '12 
Lieut. Macdonald, H. H. R.; Tor.; U. '06-08 

Lieut. McDonald, J. M.; C.A.M.C.; Lakeside; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Macdougall, C. S.; No. 2 F.A.D, C.A.M.C.; Kincardine; 

M.B. '16 

Lieut. Macintosh, R. D.; A.V.C.; B.V.Sc. '11 
Lieut. MacKay, A.; C.A.M.C.; Woodstock; M.B. '16 
Lieut. MacKinlay, R.; C.A.M.C.; Aberarder; M.B. '16 
Sergt. McKinnon, A. L.; 198th Bn.; Ed. '14 

Capt. McLean, J. D.; No. 2 F.A.D.; Edmonton; M.D., C.M. '00 
Lieut. McLean, J. R. ; Palmerston; Sc. '17 
Major McVean, H. G.; 188th Bn.; Regina; B.A.Sc. '02 
Lieut. Macklin, G. E.; 164th Bn.; Milliken; Ed. '11-12 
Capt. Malcolm, G. G.; F.A.D. (Winnipeg); Lac de Bonnet, Man.; 

M.D., C.M. '06 

Lieut. Mills, C. V.; C.A.M.C.; Corunna; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Mitchell, H. A.; C.A.M.C., Tr. Depot, M.D. 2; Vancouver; 

B.A. (U.) '14, M.B. '16 

Lieut. Montgomery, A.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Major Munn, F. J.; D.A.D.M.S.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '03, M.B. '06 
Lieut. Neely, M. J.; A.V.C.; Lemberg, Sask.; B.V.Sc. '15 
Pte. Oliver, W. L.; 198th Bn.; Petrolea; Ed. '15-16 
Major Oxley, J. M.; 95th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. 
Lieut. Page, F. R.; A.V.C.; Thornhill; B.V.Sc. '12 
Lieut. Parney, F. S.; C.A.M.C.; Edmonton; M.B. '16 
Bom. Patten, B. B.; St. George; B.A.Sc. '04 

- Patterson, G. S.; Occ. Arts (V.) '12 

-Patterson, R. G.; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; St. Marys; B.A.Sc. 

'14 

Lieut. Peacock, T. W. P.; C.A.M.C.; Stroud; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Pearce, L. P.; Yorkton, Sask.; B.A.Sc. '16 
Pte. Pollock, G.; 204th Bn.; Tor.; Dent. '19 

Lieut. Ponton, G. M.; Tunnelling Coy. C.E.; Belleville; Sc. '08-09 
Lieut. Pook, G. G.; A.V.C.; Edmonton; B.V.Sc. '15 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 173 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Capt. Porter, G. D.; Div. Lab. M.D. 2; Tor.; M.B. '94 
Sergt. Porter, L. A. M.; 204th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '05-06 

Porter, Miss N.; V.A.D.; Tor.; U. '20 

Lieut. Price, H. W.; R.F.C.; Tor.; V. '19 

Lieut. Rattle, W. F.; 164th Bn.; Milliken; U. '11-12, Ed. '12-13 
Lieut. Rehill, J. R.; C.A.M.C.; Lumsden, Sask.; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Ross, O. W.; 176th Bn.; Brantford; B.A.Sc. '12 
Capt. Ross, V.; Staff Off. to D.A.D.M.S., M.D. 2; Hton.; M.B. '03 
Lieut. Rumball, J. R.; 220th Bn.; Clinton; B.A. (V.) '11, M.A. '12 
Lieut. Scott, G. R.; C.A.M.C. Tr. Depot, M.D. 2; Peterboro; 

M.B. '16 

Major Shuttleworth, C. B.; Sr. M.O. Base Hosp., M.D. 2; Tor.; 

M.D., C.M. '94 

Sims, H. B.; Sc. '95 

Sergt. Smelser, W. A. ; Can. School of Musketry; Hammon ; B.A.Sc. 

'16 

Lieut. Smillie, Emmaline Eva; Indian Army; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '13 
Lieut. Sparks, W. E. L.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '16 
Pte. Stafford, R. P.; Cardinal; B.A. (V.) '14 

Pte. Steele, G. A.; U. of T. Tr. Coy.; Meridian, Alta.; B.A. (V.) '08 
Lieut. Steven, H. M.; C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '11 
Sergt. Steven, R. A.; C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '15 

Capt. Stewart, J. R. F.; 177th Bn.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '08, LL.B. '11 
Lieut. Strome, I. R.; Can. Mil. School, Crowboro, Sussex, Eng. ; 

Brandon; B.A.Sc. '14 
Dr. Sutherland, W. F. B.; Mech. Transport, C.A.S.C., M.D. 2; 

Tor.;Sc. '18 

Major Swan, W. G.; 131st Bn.; New Westminster; B.A.Sc. '06 
Major Sweet, E. E.; Adjt., 215th Bn.; Brantford; LL.B. (V.) '86 
Lieut. Tew, W. P.; C.A.M.C.; Oil Springs; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Thomas, N. O.; C.A.M.C. Tr. Depot, M.D. 2; St. Thomas; 

B.A. (U.) '13, M.B. '16 

Lieut. Thompson, C. E.; C.A.M.C.; Hton.; M.B. '16 
Capt. Thorne, S. M.; Tunnelling Coy., C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '01 
Cpl. Tutt, J. M.; No. 2 O.S.C.A.S.C. Tr. Depot; Brantford; B.A. 

(V.) '15 

Lieut. Valentine, J. N.; A.V.C.; Portage la Prairie; B.V.Sc. '09 
Lieut. Veitch, H. D.; C.A.M.C.; Winterbourne ; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Vickers, R. J.; I.A.V.C.; Brighton, Eng.; B.V.Sc. '12 
Capt. Walters, J. J.; M.O., 118th Bn.; Kitchener; M.B. '99 



174 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Lieut. Watts, H. W.; 186th Bn.; Tor.; V. '14-15 
Lieut. White, T. E.; C.A.M.C.; Hton.; M.B. '16 
Lieut. Whitehead, G.; A.V.C.; B.V.Sc. '11 
Sergt. Whitney, R. L.; 198th Bn.; Atherley; V. '17 

Wilkinson, K. B.; U. of T. Tr. Coy.; Tor.; U. '19 

Gnr. Wilson, E. M.; 74th Bty. C.F.A.; Ottawa; B.A. V. '15 
Lieut. Wiltse, J. H.; C.A.D.C.; Athens; D.D.S. '13 
Gnr. Winslow, J. H.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; London; B.S.A. '15 
Capt. Wright, W. W.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '04 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO OVERSEAS TRAINING COMPANY 

The following members of the Company have been accepted as 
candidates for commissions in the Imperial Army: Sergt. H. D. 
Anger, B.A. (U.) '10; Ptes. R. S. Cockburn, U.C. '17; M. A. D. 
Davis, B.A. (V.) '15; E. V. Deverall, B.A.Sc. '15; M. Farnham; 
H. F. Fice; E. M. Gilbert Cooper; F. R. Goodearle; D. G. Mac- 
donald, B.A. (Manchester); C. B. Macqueen, Sc. '19; J. Ruxton; 
R. F. Weaver*. 

The following have been accepted as candidates for commissions 
in the Royal Flying Corps and the Royal Naval Air Service: 
Ptes. S. E. Buck; W. H. Fair, (V.) '17; J. A. Baker*;T. W.Jackson; 
G. A. King; W. R. Irwin; G. E. Mackay*; H, T. Maclachlan; 
J. T. Menzies; V. A. Stewart (O.A.C.) ; B. Truscott. 

The following have received appointments in the Canadian 
forces: V. A. Hooper, Lieut., 213th Bn.; A. G. Hume, Sc. '18, 
Sergt., 213th Bn. (thence to the 67th Bty,. C.F.A.); O. D. Steven- 
son, B A. (U.) '14, Sergt., 255th Bn.; W. R. Howard, T. '17, Sergt., 
255th Bn. 



"Matriculant. 



IN MEMORIAM 

JAMES LOUDON, B.A., 1862; M.A., 1864; LL.D., 1894. 
President of the University 1892 to 1906. 

I. 

RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE. 

Moved by Dean Ellis, Seconded by Professor I . H. Cameron. 

The Senate of the University of Toronto desires to express 
its deep sense of the great loss which the University has ex- 
perienced in the death of one of her most distinguished and most 
loyal sons, Dr. James Loudon, for many years Professor of Mathe- 
matics and Physics and from 1892 to 1906 President of the Univer- 
sity. Dr. Loudon finished a brilliant undergraduate course by 
taking his B.A. with the gold medal in 1862. Two years later he 
joined the teaching staff as classical and mathematical tutor and 
from that date till his retirement ten years ago he gave himself 
wholly and unsparingly to the service of his alma mater. He was 
the first Canadian by birth and education to occupy a Professorial 
chair in the University, and to his vigorous championship and 
unwearying labour is due in no small measure the steady and sur- 
prising development of the University from that day to this. From 
the beginning he worked wisely and courageously to build up and 
strengthen the University as a School of Science, not only in his 
own subjects of Mathematics and Physics but also on the biological 
and chemical sides. He worked hard in the cause of Applied Science 
and the Faculties of Engineering, Medicine and Forestry owed 
to him in no small measure their inception and their expansion. 
Into this body over which he so often presided and directed its 
deliberations he entered in 1873, one of the first of the members 
elected by Convocation. Throughout his long connection he was 
most constant in his attendance and most active in his efforts for 
the advancement of sound learning. Called upon to play a unique 
part in the history of the University in the most critical stage of 
its development, fortunately he brought to bear upon it an ex- 
perience and a preparation alike unique, adequate and invaluable. 
He possessed, in abundant measure, familiarity with every detail 
and condition, combined with expert personal knowledge, per- 
spicuous insight and prophetic foresight. From the beginning of 

1175] 



176 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

his academic connection side by side with a group of brilliant sons 
of the University such as Edward Blake, Thomas Moss, Adam 
Crooks and later William Mulock, he fought hard and successfully 
for provincial aid in the equipment of the University with ade- 
quate laboratories and apparatus for science teaching, his last 
efforts in this line resulting in the magnificent Physical Laboratory 
which stands as a fitting memorial of him in the University which 
he loved and to which he gave his life. 

The Senate desires to convey to Mrs. Loudon, his faithful 
helpmate for so many years, and to the other members of the 
family, its deepest sympathy and condolence in our common 
and irreparable bereavement. 
January 12, 1917. 

II. 

ADDRESS AT THE FUNERAL OF DR. LOUDON. 

Until within a few months almost any day during the last 
ten years a gentleman, evidently retired from active duties, 
might be seen walking up or down St. George Street and 
offering courteous and kindly greeting to those whom he met. A 
casual acquaintance would soon realise that this gentleman whose 
countenance bore the marks of refinement and high intelligence, 
interested as he was in painting and music, shrewd in his judg- 
ments of men and affairs, was no ordinary person. Even in this 
closing period, placid but still alert, Dr. Loudon often gave evidence 
how unusual had been the qualities of his life in its prime when he 
played a very conspicuous part in the educational movements of 
this Province and Dominion. It was a finely rounded out career. 
He died suddenly in his own home in the city where he was born 
and was educated, where he used his splendid gifts, and came to be 
respected as one of its most honoured citizens. 

He showed his natural endowments early in life and by careful 
discipline he easily won a place of distinction in school and univer- 
sity, his brilliant and reliable abilities always marking him out as 
the obvious person to fill the positions which were ready for him. 
So competent was he that thirteen years after graduation he 
became Professor of Mathematics, though he had had no training 
abroad, and though hitherto such positions had been filled by 
graduates of British Universities. During his occupancy of the 
chair he continued to give proof of his ability both as a productive 



IN MEMORIAM 177 

scholar and as a clear teacher, but his preference lay in pure science, 
and though he had been a classical tutor and a professor of mathe- 
matics he is known now chiefly as having been a physicist of 
eminence. He also soon made his energy and breadth of view felt 
in the conduct of the policies of the University. From early days 
he was an advocate of laboratory instruction and was enamoured 
of scientific research. This is the more remarkable tribute to 
Dr. Loudon's mind because at that time the scientific spirit was 
not strong in the University, and he had not got his inspiration 
from any great teacher in an outside school. 

Having in view the development of scientific research among 
the graduates, Dr. Loudon suggested in 1882 that a system of 
fellowships should be established, which might serve also as part- 
time tutorships to add to the teaching power of the University in 
its day of need. To him also was due the institution of the degree 
of Doctor of Philosophy. 

But his interests extended beyond the pure sciences to the 
applied sciences, though possibly he would agree with the recent 
words of the greatest of modern physicists, Sir J. J. Thomson, 
"research in applied science might lead to reforms; but research 
in pure science leads to revolutions". He had been deeply inter- 
ested in the questions of policy that centred in the establishment 
of a Technical College, and eventually it was due to a report 
based on his visit made at the request of the Government to in- 
stitutions abroad, and to his subsequent efforts that the School 
of Practical Science, now the Faculty of Applied Science, was 
established. 

He looked beyond the sciences, however, and secured a much 
larger recognition in University College for the Modern Languages 
and a fairer treatment for Latin than the Council had been allowing. 

I think that I am not wrong in saying that the period in his 
career to which Dr. Loudon would have looked back with the 
greatest satisfaction was that of the active Chancellorship of the 
Honourable Edward Blake from 1878 to 1892 when he left for 
England. For the Chancellor he had unbounded admiration. 
During these years he was Mr. Blake's chief adviser in academic 
matters and he had much to do with the epoch-making report of 
1891, and finally on the death of Sir Daniel Wilson, Mr. Blake used 
his influence to have Dr. Loudon appointed to the Presidency of 
the University. The earliest years of this co-operation were a 
period of stress and strain, chiefly because of suspicions that were 



178 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

sown by inter-university rivalries, but side by side with Mr. Blake 
Dr. Loudon stood ever on the alert as an eager and effective 
champion of the rights of the Provincial University. Later also 
when negotiations for the confederation of the Universities were 
set on foot Mr. Blake asked Dr. Loudon to safeguard the interests 
of University College, and he took a large share in bringing about 
the present unique and satisfactory condition of affairs in our 
University Federation. 

Dr. Loudon tells us that when he became President he felt the 
loss of Mr. Blake extremely as he had not the strong backing he 
needed for carrying out the proposals on which he had set his 
heart. Until his retirement in 1906 he was always under the 
necessity of conducting the work of a growing university and 
maintaining high standards on a very insufficient revenue. It is 
remarkable that the results were so good. He took great interest 
in the development of the Faculty of Medicine and sought to place 
the study on a strong scientific basis and to secure good clinical 
instruction. The Physics Laboratory was due to his initiative 
and this Convocation Hall was planned before he laid down his 
office. Also he threw his energy into the formation of the Alumni 
Association, which was a much more difficult task than in other 
universities because of the chequered history of this University and 
the variety of interests in the different institutions which now 
compose its faculties. But he possessed unfailing courage and 
strong determination. 

Dr. Loudon was a fine administrator. He got things done as 
a competent and thorough man gets them done, and was not lost 
in the detail of his office, but had a broad view of the meaning and 
scope of a modern university. He had a clear mind and he en- 
visaged a large problem with the scientific accuracy that sees it 
whole. 

From my own judgment formed by our intercourse during the 
past nine and a half years and from what I know of the present 
condition of the University I should say that Dr. Loudon's work 
was that of a thorough scientific man of the 19th century. There 
have been few men in Canada who have caught more of the spirit 
of that epoch. Whither science led he would follow. I cannot 
think of Dr. Loudon as pursuing educational fads nor as being 
attracted by new theories. Not that he had a rigid mind, tenacious 
of custom. Just the opposite. Whatever exact observation, grasp 
of the factors of a problem and induction demanded he would 



IN MEMORIAM 179 

accede to. But he was also a Canadian who knew his own country 
and could discern its educational necessities, as when he reached 
out from Applied Science to bring Forestry and Education within 
the University, and when in late years he acted on the Council of 
the College of Art. 

A man is to be judged finally oy those whose admiration he 
wins and the objects to which he devoted his best energies. Round 
him Dr. Loudon gathered a loyal group of his own students, men 
of unusual scientific accomplishment and administrative ability. 
His own loyalty to his University remained unswerving from the 
day he entered her walls through his long life. It is therefore fitting 
that he who lavished his fine talents on her in unselfish affection 
should be carried forth to his burial from this hall, already the 
scene of many great occasions in this University, erected through 
the interest of the Alumni, and on the walls of which there hangs 
his own portrait, one of the finest of Canadian pictures. 

As we bear him hence from this scene of his labours our sym- 
pathy goes out to Mrs. Loudon in her bereavement and to the 
family who mourn a most affectionate father. 

R. A. FALCONER. 

III. 

APPRECIATIONS. 

Of all the sons of the University of Toronto, and she has them 
now of the third generation, Dr. James Loudon, the late president 
of that institution, was in many ways the best all round one. His 
absolute sanity, his devotion to truth, his clearness of argument, 
his regard for what he considered the public welfare in the field 
of higher education, shone as a clear star throughout his long and 
useful life. 

He had scholarship in mathematics and physics his special 
subjects but he had scholarship of a rarer kind in other directions. 

What the University is to-day it owes to Edward Blake and to 
James Loudon, two men who gave the best in them for its up- 
building. It was when Dr. Loudon came into the headship that 
that organisation began to take on its present development to 
grow into a great home of science, of scholarship, of the highest 
type of medical ethics and medical education. 

He never thought of himself, but he thought always of how the 
University could be a part of the life of the Canadian people. 



180 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

What Canada wanted, in his estimation in his time, was teachers, 
preachers, medical men, and he devoted himself to that aim. He 
moulded or helped to mould a national seat of learning out of 
rather discordant and often parochial and jealous elements. And 
the unity that he sought he helped greatly to bring about. 

He worked quietly and yet ever persistently. He was demo- 
cratic in all his instincts, a quiet gentleman, one of the best types 
of the Canadian who was always a Canadian, that we have ever 
known. A university that can produce two like him in a century 
has in them its best justification. The truly useful man is not 
always in the marketplace; but his light shines reflected, never- 
theless, in the lives of the few or the many who come within its ray. 

The malversation, the great perversion, of German university 
thought, that has been the outstanding immorality of the world- 
wide dislocation of to-day, was seen by Dr. Loudon in these recent 
years; and he in all his life had trained himself into its very anti- 
thesis. The thing of this war that will be seen blackest and longest 
was this loss of moral integrity in the German university man; 
the thing that will shine with an ever-growing illumination will be 
the nobility of thought and the truthfulness of the British univer- 
sity mind; and one of the best examples of that high-mindedness 
happened to have its orbit in the University of Toronto. 

W. F. MACLEAN. 



James Loudon, ex- President of our University who died on 
December 29th, 1916, was born in 1841 in Toronto, where he 
spent the whole of his life. His preliminary education was acquired 
at the "Blue Grammar School" and at Upper Canada College. 
At the latter he was noted for the ease with which he stood at 
the head of his classes and he matriculated as "head boy" into the 
University of Toronto at the age of sixteen. During his under- 
graduate course he was regarded as one of the best students, if not 
the best student of his year and won the gold medal in mathe- 
matics at graduation in 1862. 

In 1864 he became a member of the staff of University College, 
being at first Classical Tutor, then Mathematical Tutor and Dean 
of Residence. In 1876 on the resignation of Professor Cherriman 
he was appointed Professor of Mathematics and Physics, being 
the first Canadian graduate to become a professor in University 
College. In 1887 the Department was divided. Alfred Baker 



IN MEMORIAM 181 

became Professor of Mathematics and Professor Loudon became 
head of the Department of Physics. He then turned all his energy 
and practical skill to the development of the Physics Laboratory 
which under him and his talented successor, John Cunningham 
McLennan, has become one of the best-equipped university 
laboratories in existence. * 

In 1892 Sir Daniel Wilson, after a period of long service, passed 
away and James Loudon was made President of the University. 
He remained in this position for fourteen years and resigned on 
account of impaired health in 1906. No period of the University's 
history has been more fruitful than this in increase of staff and 
students, in development of new departments, in the erection of 
new buildings and the creation of new forms of academic activity, 
but since the present writer has already treated the subject of 
"President Loudon as University Reformer" in THE MONTHLY 
for June, 1906, he would refer those interested in the details of 
the matter to that article. 

In the seventies and eighties of last century Professor Loudon 
took a very active part in the business of what is now the Royal 
Canadian Institute. He wrote papers for the Institute and filled 
its important offices, having been President for two terms. His 
earliest paper seems to have been read in 1870 and was on the 
subject of "Latin Pronunciation". It makes very interesting 
reading even now, although on a subject which has been revolu- 
tionised since 1870. It is written in that clear and dignified style 
which always characterised what James Loudon wrote but much 
more "literary" than the style of his later years. His Presidential 
address in 1877 was on the subject of scientific progress and is a 
piece of serious and elevated discussion. His other papers such as 
"On Trilinear Co-ordinates" (1871) and "Geometrical Methods 
Chiefly in the Theory of Thick Lenses" (1884) are thoroughly 
scientific, composed largely of mathematical formulae, and not 
understood by the present writer. One feels on reading Loudon's 
articles that under more favourable skies he might have become a 
distinguished scientific author. 

While on this point one must not forget the articles which he 
wrote for THE MONTHLY nor his Convocation Addresses, nor the 
address which he delivered as President of the Royal Society of 
Canada at the Toronto meeting in 1902. Some of these such as 
the Convocation Address of 1899 on Technical Education and the 
one of 1900 on the educational system of Ontario were particularly 



182 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

timely. The latter produced a decided sensation in the educa- 
tional world of our Prvwince and was supposed by some to have 
arrested contemplated hostile action towards the University and 
its President. Whether that was so or not it was really a programme 
of wholesome educational reform much of which still remains 
however d Veldt de proiet. 

The present writer's first acquaintance with James Loudon was 
effected through the medium of his "Elements of Algebra" (1873). 
It is a book which is limpidity itself and one is astonished that it 
never had a greater vogue. It is a sane book and free from those 
gymnastics which have disfigured so many elementary treatises on 
algebra and done much to perveit the teaching of that important 
subject. During his undergraduate course the present writer 
attended Professor Loudon 's classes in Pass Algebra in the First 
year and the Mechanics of the Second year and was always im- 
pressed with the clearness of his exposition, and his readiness to 
stop and explain and to correct exercises which in the nature of 
things must have been a great bore. 

After graduation James Loudon became the writer's truest 
friend. Without his friendship and that of Edward Blake, that 
long connection with the University which the writer has enjoyed 
would have been impossible. James Loudon and Edward Blake 
were both supposed by some to be cold-hearted, unfriendly men. 
One individual at least found them to be the very opposite and he 
wishes now to lay a wreath of gratitude on their tomb. Much did 
they do for him, and what is more important much did they do 
for the University. They were both men of clear, strong mind 
and generous heart and they loved, understood and worked for 
their alma mater as few have done. Loudon particularly lived for 
the University. He became part of her. Her interests became his. 
Her friends were his. Her enemies his. Where could one find 
higher intelligence and deeper affection devoted to the service of 
an institution? Few understood better than Loudon the meaning 
and purpose of a university. He saw clearly the sacred character 
of an institution devoted to the search for and promulgation of 
truth, and he knew how these functions could best be exercised. 
The years of his presidency were years of great progress, but he 
was so hampered by financial straitness that he could not show 
.what was in him. He tried to bear a burden large enough for several 
men, and in the end was crushed by it. 



IN MEMOR1AM 183 

It would be very ungrateful for a Modern Language man not 
to speak of the efforts Dr. Loudon made both before he was Presi- 
dent and during his presidency to put Modern Languages in a 
proper position in the educational system of the country. He saw 
clearly how important they were and how very imperfectly equipped 
the country was for teaching them, and he gave those who struggled 
to improve matters his encouragement and help. He was not a 
neutral. He did not fold his arms while the fight went on. His 
sympathy and suggestions were of the highest value to those 
combatting for the proper recognition of the claims of an important 
department of university study. His sense of justice and love of 
fair play were touched by the contest. He was habitually likely to 
espouse the cause of the weaker side. His heart lay with the "under 
dog". May God reward him for all the kindness he practised here 
below. 

J. SQUAIR. 

WILLIAM HENRY ERASER, B.A., 1880; M.A., 1901; Lecturer 
in Italian and Spanish at the University 1887 to 1892; Associate 
Professor 1892 to 1901; Professor 1901 to 1916. 

I. 

RESOLUTION OF THE SENATE. 

Moved by Professor Buchanan, Seconded by Professor Will. 

The Senate of the University of Toronto desires to record its 
sense of loss sustained by the University in the death of William 
Henry Eraser, M.A., Professor of Italian and Spanish and a member 
of this Senate. Professor Eraser was one of a family of distinguished 
graduates of this University and was the father of two sons who 
have worthily maintained the traditions of a remarkable family. 
As a teacher Professor Eraser showed unusual ability. His sound 
scholarship, his untiring thoroughness, his methodical mind, his 
kindly humour and his exceptional gifts as a linguist qualified him 
pre-eminently for work in the class-room, and rendered him an 
important accession to the academic life of the University. But 
his services to the cause of education were not limited to the class- 
room. He gave freely of his time and wisdom to the consider- 
ation of departmental and general university problems. As one 
of the founders and for a long time secretary of the Modern Lan- 
guage Association of Ontario, he was actively interested in the 
secondary education of this Province. As author and teacher, he was 
an indefatigable advocate and one of the earliest in English- 



184 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

speaking countries of the use of practical and scientific methods 
in the teaching of languages. His memory should always be 
revered amongst us for the honour and distinction 'which he con- 
f erred upon our University. The Senate deplores his loss and 
desires to offer to his widow and to his family the most sincere 
condolences. 
January 12, 1917. 

II. 

ADDRESS AT THE FUNERAL OF PROFESSOR FRASER. 

A great preacher of the early Church, Chrysostom John of the 
Golden Mouth, said, "The place of burial is called a cemetery, 
that is a dormitory, a place of slumber, to teach you that they 
who have departed are not dead but have lain down to sleep". 
"Falling asleep" seems to have been the usual word among the 
early Christians for leaving this life. It was a word that Paul gave 
them, for when he wrote of the witnesses of the resurrection, he 
said, "and some are fallen asleep". And in all human language 
there is no more sweet and comforting emblem than this, giving, 
as it does, a new aspect to what we thought to be our enemy. 

It is a word that comes to me with fresh force to-day as I think 
of the life and death of my friend, William Henry Eraser. For 
sleep comes at the close of the day, when the burden and the heat 
of it are over. "Man goeth forth unto his work and his labour 
until the evening". The hours of trial and doubt are past, the 
time of study and labour is ended, the time of earthly planning 
and heroic endeavour. It is the hour of sleep and rest. And not 
often does one see a life so full of honest and capable work as that 
which has gone out from us, not often does one feel that the rest 
has been so well earned. For some years he had looked forward to 
a time not far distant when he could lay aside the exacting 
duties of his professional work, and enjoy for a while the compara- 
tive leisure amid these beautiful surroundings of a life that he had 
learned to love as a boy and that he loved to the end. But rest 
came, not as he had planned and hoped for, but after hard toil 
and bitter pain the eternal rest. 

Professor Fraser brought to the duties of life gifts of a lofty 
order, and from the first to the last, with rare tact and something 
of genius, these were made the most of in the calling to which he 
gave himself. 



IN MEMORIAM 185 

His early years were spent in a home of culture and piety. The 
father of the household is still remembered for his great influence 
in the community in which he lived, and for the position of honour 
and responsibility that fell to him in the church to which he be- 
longed. And I fancy it was to the careful training of that home 
that the son owed his intimate knowledge a knowledge that often 
amazed me of that sacred literature that we call the Bible and 
of the theology of the church of his fathers. 

Then he entered the University of Toronto as an undergraduate. 
From that day, I was privileged to count myself one of his friends, 
and nothing ever occurred to break or to weaken that friendship. 
He was a few years older than most of his classmates. At that 
time we all knew one another well, and his greater maturity helped 
to keep before us certain methods and certain ideals that it was 
good for us to know. He was an able student, and he never for 
a moment forgot that his great reason for being there at all was 
to study. So that when at the close of a brilliant course he stood 
at the head of his class all felt that he was worthy of the place. 

Then after a brief interval there followed his career as a teacher 
and professor in the University, a career that must be described 
by no weaker word than distinguished, marked as it was by an 
accuracy, a thoroughness, a wide grasp of the literature of his 
department and all that bore upon it, and a power in teaching that 
could not easily be surpassed. But these were the qualities that 
he threw into everything he undertook, whether it had to do with 
the larger interests of the University or some apparently trivial 
task about his own home. I doubt if anywhere in this community 
a better and more complete piece of work has been done than that 
which our friend has laid down. 

And back of it all, without which no teaching, however efficient, 
would be worth while, there was his personality, the character of 
a man who was true and upright, who had a high sense of duty 
and spared no pains to help those who were under his care. 

And all over this land, there are those some of them also 
the teachers of youth who have sought to carry these ideals into 
their life and who give thanks to-day for what Professor Eraser was 
to them. 

I may not lift the veil that hangs over his domestic life, but it 
was obvious to those who were near him and yet were outside of 
that circle that apart from the University the one passion of his 



186 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

life was the welfare of his family. With marvellous devotion he 
gave to them the best he had. 

I knew him, too, in other ways. How he loved nature the 
woods, the lake, the river. It was only a few months before his 
illness that he spent weeks following the windings of some of our 
northern rivers. Perhaps the memory that is most vivid with 
me to-day, is in the first days of the Go-Home community, when 
we gathered nightly about the camp fire and the talk, the story and 
the song went round, in which he took his full part, and then when 
the fire died down he crossed the bay to his own tent. Often have 
I watched the boat, lantern in the bow, gliding across the dark 
waters, and keeping time with the oars I have listened to him and 
his family singing their sweet evening hymn. It all comes back 
to me to-day as a very precious memory. 

Our brother has finished his course, he has kept the faith, he 
sleeps in Jesus. But if he sleeps, it is a sleep from which there is 
an awakening. For it is our comfort to believe that when talent 
and learning and character are removed from earth it is that they 
may reappear in fresh beauty and enlarged usefulness in the life 
beyond. 

J. BALLANTYNE. 

III. 

AN APPRECIATION. 

William Henry Fraser, Professor of Italian and Spanish in 
the University of Toronto, who died on December 28th last, was 
born in 1853 at Bondhead, Ontario. He was the son of the Rev. 
William Fraser, D.D., who was a pioneer minister of the Presby- 
terian Church in Upper Canada and was for years the venerated 
Clerk of the General Assembly of that church. Dr. Fraser was a 
Nova Scotian, and was a fellow student of Sir William Dawson, 
in the famous Pictou Academy. Professor Fraser was one of a 
large family of brothers and sisters, several of whom distinguished 
themselves as alumni of our University. His two sons also took 
a high stand as students, the elder of whom, Mr. W. K. Fraser, was 
Rhodes scholar from the University of Toronto. His second son, 
Donald, is a captain in the British Army Medical Corps, and has 
received the Military Cross. 

Professor Fraser, after some three years' successful experience 
as a public school teacher, had a distinguished career as an under- 



IN MEMORIAM 187 

graduate in this University and graduated in 1880 with the gold 
medal in Modern Languages. From this date till 1887 he was a 
master in Upper Canada College. In this position he was singu- 
larly successful both in discipline and in the imparting of know- 
ledge. In 1887 he was appointed Lecturer in Italian and Spanish 
in the University, in 1892 he was made Associate Professor and in 
1901 Professor of the same two languages. 

It was my good fortune to make the acquaintance of Professor 
Fraser in 1879 when he was in his Fourth year and I in my First 
year, as undergraduates. We lived in the same house and I had 
an opportunity of learning how good and thorough a student he 
was. Intelligent, industrious and systematic he was a model to 
all. As a linguist, he excelled. He had a true conception as to 
what learning languages meant, and before graduation he had a 
much more thoroughly practical knowledge of French and German 
than most graduates possess. 

In the period between 1880 and 1887 I often saw him and after 
he became my colleague in the University our relations were 
intimate. We worked together in many enterprises and he was a 
most satisfactory collaborator. Prompt and punctual, whenever 
he made engagements they were kept to the letter. If he under- 
took to do a piece of work by a certain time it was done without 
fuss or boasting. In writing articles for newspapers or meetings 
of societies he was invaluable. He could compose well and with 
great rapidity. His matter was well arranged and his style clear, 
often relieved by a pungent satire. In the long fight for the proper 
recognition of Modern Languages and in securing for the Uni- 
versity its rightful recognition at the hands of the Province, he 
rendered service the value of which can never now be rightly 
estimated. When he put his hand to the drafting of a memorial 
it was drawn in the clearest and most effective fashion. Some of 
those which are preserved in Edward Blake's famous report of the 
Committee on Revenues and Requirements of April 13th, 1891, 
were shaped by Professor Fraser. 

It was as joint authors that Professor Fraser and the writer 
were most intimately associated. "The High School French 
Reader" was our first production. It appeared in 1890. In the 
following year we brought out "The High School French Gram- 
mar". These were used in the High Schools of Ontario until they 
were displaced in 1900 by "The High School French Grammar 
and Reader" which might be called a combined second edition of 



188 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

the first two, although many new things appeared in it. In 1913 
we made a completely new book, called the "New High School 
French Grammar", which, in the schools of Ontario, displaced the 
book of 1900. It will always be to me a matter for gratitude that 
I was associated so long and so intimately in the production of 
these books, as colleague with a man of such ability. He faced all 
difficulties with great skill. He shirked nothing. Patient in re- 
search he did not spare himself in getting at the truth. Courageous 
in innovating he helped to reform where the world had outgrown 
the methods of older grammarians. 

One of the most valuable forms of Professor Eraser's activity 
grew out of his connection with the Ontario Educational Associa- 
tion. He became a member of the Association by virtue of his 
membership in the Modern Language Association which was 
organised in 1886 and was afterwards united with the Ontario 
Educational Association. Professor Eraser was a charter member 
of the Modern Language Association and contributed largely to 
its papers and discussions. I pass these over at present, however, 
as I hope to present a memorial address regarding Professor 
Eraser, to the Modern Language Association at Easter. But I 
wish just now to recall one feature of his connection with the 
Modern Language Association, viz., his holding of the position of 
Secretary-Treasurer for five years. I have just opened the old 
minute-book and have read here and there the clear, handsomely- 
written record of the proceedings during those years. What care 
he took to have everything correct! And how carefully did he 
manage our finances! All dues were carefully collected, no money 
was wasted and all balances were put in the bank. His work was 
certainly most conscientiously done. And what was true of him 
as Secretary of our Association was true of him in every position. 
As scholar, teacher, author and administrator his duties were all 
faithfully performed and he has worthily earned the rest to which 
God has called him. J. SQUAIR. 



WILLIAM OLDRIGHT, B.A., 1863; M.A., 1867; M.B., 1865; 
M.D., 1867; Lecturer in Italian and Spanish in University College, 
1869 to 1883; Professor in the Medical Faculty, 1869 to 1910; 
Professor Emeritus, 1910 to 1917. 

In the recent decease of Dr. Oldright, the University of Toronto 
has lost one of her most devoted and honoured sons. For the 
unusual term of full fifty-five years he ceased not to give her the 



IN MEMORIAM 189 

fruits of his active interest and affection. Entering the University 
in 1859 his energy and assiduity secured him during his course a 
number of prizes and scholarships; and at his graduation in 1863 
a gold medal in Modern Languages equally with his class-mate 
William Mulock now Sir William. He just fell short of a medal 
when taking his M.B. in 1865. He took his M.A. and M.D. in 
1867; and from 1869 to 1883 he lectured on Italian and Spanish 
in University College, succeeding W. G. Falconbridge (the present 
Sir Glenholme) in that position. He was also a member of the 
Staff of the Toronto School of Medicine from 1869 onwards, and its 
representative on the Senate from 1898 to 1901. He also repre- 
sented the University upon the Ontario Medical Council in its 
early days. The son of a British officer, Dr. Oldright himself 
ever showed an exquisite sense of the obligation of duty, a punc- 
tilious regard for the proprieties and amenities, the courage of his 
convictions and great tenacity of purpose in seeking to achieve 
worthy ends. He was very painstaking and time and labour 
were quite secondary if he could but succeed in achieving benefi- 
cent work which he had at heart. Thus it was largely due to his 
strenuous and persistent advocacy that the University Senate 
adopted a curriculum and Degree in Public Health (D.P.H.) As 
first chairman of the Provincial Board of Health, upon its forma- 
tion in 1882, he strove hard to realise his ideals, and made the 
whole Province his debtor. Upon the revival of the University 
Faculty of Medicine in 1887, Dr. Oldright became Professor of 
Hygiene and Sanitary Science, and in season and out of season 
tried to impress students and public alike with the importance of 
attention to these subjects. Never afraid of work, he also faith- 
fully discharged his duties as Associate Professor of Clinical Surgery. 
The admirable traits of Dr. Oldright's mind and character could 
not fail to influence for good the thousands of students with whom 
he came into more or less personal contact. That early in his 
career University men had confidence in him was shown by his 
election to the Senate in 1874, and his re-election for several terms. 
He did yeoman service in that body for many years during an 
important era, his urbanity and willingness to work having full 
scope. His many colleagues in academic life and other confreres 
in the profession, as well as a host of those who owed much to his 
professional care and skill, have ample reasons to cherish kindly 
recollections of the scholar, gentleman and faithful physician who 
has just passed away. In expressing sympathy with the widow 



190 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

and family we would fain hope that the knowledge of the high 
estimation in which the worth and work of the departed are held 
by those who best knew his sterling qualities and fine record, will 
tend in some measure to mitigate their sorrow. 

R. A. REEVE. 

BOOK REVIEW 

Nelson's History of the War, Vols. XI, XII, XIII;by JOHN BUCHAN. 
Nelson's Map Book of the World Wide War, third edition. Thomas 
Nelson & Sons. 

Three more volumes of this excellent history have been received. 
Earlier volumes have already been noted in THE MONTHLY. In 
these numbers the same high standard is maintained. For one 
writing so near to the events Mr. Buchan seems to have a good 
sense of proportion, and probably at the end of the war, com- 
paratively few changes will have to be made for a final edition. 
Mr. Buchan is equally skilful in depicting campaigns or battles 
and in describing the efforts of preparation made at home or 
estimating political conditions. In this latter connection he is 
quite frank in his criticisms but avoids the querulous captiousness 
which has characterised the utterances of some journalists . 

Volume XI deals with the Struggle for the Dvina and the 
Invasion of Serbia; Volume XII with the Retreat from Baghdad, 
the Evacuation of Gallipoli, and the Derby Report; Volume XIII 
with the Position at Sea, the Fall of Erzerum, and the First Battle 
of Verdun, and valuable appendices are given containing the more 
important State Papers issued during the period covered. 

The Map Book (price 50 cts.) is evidently intended to be a 
companion volume to the History. Some of the maps seem to be 
the same as those in the History but they are larger and will save 
the reader the trouble of looking back over a number of previous 
volumes. Besides these there are a number of maps and plans 
not found in the History. They also cover events, such as the 
Somme campaign, which are more recent than those as yet re- 
corded in the History. All are good of their kind. The only 
suggestion we would make is that a few coloured contour maps 
or "bird's eye" views, such as are given in The Graphic, or illus- 
tration, should be added, which would enable the ordinary reader 
to understand more clearly at a glance the physical features of 
certain districts and the strategical conditions arising therefrom. 
A Diary of the War to the end of September 1916 is added. 



FROM THE BALKAN FRONT 

EXTRACTS FROM LETTERS 

Here I am three days in a new area, with new work, several 
days' march from rny old haunts. The news of my shift came 
suddenly one evening, and the next morning at 5 found me waiting 
on the great white highway with my kit and sundry other articles 
piled in a limber awaiting an upgoing lorry. My batman and horse 
were to follow as quickly as possible, and my medical equipment, 
when all arrangements could be completed. Then such a ride in 
the next to last of a string of lorries half a mile long, each loaded 
with beef or hay or charcoal, etc., etc. the usual regular daily 
work they have been doing the past month. Cold, it required my 
"B.W." and your woollen gloves, but the exhilaration of the 
change of country and work were almost too good to be true. 
For being left behind with the prospect of months of dull routine 
work, while there are " doings" elsewhere, had been gallingly dull. 

As we went on and on, I became ever more pleased, and the 
pleasure isn't worn off yet. About ten o'clock we came to a full 
stop at a "dump". Off went my charges on to the roadside and I 
was left for an hour until I was able to get going again on a lorry 
just starting for my destination which is known as Kilo, so and so. 
Here it is on the last hill-top overlooking the great valley, every- 
thing of interest one could hope to see lying all about one. A bit 
of our unit lies in the gully a mile away but here am I on the hill- 
top bivouacked beside my colonel, who is in charge of certain 
R.F.A. units in a certain radius, and my present job is to ride all 
about his area and keep the places "sanitary", which takes me 
out and lets me see a lot. The place is "strafed" a bit, but things 
are tolerably quiet, except when our own shells whistle occasion- 
ally to annoy the Bulgars miles away, or when they "strafe" 
an observing aeroplane as it hovers above us figuring what we are 
going to do. 

Close next door, on another hill-top is my old unit, of the "old 
brigade" only two padres and the transport officer left. It made 
me sad to view the old faces and yet hungry to be back, perhaps I 
may go yet . . . 

[191 1 



192 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Picture to yourself a treeless hill-top, about fifty yards wide, 
densely covered with bushes and a juniper like shrub with a small 
cleared patch looking to the gully on the south and in this a bivouac, 
two thin sheets pitched over my sleeping bag and kit and a small 
protecting trench to take the rain, for we have a bit of cats and 
dogs now and then, and you have a picture of my house. Some 
camps are quite evident, others are not. We mess with officers of 
a B.H.C., the O.C. being a former tophole officer of our unit at its 
prime, a splendid fellow. I'm delighted the wheel has taken its 
turn for I was more than a bit "fed up" and I hope the gods will 
not move me down to a blighted existence again. 

As ever I'm very fit. 

****** 

You would hardly imagine from pen and paper and tone of 
my letter that I am right up with the guns, but I am. We are 
just out of range and no more, and with our line on the advance 
and theirs on the retire, we are as safe as if we were in England. 
Work everyday and all night takes our men and officers well into 
heaps of trouble but so far there has not been a casualty in our 
unit, not even from an overturned wagon. 

Our camp is half way up the steep side of one of the ever 
present gullies. Here I write on an abandoned folding table out- 
side a dug-out which I share with Capt. D , a splendid fellow, 
the present O.C. of this section. My medical hut is about a hundred 
yards off, a six foot square room with walls of ammunition boxes 
and roof of my Maltese cart cover. But with the colder weather, 
harder work and excitement there is little sickness and my work 
has been slack. My chief care is to get as much sanitary work 
done in the many surrounding artillery camps as possible. When 
men have hardly time to sleep and eat some things are apt to go 
slide. 

There has been action since early Saturday morning last. 
Several times a day I have had opportunity to climb to the top 
of a nearby hill and see as magnificent a battle panorama as the 
war affords anywhere. The bombardment at times has been 
tremendous, the success is very fair, no reverse, small losses. 
Enough or I'll let my tongue wag more than it should. 

War from my present position as onlooker-de-luxe with a seat 
in the front row of the first balcony is a magnificent business. My 
two visits forward have shown me that its other aspect is horrible 
in the extreme. 



FROM THE BALKAN FRONT 193 

However, we are very optimistic and this spirit pervades and 
" enthuses " all ranks, and it has been most gratifying to hear that 
Lloyd George has so emphatically told the U.S.A. that any peace 
overtures from her would be construed as a pro-German and 
therefore hostile act. 

Now to my "bully" bunch. 

****** 

26/10/16. 

I am just back from a hurried dusty lorry trip to squalid 
Salonique, necessitated by the death of our late Colonel. As usual 
I paid a visit to No. 4 with Capt. D , R.F.A., our present O.C., 
and we were treated as usual in topping style. 

Do you know I would not wish one of my friends anywhere 
but up at the front or in the field and yet I feel that only a very 
small percentage of all such will ever sail up the St. Lawrence 
again. Anyhow J. died like a hero and made good. 

The lads seem to be dropping off, one by one, C., P., V., and 
others. I never realised before what a splendid lot of fellows they 
were in our acquaintance, and I fear but few of the best will come 
through. 

My present lack of news is not due to dearth of interesting 
matter, but entirely due to censorship. You are no doubt in 
possession of the fact that we had a famous show here and won a 
famous victory. You will be sorry to hear that one of our old 
crowd got nipped so hard that he is now minus a leg. It was A., 
and he was with the unit T.S. was with so long. He had been 
with them less than two weeks. Another is under the sod and a 
third got a more or less "cushy" wound which will at least allow 
him to visit M . However, the victory was so decisive, there have 
been fewer rounds since than in any one hour of the three days' 
"strafe". 

I now know that of the lads who went home at the end of their 
year, M. went to Mesopotamia, L. to France and M. to East Africa. 

The more I see of men out here, the less I esteem book know- 
ledge apart from manliness and ability to lead men. I am not 
"enthused " over the Oxford and Cambridge type. Only the top- 
notchers are worthy and they are all they should be. English 
Public School boys show the way to heroism, courage and happi- 
ness to all the middle-class fellows. Out here one is surprised at 
the number of R.M.C. lads, generals to sub-lieutenants. 



194 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

17/11/16. 

This morning the sky was overcast and the wind more than 
usual and in consequence the preliminary wash in front of my 
dug-out had to be done in sharp order and that in itself distraction 
enough restored my circulation in good shape, so that eventually 
the hot "Burgue" (Bergoo?), as Tommy calls it, and the greasy 
bacon went down just like nothing at all and I stepped lightly 
over to the M.T. tent for my morning sick parade at 8.30. There 
were only about ten men minor dressings, etc., etc., only one 
really sick and that one a case curable with a couple of days rest 
and plenty of quinine. Some days I think I'm very hard-hearted 
and at other times very soft. That over, I took a walk round camp 
to see that incinerators, etc., were burning and things well started 
and then summoned my horse, a rather coquettish brunette called 
" Blossom", a much worthier steed than my former hack "Tommy". 
Then with medicine, etc., in wallets up the hill and up the spur to 
our dump at Kilo? where things were O.K. and where a message 
from our dump, five kilos down hill, stated all to be O.K. there. 
So I rode over to the th Field Ambulance to explain my not 
.turning up at dinner owing to the onset of much rain, etc. The 
track was an impossible affair mud a foot deep, all sorts of 
holes, etc. That over and the return accomplished I wrote a note 
and lunch became due. It consisted of hot beef, a kind of squash as 
vegetable, rice pudding and cocoa. We mess, by the way, in the 
only double lined bell tent in the unit at present and "we" means 
S , an excellent Londoner (principal of one of the Government 
schools) and a new comer and D , along with us and at present 
acting O.C., and myself. . 

This afternoon nothing occurred except some good news of 
success on our extreme left. The men glad of a lull were doing 
much needed jobs of cleansing themselves, their clothing, harness, 
animals and camp. The animals are, of course, the prime consider- 
ation, for the transportation of ammunition is what we exist for. 

So I wrote a bit, did some official and some private correspon- 
dence, drank tea and took a brisk walk and then arrived the good 
mail and with it dinner soup a la Jackson (the name of the cook), 
son\e roast beef, and squash a la Mactdoine and cabbage a la (I 
nearly said it) followed by the eternal rice pudding which we 
amplified by a tin of pears and then cigarette's and took our small 
rations of good George Washington coffee. 



FROM THE BALKAN FRONT 195 

Now would usually have come a short hand of Bridge but mail 
alters such routine, so each of us off to our own particular candle, 

I to bed. 

****** 

21/11/16. 

Without being more specific almost everything done was done 
with the means (men, money, etc.) available to meet the hundreds 
of unforeseen contingencies, and I am sure in most cases with 
sincerity by the doers. This does not only apply to matters medical, 
almost everything has required revision. 

To my mind it is absolutely incomprehensible that in medicine 
of all things, mere seniority of service should be the determining 
factor in appointment. 

The only way to avoid the inevitable chain of wretched troubles is 
to apply conscription to all who go in for medicine. Make each student 
first learn discipline by being trained as an infantry or artillery 
officer for, say, four years, then let him be enrolled as a probation 
officer in the medical corps for his fifth year. On graduation make 
all rank the same and do the round of all the posts, still keeping the 
one rank and then make his prospects for promotion depend not 
only on his ability to organise and command but also upon the posi- 
tion* and status he is able to achieve by service attached to our 
regular civic hospitals. 

Then when trouble arises the men in senior military medical 
command will be men who have achieved senior command^in 
actual medical everyday work and you will not have lads of twenty- 
three violently senior to grey headed efficient practitioners nor 
will you have administrators of rank who would be laughed to 
scorn in any reputable society of medical men, nor will you have 
skilled medical men of middle age wearing officers' uniform in 
which they look a laughing-stock. 

If the effort nips in the bud the achievement of seniority 
by men of no medical standing, it will have done a service of 
inestimable value to the country and make this service tremendously 
ahead of every other similar service. 

I must be careful how much or what I say but I don't think 
exception can be taken to the above or to what I am going to say 
now. 

So far as my present experience has shown me, the post of 
M.O. requires a man of experience of men, of the world, of things 
military and of disease. He has so much power and responsibility 



196 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

that but rarely do medical men with less than two years of rough 
and ready practice or with less than twenty-eight summers behkid 
them, make good. So that in service these should act in the very 
junior posts in the large hospitals and then in the field ambulances 
and only later go to units. 

Then again, the field requires men young enough to endure all 
things, so that provided their probationary period is over, the 
place for the able-bodied young doctor is with field units. 

Then yet again, having put the novices in " learning" jobs and 
the able-bodied responsible ones in the field, there remain the older 
men who will be roughly divisible into specialists and general 
practitioners. Of a staff of forty, say, in a base hospital there is 
no need for more than one really efficient good man in each de- 
partment; so that my great criticism of the excellent unit whose 
interests we have at heart is first and foremost that it had too 
many good men (to the detriment of other units calling to 
Heaven for men of worth) and too many young able-bodied men 
who should have been in the field. The latter class would of course 
justly remark that in the field they would "mark time" in things 
medical quite so but in doing such service they would be 
"serving" and they would do more than a little to uphold the 
reputation of medical men as a class. 

These are but random remarks hastily penned, but I trust you 
will read correctly much that has not been put on paper. 

To put the matter in another way, every similar medical unit 
should at least be up to a certain minimum standard there are 
only so many medical men of such and such capacities available 
ergo the latter should be so distributed as to bring about the 
summum bonum. 

D. E. S. W. 



TORONTONENSIA 



The Governor- His Excellency The Governor-General visited 

General's Visit. ^ e University Library on Tuesday morning, 

January 23rd. In conversation with the President he recalled an 
incident of great interest to many of us here: he described how he 
had been at Chatsworth with his grandfather the seventh Duke, 
a very eminent scholar and man of science "who only needed 
poverty, to make him advertise his studies and give them larger 
utility", when the fire of 1890 brought the needs of our library to 
the English ear. Irpmediately the Duke, in collaboration with a 
representative of the University, prepared a donation from his 
library; among other library books he sent an almost priceless 
series of the French Annales de Chimie: bearing the bookplate of 
his ancestors, the name of Henry Cavendish, brother of the third 
Duke, eminent as a man of science, as one of the first chief members 
of the Royal Society and as the hero eponymous of the Cavendish 
Laboratory at Cambridge. Professor Ellis is familiar with these 
books and has noted how they are an echo of the political history 
of France : the minutes record for long years the attendance of the 
Marquis this and the Vicomte that: and then comes the Revolution 
and the chemists become citoyen this and that. But there is a gap 
of three years and the name of the greatest of the citoyen dis- 
appears; Lavoisier has mounted the scaffold because "the republic 
does not need chemists" as an underling put it, whose phrase has 
gained a quite undeserved notoriety with historians; in reality 
neither he nor it possessed significance. 

The house of Cavendish probably holds the record among ducal 
houses for literary and scientific interests; the brother of the third 
Duke, as already noted, was joint founder with Lord Boyle of the 
Royal Society; in honour of the same Henry Cavendish, was 
founded the Cavendish Laboratory; the seventh Duke (the bene- 
factor of our library) was Chancellor of the University of Cam- 
bridge; the eighth Duke (the Marquis of Hartington) was Chan- 
cellor of the same University and saw a new college Cavendish 
College founded in his honour; he was also in his time 2nd Wrang- 

[1971 



198 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

ler and University prizeman; the ninth and present Duke, our 
Governor- General, is Chancellor of the University of Leeds. 

The Duke received the Honorary Degree of LL.D. from the 
President's hands in Convocation Hall ; the Principal of University 
College presented him for the degree as follows: 

I have the honour, Mr. President, to present to you for the degree 
of LL.D. (honoris causa) His Excellency, the Duke of Devonshire, 
Governor-General of this Dominion. 

His Excellency is entitled to the highest honours this Univer- 
sity can bestow in virtue of his august position as representative of 
the King in Canada. 

He is doubly entitled thereto because he is a distinguished 
member of other British Universities; he is a graduate like his 
uncle and predecessor in the dukedom of the ancient University 
of Cambridge; he is also Chancellor of the modern University of 
Leeds; any honours, then, that we can offer come to his Excellency 
not casually as the accident of his office, but as our natural tribute 
to one whose academic associations are of long date and estab- 
lished eminence. 

His Excellency is entitled on a third count. If there be any 
virtue, any pre-eminence in the English people and a stranger 
listening to their endless self-depreciation might hastily suppose 
that they had no virtue except humility and so supposing might 
be doubly mistaken but if there be any virtue, it lies in a certain 
blind instinct for politics and business, in a certain sagacity for the 
ordering of life, in a certain combination of common sense, of 
honesty not so common, and of quite uncommon disinterestedness. 

But, Mr. President, it is only a few years ago that the English 
people, casting about them in troublous times for a personification 
of these homely but sterling qualities, agreed almost unanimously, 
large though their disagreement be on all other political questions, 
in finding this personification in His Excellency's uncle and pre- 
decessor, the late Duke. 

Now, Mr. President, I am not forgetting, with the absence of 
mind expected of senior professors, that it is not the eighth Duke 
but the ninth I am presenting to you. I am not forgetting that; 
rather I am suggesting that His Excellency is entitled to this degree 
on a third count, which is this, that already Canadians short 
though their experience has been of their new Governor-General, 
of his quality and character, of his habits and ability, are already 
disposed to believe that not in the literal or vulgar sense of the 



TORONTONENSIA 199 

words only but in their deeper and profounder sense, His Excel- 
lency is the nephew of his uncle. 

I present, Sir, His Excellency the Duke of Devonshire, Governor- 
General of Canada. 
His Excellency replied: 

I hope I may be able to express my most sincere gratitude and 
appreciation for the honour which you have done me this morning. 
It is true I am not altogether a stranger to university and academic 
life, and I hope I may be allowed, not only as a representative of His 
Majesty but as connected with universities in England, to convey 
a message of sympathy from across the seas. 

When the history of this war comes to be written there will be 
no brighter page than that which will tell the part the universities of 
the Empire have taken. The part which universities are playing 
in this great war struggle is worthy of noble commendation. And 
it is for the universities' sake no less than on larger ground, that it 
is necessary that the war be fought to a successful conclusion. 
Otherwise the prospect is too horrible to contemplate. Bad though 
it is for all people to be subjected to an armed peace of preparation, 
it is awful to imagine a university devoting all its genius, its 
enthusiasm and its idealism, to the invention of more and more 
potent weapons of destruction and the manufacture of more and 
more "frightful" engines of "frightfulness". But if once a stable 
and just peace be secured then, after the war, I look forward to the 
university to take an ever increasing part in the development of 
that character on which alone a nation can rely if it wishes to hold 
its place in the world. Every effort will be made by this great 
University of Toronto to carry this war to a final conclusion, and 
once done it will take a more and more prominent part in the 
development of Canada. I hope you will not consider this honour 
merely a form and one of a passing character. I only trust the 
ceremony this morning will be the beginning of a happy relation- 
ship between the members of the University and myself. 

All the principal members of the staff of the University were 
present on the platform, as well as Sir John Hendrie, Hon. Dr. 
Pyne, Minister of Education, N. W. Rowell, K.C., M.P.P., Sir 
Edmund Walker, Bishop Sweeny and Mr. Justice Riddell. 

His Excellency after Convocation was over was received by 
Professor McLennan at the Physics Laboratory and also in company 
with the President and Principal visited University College and 
inspected the East and West Halls. MAURICE HUTTON. 



200 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Sir George A special Convocation was held on January 

Garneau, LL.D. 8th> the occas i on being the visit of the Quebec 

delegates representing the "Bonne Entente" movement. After 
lunching at Burwash Hall and visiting the Technical School the 
guests assembled in Convocation Hall. After two selections on 
the organ had been played by Mr. F. A. Mour6, the President 
of the University and Sir Edmund Walker, Chairman of the 
Board of Governors, gave brief addresses. The former spoke of 
the movement for promoting a better understanding between the 
citizens of the two Provinces, the common trial through which all 
were passing, and the contributions which the French speaking 
Canadians were making to the life of the Dominion, and bade 
the visiting delegates welcome in the name of the University. 
Sir Edmund Walker, in presenting Sir George Garneau for the 
degree of LL.D., honoris causa, referred to his academic record in 
the University of Laval ; and as a colleague spoke of the invaluable 
public services rendered by Sir George as Chairman of the Quebec 
Battlefields Commission. After the degree had been conferred by 
the President, acting in the absence of the Chancellor, Sir George 
Garneau replied acknowledging the honour conferred on him as 
the representative of the sister Province. Himself having a son 
at the front, he spoke feelingly of the war and the great issues 
in which all Canadians alike were vitally interested. In concluding 
he read a letter from the Rector of the University of Laval, con- 
veying cordial greetings to that of Toronto. In conclusion Professor 
Squair, whose enthusiastic reception by the delegates from Quebec 
showed the impression that he had made when visiting that 
Province with the Ontario delegates, gave the following short 
address in French : 

Monsieur le President, Mesdames, Messieurs: 

Je vous remercie, monsieur le President, de Toccasion de 
presenter mes felicitations a ce moment si interessant. Vous 
venez de confrer le grade de Docteur en droit, honoris 
causa, a Sir Georges Garneau, professeur de chimie a l'Universit 
Laval de Quebec. 

Je flicite d'abord mon alma mater de ne pas avoir voulu laisser 
passer la presence de Sir Georges Garneau a Toronto sans lui faire 
1'honneur le plus considerable que nous ayons a notre disposition. 
Mais ce n'est pas seulement au savant que l'Universit6 a voulu 
faire honneur. L'minence de Sir Georges dans les affaires a aussi 



TORONTONENSIA 201 

attire 1'attention publique. On admire surtout son devouement 
aux interets du pays tant a ceux de sa propre Province de Quebec 
qu'a ceux du Canada entier. Au moment actuel si grave pour 
tous, Sir Georges s'est montre le bon patriote, encourageant 
I'enrdlement de troupes pour la defense de nos foyers et de ceux 
de nos chers allies. II n'a pas oublie qu'il est Francais et il a envoye 
ses fils se battre pour le sol aime de ses ancetres. Ses travaux dans 
la conservation des champs de bataille du Canada sont connus de 
tout le monde. Ici nous le voyons dans le role d'historien, soucieux 
de la conservation des elements de notre histoire si pittoresque. 
II est evident que Sir Georges Garneau est un homme tout a fait 
exceptionnel et 1'Universite de Toronto, en 1'honorant, s'honore 
elle-mme. 

Je voudrais aussi offrir mes felicitations au Comite de la Bonne 
Entente d 'avoir a sa tete un homme de la haute valeur de Sir 
Georges. Un homme si desinteresse et si honnete donne a tout 
mouvement auquel il s'allie une grande importance. Sous la direc- 
tion d'une si haute intelligence et d'une si grande probite ceux qui 
se sont group6s dans le but de realiser une plus grande unite entre 
les deux principales races qui habitent le Canada ne manqueront pas 
de reussir. 

Lecture by n Tuesday evening, January 30th, 1917, in 

Professor the Physics Building of the University, Pro- 

fessor Gustave Lanson of the University of 

Paris, delivered in French a lecture on V Esprit de la France. Presi- 
dent Falconer in introducing the speaker declared that the spirit 
of France which had captivated the world was embodied in her 
literature of whose expounders none was so distinguished as 
Professor Lanson. Professor Lanson is one of the most striking 
figures in the world of French scholarship. Not only is he known to 
every student in France but his reputation extends far beyond the 
confines of his own country. His editions of the great French 
classics are in common use. His History of French Literature and his 
monographs on Corneille, Boileau, and Voltaire are all well known. 
Professor Lanson is spending the present academic year at 
Columbia University where he has won the great admiration of 
his students. It is safe to say that his mere presence in America 
is an inspiration to every French scholar in the new world and 
his recent visit to the University was indeed a real honour to the 
University of Toronto and to Canada. 



202 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

In his lecture on V Esprit de la France Professor Lanson showed 
how alike all men are in most respects, and then brought forward 
the peculiar traits which characterise the French mind, its univer- 
sality of conception and of aptitude and above all its intelligence. 
The French nationality has been moulded out of its different 
ethnical elements. From Paris, as its head, central France has 
evolved into a larger France of distinctive thought and ideals and 
accomplishments. The French mind is above all curious, searching 
for the wherefore of everything through the spirit of truth. The 
French are not mere specialists, they generalise. They aim to 
know something of everything and they hold a high rank in all 
domains of science, art and literature. To the stranger the French 
mind may seem mobile and inconsistent, but its astonishing adapt- 
ability brings it rapidly back into the groove of good reasoning. 

Professor Will and Professor de Champ expressed their hearty 
thanks to the eminent scholar, and a collection was made for the 
French prisoners of war. 

Address by Mr. Under the auspices of the Secours National, 

Poultney Bigelow Mr p ou l tn ey Bigelow delivered an address 
at Convocation Hall, Monday evening, January 29th. Mr. Bigelow 
is a noted American author and traveler, and was at one time friend 
of the German Emperor. His remarks were based upon German 
methods of colonisation. To find a character analogous to the 
present Kaiser, he went back to the fifth century and selected 
Genserich, who had broken the most solemn treaties of his time 
and descended upon Carthage in a time of profound peace. Mr. 
Bigelow dealt sarcastically with his own people and their position 
in the war. Throughout, his dry humour and subtle wit made the 
address most entertaining and interesting. His Honour Sir John 
Hendrie, Lieutenant Governor of Ontario, presided. 

Reception to The second of these receptions was held in 

Returned Alumni the Faculty Union on Friday afternoon 
January 19th. There were present as guests: Lt.-Col. A. Primrose, 
C.A.M.C.; Major W. D. Sharpe, 234th Bn. (formerly M.O. British 
Admiralty, Serbia); Sergt. F. H. Barry, C.A.D.C.; Capt. D. E. 
Robertson, 3rd F.A., C.A.M.C.; Lieut. T. D'A. Leonard, 5th Bn.; 
Sergt. J. C. S. Batley, C.A.M.C.; Capt. J. E. Hahn, M.C., Staff; 
Pte. W. V. Ramsay, P.P.CX.L; Sec. Lieut. C. E. Willows, London 
Regt. (formerly P.P.C.L.I.); Pte. W. F. Gregory, P.P.C.L.I.; 
Pte. J. S. Crawford, 2nd F.A., C.A.M.C.; Lieut. A. M. Thomas, 



TORONTONENSIA 203 

R.F.C.; Lieut. H. H. Ellis, 7th Bn.; Capt. D. T. Fraser, M.C., 
R.A.M.C.; Staff Sergt. E. A. Broughton, C.A.M.C.; Sergt. G V . 
Berry, C.A.M.C. 

These receptions will be held on the third Friday of each month. 
The next two will be on February 16th and March 16th. Any 
returned member of the University who does not receive a personal 
invitation is asked to accept this notification and to pass it on to 
others who are concerned. 

Appointments, etc. J he resignation of Dr. W. H. T. Baillie as 

Lecturer in Comparative Anatomy in the 

Department of Biology has been accepted, effective at the close of 
the Michaelmas Term, he having enlisted for active service. 

FACULTY OF ARTS. 
Substitute Lecturer in History and English, W. P. M. Kennedy. 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

Pathology Temporary Instructor, Dr. H. K. Detweiler. . 

Assistants Drs. C. A. Campbell,* R. R. Graham, G. W. Lough- 
heed,* O. R. Mabee, W. F. McPhedran, R. W. Naylor, J. A. Oille, 
F. S. Park,* L. Bruce Robertson,* W. L. Robinson, H. J. Shields,* 
H. M. Tovell. 

Assistant in Clinical Laboratory, Dr. D. H. Boddington. 

FACULTY OF HOUSEHOLD SCIENCE. 

Laboratory Assistant in Household Science, Miss Maude 
McDonald (vice Miss V. B. Spinney, resigned 1st December). 

FACULTY AND COLLEGE NOTES 

Faculty of On January 9th, 1917, the Social Service 

Medicine Department of the Toronto General Hospital 

held its Annual Meeting. The figures presented were of intense 
interest to those who have been closely following the trend of 
modern Medicine. 

The Social Service Department of the modern hospital is with- 
out doubt a most important adjunct, as through the work it does, 
Preventive Medicine is placed on the high plane it should occupy. 

The Social Service Department of the Toronto General Hospital 
is largely under the direction of University teachers and it is 

* On active service. 



204 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

rapidly becoming one of the most highly organised of the many 
departments of that institution. Three very notable clinics are 
conducted by it namely: the Special Clinic for the diagnosis and 
treatment of specific diseases, the Psychiatric Clinic, for feeble- 
minded and insane, and the Obstetrical Clinic, which is largely 
engaged in prenatal work. 

As the outcome of the establishment of the Psychiatric Clinic, 
the public of this community has been thoroughly aroused, and 
during the recent campaign the civic authorities were persuaded 
to build modern industrial schools for the development of the 
subnormal classes. This is a step in advance that has been longed 
for by those who had understood the necessity and it was largely 
through the figures compiled in the Psychiatric Clinic that public 
opinion was aroused. 

The revelations made in the Special Clinic for the treatment 
and care of specific disease, have been so startling that a deputa- 
tion composed of Dean Clarke, Professors J. J. Mackenzie, Wm. 
Goldie, B. P. Watson, and Drs. C. H. Hair and H. K. Detweiler, 
appeared before the Conservation Commission of Canada, January 
17th, with a series of facts and figures regarding the prevalence of 
venereal diseases in Canada. This deputation asked for a full 
consideration of the whole subject and suggested that advanced 
legislation should at once be instituted in the endeavour to control 
the situation. C. K. C. 

Faculty of One of the permanent problems confronting 

Education tne h eac j o f any institution for the training of 

teachers is the necessity of finding a satisfactory solution of the 
practice-teaching difficulty. The Faculty of Education of the 
University of Toronto has evolved two plans. One plan gives each 
student either one or two lessons a week during the entire session. 
The second plan, which is supplementary to the first, distributes 
the students in groups of 40 at a time among the public schools of 
the city for two weeks' continuous teaching. The present scheme 
is working well, and many thanks are due to the Principals of the 
various Public Elementary Schools for their hearty co-operation 
in the scheme. P. S. 

Victoria College It is extremely rare that such a distinguished 

The Burwash company assembles in this country as 

gathered in the chapel of Victoria College 

on Thursday, January 18th, to honour the Chancellor Emeritus 



TORONTONENSIA 205 

on the occasion of the inauguration of the lectureship that was 
founded on his retirement four years ago. Not only were all the 
faculties of the Colleges and the University numerously represented 
but also the bench, the bar, the pulpit, and the profession of 
medicine. President Falconer, as chairman, voiced the sentiments 
of the audience when he declared that Dr. Burwash might justly 
be deemed a happy man; his life had not been an easy one, but he 
had lived to see the causes for which he had toiled brought to 
fruition, and had been spared abundant health and strength to 
round out his labours by writing the history of the institution with 
which he had been so long connected. President Bowles also made 
brief and fitting remarks. 

The lecture, consisting of a chapter from the forthcoming book, 
was entitled, "The Men of the Early Days of Victoria". It traced 
the part that had been played in public life and in the learned 
professions by men who were trained in the old Upper Canada 
Academy, founded in 1836, and later in the academic and collegiate 
departments of Victoria University after the Royal Charter had 
been received. Unfortunately, Dr. Burwash was compelled to 
excuse himself before finishing his reading for fear he might overtax 
his strength and resumed his seat to the universal regret of the 
audience, promising that the rest of the paper might soon be read 
in print. 

But not the least interesting part of the programme followed 
when Mr. Justice Britton, mounting to the platform, declared 
that sixty-five years ago he had shared his room in the old college 
dormitory with a bright-faced and chubby boy, who was none 
other than Dr. Burwash himself. He claimed a unique right, 
therefore, to move a vote of thanks, which was seconded by another 
contemporary, the Rev. S. C. Philp, who revealed a similar memory 
and knowledge of those distant days. The audience was deeply 
moved and responded with a heartiness that is rarely paralleled, 
and no friend of the college could fail to realise that its best tra- 
ditions had been renewed and a new link forged in the chain that 
unites an honourable past with an earnest present and a hopeful 
future. 

The Burwash lectures will be delivered from time to time, as 
the revenue from the endowment permits, by men who are eminent 
in lines of endeavour in which Dr. Burwash has been interested, 
which will permit of a wide range. 

N. W. D. 



206 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Trinity College 



On the evening of December 5th at Convoca- 
tion Hall a concert was given in aid of the 
Canadian Section of the National Allied Bazaar held in Boston 
from December 9th to 20th. The entire proceeds were devoted 
to Patriotic purposes. The artists were: Madame Grace Smith, 
pianist; Mrs. Denison Dana, soprano; Miss Muriel Bruce, song 
interpreter; and Mr. Rudolph Larsen, violinist. 

Professor H. C. Simpson gave a lecture to the English Associa- 
tion on "H. G. Wells", Wednesday evening, January 17th. 

The students of St. Hilda's College won the Basketball cup 
for this year. 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow- graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
11 The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



A. G. Morphy, B.A. (U.) '86, M.D. 
(McGill), resident for many years at 
Lachine, Quebec, now lives at 761 
Sherbrooke Street, Montreal, and is 
attached to the Staff of the McGill 
Medical School and that of the Royal 
Victoria College. Dr. Morphy's two 
sons are lieutenants in the 73rd High- 
landers now serving at the front. 

Colonel Herbert Bruce, M.D. '93, a 
member of the Faculty of Medicine, 
has been appointed to the position of 
Consulting Surgeon to the British 
Forces in France under the British 
War Office. 

Joseph Harold Fisher, B.A. (U.) '99, 
LL.B. '02, has been elected Mayor of 
Ottawa for the year 1917. 



The Reverend R. H. A. Haslam, 
B.A. (U.) '99, M.A. (U.) '11, and Mrs. 
Haslam of Kangra, India, are living at 
267 Mutual Street, Toronto. 

The Venerable Archdeacon Garland 
Crawford MacKenzie, D.C.L. (Hon.) 
(T.) '02, has retired from the rector- 
ship of Grace Anglican Church, 
Brantford. 

The Reverend David Wren, B.A. 
(V.) '07, B.D., of Brussels, London 
Conference, has accepted a unanimous 
invitation to Mount Forest, Hamilton 
Conference. ' 

The Reverend W. W. Judd, B.A. 
(T.) '08, has returned from the front 
to resume his duties at the Boys' 
School in Windsor, N.S. 

Miss Mona McLaughlin, B.A. (U.) 
'09, has been appointed inspector of 
provincial factories. For the past 
two years, Miss McLaughlin has been 
doing investigation work with the 
Social Service Commission. 

Miss Weaver having taken charge 
of the Women's Labour Bureau in 
Toronto, Miss Winifred Harvey, B.A. 
(T.) '11, is now organising one for the 
Government in Hamilton. Miss Har- 
vey spoke on the work of these Bureaus 
at the meeting of the University 
Women's Club, Friday, January 26. 



TORONTONENSIA 



207 



Miss Marion B. Ferguson, B.A. (U.) 
'15, has been sent out to India as a 
Secretary by the Dominion Council of 
the Y.W.C.A. 



W. A. Richardson, M.B. '86, was 
transferred from A.M.C. work at 
Boulogne Hospital to the position of 
M.O. of the First Divisional Ammu- 
nition Column, C.E.F., and has since 
been appointed O.C. Sanitary Section, 
Second Division, C.E.F. 

W. A. Richardson, Jr., B.A.Sc. '11, 
who left Canada as a Gunner in the 
19th Battery, 1st Division, is now 
Lieutenant in the 10th Battery 3rd 
Brigade, C.F.A., C.E.F. 

J. Richardson Roaf, B.A.Sc. '00, is 
now Major in the Tunnelling Com- 
pany, C.E., at present training at 
Crowborough, England. 

T. L. Butters, M.B. '13, is a Captain 
in the C.A.M.C., and attached to the 
Epsom Convalescent Hospital. 

Marriages 

ARMOUR MORRIS On January 9, 
1917, at Bramshott, England, Major 
Archibald Douglas Armour, 74th 
Battalion, C.E.F., B.A. (T.) '02, 
M.A. '03, to Miss Elizabeth Morris. 

BROWN HEWITT On January 19, 
1917, at Hamilton, Charles Edgar 
Brown, B.A.Sc. '10, of Hamilton, 
to Miss Ruby C. Hewitt, B.A. (V.) 
'11, of the Victoria High School, 
Edmonton. 

CAMPBELL PONSFORD On December 
27, 1916, at Edmonton, James A. 
Campbell of Vancouver to Miss 
Lavinia Ponsford, B.A. (T.) 12, of 
Edmonton. 

CASSELS MILLER On January 2, 
1917, at St. Catharines, Lieuten- 
ant Hamilton Cassels, 19th Batta- 
lion, C.E.F., University College '17, 
of Toronto, to Miss Nannette Trous- 
dell Miller. 



CHRISTIE DUNNING On January 20, 
1917, at Toronto, Ryerson Meyers 
Christie, B.A.Sc. '14, of Edmonton, 
to Miss Ada Helena Dunning. 

CRASHLEY MACARTHUR In January 
1917, at Toronto, Lieut. John Wil- 
lard Crashley, 216th Battalion, 
C.E.F., Applied Science '14, to Miss 
Doris Sanderson MacArthur of 
Toronto. 

CROCKETT BRANDON On December 
30, 1916, at Toronto, Lieut. J. R. 
Crockett, D.D.S. '16, of Vancouver, 
to Miss Lucille Eleanor Brandon of 
South Parkdale. 

CRUISE WHITLAM On January 10, 
1917, at Toronto, William Wilson 
Cruise, R.A.M.C., M.B. '10, of 
Toronto, to Miss Eleanor R. Whit- 
lam. 

FROST LAWRENCE In January 1917, 
at Welland, John G. G. Frost, 
B.A.Sc. '14, of Tweed, to Miss Zella 
Juanita Lawrence of Welland. Ad- 
dress 77 Griffith Street, Welland. 

HILL HARRISON On December 27, 
1916, at Hamilton, Arthur N. Hill, 
D.D.S. '14, of Dundas, to Miss 
Jessie Rose Hanison of Milton. 

MCLELLAN RANKIN On November 
8, 1916, at Harriston, Lieutenant 
Roy Alexander McLellan, B.A.Sc. 
'12, of Harriston, to Miss Mary 
Hope Rankin of Brooklyn, N.Y. 

MORTIMER MAC IVOR On December 
28, 1916, at London, England, 
Lieutenant Arthur Beresford Mor- 
timer, B.A. (T.) '11, Canadian 
Artillery, to Miss Flora Maclvor of 
County Tyrone, Ireland. 

OKE HOIG On December 29, 1916, 
at Oshawa, Lieut. William V. Oke, 
235th Battalion, C.E.F., B.A.Sc. 
'13, of Toronto, to Miss Dorothy 
Loscombe Hoig, B.A. (T.) '13, of 
Oshawa. 



208 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



ROBINSON Me MAHON On Decem- 
ber 19, 1916, at Pe+ersfield, England, 
J. E. Robinson of Toronto, to Miss 
Marjorie McMahon, B.A. (U.) '15, 
of Toronto. 

SMYTH Coo On January 6, 1917, at 
Toronto, Arthur Herbert Smyth, 
B.A.Sc. '16, of Strathroy, to Miss 
Olive Elizabeth Coo of Toronto. 

TULL NIMMO In December 1916, 
at Toronto, William S. Tull, B.A.Sc. 
'16, of Hamilton, to Miss Delena 
Isobel Nimmo. 

VANSTONE WALKER On January 27, 
1917, at Toronto, Harold Wilkinson 
Vanstone of Yorkton, Sask., to Miss 
Margaret Ethel Walker, B.A. '16, 
of Toronto. Address Jamieson 
Avenue, Toronto. 

VANWYCK MCTAVISH On January 
4, 1917, at Frome, Somerset, Eng- 
land, Capt. Hermon B. VanWyck 
B.A. (V.) '11, M.B. '15, Adjutant 
in No. 4 Base Hospital, Saloniki, to 
Miss Jean McTavish. 



Deaths 

BOWLBY In January 1917, at Kitch- 
ener, Ward H. Bowlby, K.C., M.A. 
(U.) '58, LL.B. '58. 

COTTON On January 9, 1917, at 
Toronto, James H. Cotton, M.B. 74. 

GEIKIE On January 12, 1917, at 
Toronto, Walter Bayne Geikie, M.D. 
(V.) '59, M.D. (T.) '82, D.C.L. 
(Hon.) (T.) '89, formerly Dean of 
Trinity Medical College. 

KING On December 30, 1916, at 
. Toronto, John Edgar King, M.D., 
C.M. (T.) '93. :j , 

THOMPSON On January 22, 1917, at 
Omemee, John Nixon Thompson, 
M.D. (T.) 74. 



It is necessary to hold over to the March number several items, including 
Book^Reviews and a French poem "Salut au Canada". 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, MARCH, 1917. No. 6 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION. 
Major James Miles Langstaff; Staff. 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 
Major Herbert Jones; M.B. 1904. 
Captain Walter Wake McKenzie, C.A.M.C.; M.B. 1914. 



WOUNDED. 

Lieut. T. K. Creighton, B.A. (U.) 1916. 
Capt. H. C. Hartney, B.A. (U.) 1911. 
Lieut. C. S. L. Hertzberg, App. Sc. 1905. 
Lieut. F. H. Macallum, B.A. (U.), 1915. 
Lieut. W. E. Poupore, B.A.|(U.), 1914. 

ILL. 
Major D. B. Bentley, M.D., CM. (T.) 1891. 

MISSING. 
Lieut. F. A. R. W. Swinnerton; Applied Science 1914. 

HONOURS. 

C.M.G. Col. The Rev. R. H. Steacey. 
Distinguished Service Cross Ft. Lieut. E. R. Grange. 
M.C. Capt. A. E. Sutton; Lieut. C. S. L. Hertzberg. 
Order of St. Stanislaus Russian Empire Lt.-Col. J. J. Creelman. 
Mentioned for valuable service in connection with the war Col. E. C. 

Ashton; Lt.-Col. I. H. Cameron; Lt.-Col. Graham Chambers; 

Major H. A. Croll; Major O. K. Gibson; Major C. D. MacAl- 

pine; Lt.-Col. D. W. McPherson; Capt. E. A. Neff; Major A. 

A. Smith. 

[2091 



210 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

PROFESSORS' SONS ON THE ROLL OF HONOUR 

The President in his address at the opening of the University 
last fall referred to those members of the Staff of the University 
and affiliated Colleges whose sons are on active service. A partial 
list is given here. Some have two, and at least one has three sons 
serving. Ex- President Loudon, Chancellor Bowles, Principal 
Hutton, Dean Ellis, Principal Grange, Mr. Brebner. Professors 
Amyot, Ballantyne, Carruthers, de Champ, Fletcher, Eraser, 
Hume, Keys, Kilpatrick, A. E. Lang, Langford, Law, Lefroy, W. J. 
Loudon, Machell, Mavor, McPhedran, Robertson, Rollo, Ryerson, 
Tracey, F H. Wallace, Willmott, Wishart, C. H. C. Wright, 
Wrong. 

Chancellor Meredith, and Professors Van der Smissen, Alexander, 
Machell, Primrose, and Ryerson and Wrong have each lost a son 
in the war. 

THE ROLL OF SERVICE 

The Board of Governors is arranging for the publication, later 
in the year, of an official Roll of all members of the Univer- 
sity and its connected Colleges who are on Active Military 
Service. The lists published in THE MONTHLY during the last two 
years have served their purpose in bringing before their readers 
some idea of the military services that have been rendered by 
members of the University in this war. So too have the lists 
published in the Varsity Supplements and the various Faculty and 
College journals. But inevitably all of these published records 
have been partial and incomplete; and it is felt that the time has 
come when all the existing information should be collected at one 
centre and as far as possible brought up to date for publication in 
a single official volume. The first issue of this Roll of Service will 
be provisional and subject to revision in preparation for a larger 
edition at the end of the war. 

For the completion of this work a great deal will depend upon 
the co-operation of individuals. The existing partial lists will be 
collated with that which has been compiled in the office of the 
Registrar of the University. In addition circulars will be addressed 
to all whose names are on these lists, or to their families. But 
these are not always easily reached. To supplement these measures 
all members of the University can give valuable assistance by for- 
warding information regarding individuals which they have already 
or will be receiving from time to time through private letters or 
other sources. 






THE ROLL OF SERVICE 211 

The names of over 3,500 are now on the lists, and in most 
cases the original rank and unit is known, but there have been so 
many changes, transfers and promotions that the present infor- 
mation is not always up to date. 

One or two examples may be given: There are, perhaps, over 
300 men who have left Canada in the ranks and have subsequently 
received commissions, often in the Imperial Army. In many of 
these cases the present unit is not generally known here. Again, 
many are at present recorded simply as "R. F. A.", "C. F. A.", 
"R. A. M. C.", etc., and it is not known in what particular units 
they are respectively serving, or where they are stationed. Detailed 
information in these and similar cases is urgently required. It wil 1 
not be possible to publish all details in this first edition but it is 
important they should now be collected for present reference and 
eventual publication. An office has now been established for the 
special purpose of making out a record of each man's war service 
and a separate folder for each will be kept. Readers of THE 
MONTHLY are asked to send in brief memoranda (preferably on a 
separate sheet for each man) to PROFESSOR G. OSWALD SMITH, 
Editor, The Roll of Service, University of Toronto. 

Information can also be forwarded through Miss O'Neil of the 
University Registrar's office or through any of those who are 
keeping special lists for the various Faculties and Colleges and the 
Students' Council. 



WAR ELEGIACS. 

CTTt TljJijj T&V VeCLVL&V 

Aprtcos tv rots T&V RpeTavviK&v dTrot/acov juoixmots 
6<rot. vvv airoredvaffi rots )8ap/3dpots 



Trot iroQev avTrj gpts OCLVCLTOVS re <f>epovffa /cat &\yrj; 

Xetjuol)j> fiv jap erous XotTros, oXcoXe 6' eap* ( l ) 
6p<f>aviKas OTT7<7 /copas X^P 

ob 7roXis 6s xtpaiv filp\ov 
apyvpea XeXurat xop8rj xpvveov ^ KVTT\\OV' ( 2 ) 

0po05os 6s aprt vkois TTCUS 6apte Xo7ots* 
eXTTtSas oLXOfievas <jrkvo^v re /cat ot'a 'Ept*>6s 

/cat xdpuv ykyovkv, 4>rjffi rts, 6 TrroXc^tos. ( 3 ) 



1 The year has lost its spring. Pericles Funeral Speech. 

2 Or ever the silver chord be loosed or the golden bowl, etc. Ecclesiastes. 

3 War is hell. General Sherman. 



212 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

dXXd rtrj dvvarai /5tos o&orc iroQrjiJitvai avrbv; 

/cat iroffov r) vebrrjs dvr) eirijpKe TroXti'; 
yrjpaos dirpd/crou /cat kr&v dxp^tou dptfljuoO 

TraOpa /i&> aurdp/crj 5' r^/mr' ajuii>oj> c$u' ( 4 
6"oTts e\v6eplas /cat d/zu^ojuevos Trcpt iroXXcov 

cbpaiou ^etpa^ dv5p6s Tr\Tj(T reX?; ( 5 ) 
ouros ?rats cr' ecoi' jStou ^77 rep^tar' d<T/CTai 

T f 'AtSao donovs ov Trapd fjiolpav e8v' 



dXXd 7 dp ot 7roXe)uoOi'Ts ot ^{jLerepoi erTpariwrcu 

dpx^ rrj\e8aTr'f)p els 'iv &yovcn rbirov' 
dXXorptas 0tXtoO<n TroXets /cat /trjrpt /cat durats, 
/cat TI)J> nr)TpoTro\Lp Tras rts aTrot/cos 6p' 

7X00x7^ 7rct<7t* 
CLVTO\LKOIS avkdv' 

/cat a\\7]\ois ftva Travres c^Ujuev 3/xotot* 
tiuracrw 



apa XP 1 ) ^ov e/cet 76 6avbv9' virkp 
ota KCLfji&v OIQ.V rj/jLLV 'idpvffe irb\iv 
HaKpa 65oj jua/cpd" <f>aiJ.J> u dXX' 
rcjj Se BavbvTi TrXecoj' yOy rcrX(Trat 65os* 

rep 7 X67W BepoXtm; 
ets ro Oecov ^677 /cet^os c^t/crat 
rot<7t OavovaL xctpts, 6t' orcoi' 

roi' re Geof KCLVT^V TT\V <}>vaiv avQis Idelv. 
rotert Bavovtn x^P^s ^ctat Trcpt/cetvrat, cbr' avr&v ( 7 ) 

7^pas d/zi;^oOcrat daKpva dovpa nbpov' 
roiai 6avovcn x a P a T Ka ^ ci5 
roi' /Sto?' kvOevdi Keiva /car' 

MAURICE HUTTON, 



4 One crowded hour of glorious life 
Is worth an age without a name. Sir Walter Scott. 

6 "He did his bit." 

e "It's a long, long way to Tipperary." 

7 The souls of the righteous are in the hands of God, there shall no evil come 
nigh them: they are in peace. 



THE BONNE ENTENTE 



The Bonne Entente was an idea. It became an organisation 
and has not lost the idea; which is something rememberable 
in organisations. It was sown in hesitation; it has reaped 
in an interim triumph. Only an interim, of course. Movements 
which affect the relations of two peoples, whom some describe as 
two nations, albeit they dwell beneath the same flag and function 
in the same Parliament, must have long beginnings and more or 
less precarious youths. They cannot ripen in a night. There must 
be first the blade, then the ear, and perhaps, after all, a rather 
skimpy corn in the ear. 

The Bonne Entente arose from the realisation that if something 
were not done to arrest the movement of Quebec and Ontario away 
from each other, the war which should develop a conscious nation- 
hood would produce only a discordancy, the last shame of a federa- 
tion in which the final glory of the British Empire ought to be 
mirrored. Something was needed to stay the deepening exacerba- 
tion which belonged to a trouble about the teaching of French in 
Ontario schools, and was intensified by the irritation in Ontario 
by the apparent disparity in enlistment between the two provinces. 
If it be true that wars come to weld nations into unbreakable 
coherence, the extent to which The Bonne Entente has opened the 
road to harmony between English and French is a blessed proof 
that the achievements of war are not all upon the stricken field. 

Last spring recruiters from the Maritime Provinces, Ontario 
and the West besought the Government to be more vigorous in 
recruiting the 500,000, the voluntary principle in which had been 
worked to exhaustion. The Government shook its head and 
murmured "Quebec". To most of the recruiters who invaded 
Ottawa, Quebec was a foreign country and an exasperating, foreign 
problem, which needed the strong tongue and the strong hand to 
make it move itself aright. So they said, "We must campaign in 
Ontario for some form of compulsion. There is a heather to be 
set on fire. Go to, let us fire it". They got ready a torch, but the 
Prime Minister asked them for a season to hold their hand. For 
the first time a great war meeting arranged for Massey Hall was 
cancelled. 

[213' 



214 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Then a curious thing happened. Somebody who did not assume 
that national unity was to be achieved by "lambasting" two million 
senior Canadians, and who believed that the French are an asset 
and not a menace to Canadian patriotism that at least they are 
as congenial to this soil as the myriads of people who derive from 
enemy countries somebody injected those more emollient ideas 
into the minds of certain of the compulsionists; and The Bonne 
Entente was born, in the Mississauga Golf Club, in the valley 
above Port Credit, when the suggestion was made "How would 
it be if fifty representative Ontario men could meet fifty Quebec 
men to try to understand their point of view through informal 
intercourse?" 

The answer to that question is read in a reduction of inflam- 
mation between the two peoples, in an admiration in Ontario of 
the bi-lingual culture displayed by the Canadians of French origin 
and education, and in a kindly questioning in Quebec as to whether, 
after all, the spirit of Ontario may not have been misjudged. 
That answer could not come quickly, or without labour and risk 
and certain degrees of hostility to the idea of kindliness and liberal- 
ity, and faith in God Almighty's ability to father as good Cana- 
dians on the lower St. Lawrence as He does in Dufferin. 

The compulsionists whose faces had turned towards conscrip- 
tion were consulted. It was urged upon them that a campaign 
in Ontario for compulsion would let loose oratory which might 
revel in ill-informed denunciation of Quebec and thus furnish 
excuses in Ontario and provoke resentment in Quebec to the hurt 
of recruiting and national service in both provinces. It was also 
urged that goodwill between two peoples as numerous as the 
French-speaking and English-speaking folk in Canada was of 
such vital importance to the solidarity of Canada that an attempt 
to achieve it was worth immense effort, without an afterthought 
as to its immediate effect on battalions. It was suggested that our 
attitude towards our fellow senior Canadians should be governed 
by our feeling towards the fifteen thousand then in khaki and their 
friends and fellow countrymen interested wholeheartedly in the 
war, and not by resentment against those who had not enlisted. 
Resentment on the score of duty too slowly approached need not 
originate in Quebec. 

On such talk as that the National Service League men authorised 
their President to take steps to prove the acceptability of the idea 
in Quebec. The ambassadorial work was undertaken to the 



THE BONNE ENTENTE 215 

accompaniment of prophecy that the will to amity would not 
become a monumental deed. An Ontarion who deserves to be 
immortal said he didn't want to visit Quebec till he went down 
with a gun. A Montreal patriot, of much learning, tolerance 
and discernment, sadly spoke his mind when he said it was no 
use talking goodwill to Quebec unless the school question was 
settled first. 

But these harbingers of despair were in a fortunate minority. 
They soon formed the background for a warm effulgent picture. 
Quebec rose to the proffered hand and took it heartily and without 
reserve. The first public sign was vouchsafed at the summer 
meeting of the Associated Boards of Trade of the Eastern Town- 
ships, in the village of Ayer's Cliff. There is bi-lingual peace in 
the garden of Quebec. When the idea of an interprovincial inter- 
change was expounded, Mr. Steele, the Sherbrooke President, 
immediately invited Ontarions to gather in Sherbrooke. The 
Montreal Chambre de Commerce, in Council, passed a cordial and 
co-operative resolution. A meeting of representative citizens of 
Three Rivers gave a similar blessing to the proposal. On the 
twelfth of July mark well that day! Sir Evariste LeBlanc, the 
Lieutenant-Governor, gave a lunch at the Garrison Club which 
adjoins the Citadel, at which a Committee of Quebec citizens was 
appointed to give body to the movement in the French province. 
That very night the Committee met, appointed Sir George Garneau 
its Chairman, and ordered an invitation to Ontario to be indited 
in terms whose cordiality could not be mistaken. 

The next meeting in Ontario was not confined to baffled re- 
cruiters. Representative professional and business men came 
together. The Quebec invitation was accepted and the pilgrimage 
was launched. A joint meeting of Committees in Montreal in 
August sealed the beginning which had to be made and passed a 
resolution declaring that no question can arise between Canadians 
which cannot be settled amicably and justly and to the satisfaction 
of the vast majority in both provinces. 

In the preliminaries the manufacturers showed to excellent ad- 
vantage. Patriotism and six per cent, make a powerful team. 
Sundry Thomases were encountered. . When the excursion started 
a few good men lingered, shivering on the brink, and feared to 
launch away. 

There was courage in Winnipeg, whence a delegate came, and 
in the Maritime Provinces, which furnished eight. All that 



216 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

happened in Montreal, Three Rivers, Quebec and Sherbrooke, on 
October 9th, which was Thanksgiving, and three succeeding days 
cannot be summarised here. Nothing like it had ever been known. 
From the first moment there was a gay, informal fraternity and a 
boundless hospitality which made reciprocal friendship secure. 
There was frank speaking at banquets, which honoured those who 
spoke and those who gladly heard. At Sherbrooke the climax 
was reached when a resolution directing the formation of a perma- 
nent organisation to promote interracial goodwill, and Ontario 
presented Quebec with a massive loving cup, which was passed 
to three hundred banqueters in liquid, ceremonial joys. Grave 
and careful patriots said that nothing so heartening had happened 
since Confederation. 

For the Ontarions there was henceforth a new Quebec and, by 
the same token, a new Canada and a new Hope. The St. Charles 
Seminary and the Notre Dame Convent were shown to be bi-lingual 
institutions where the humanities are hourly exalted; where culture 
and courtesy do so much abound; and where bended knee and 
adoring gaze keep back the people from presumptuous sins; where 
the road to appreciation of all that has been greatly wrought in 
Canada is opened and the way made straight. 

Two weeks later the intangible gains of the pilgrimage were 
sorted in Toronto. They were found to be very good, and dele- 
gates were named for Conference in Montreal to settle the lines 
of permanent organisation and the course of the return visit to 
Ontario. In November The Bonne Entente was fashioned, with 
Sir George Garneau as Chairman, Mr. J. M. Godfrey as Vice- 
Chairman for Ontario, and a joint Council and Executive. The 
visit to Ontario was fixed for January 8th, 9th, and 10th. 

That visit as notably outran anticipation as the first had done. 
Eighty-five pilgrims came, including Sir Louis Gouin, the Premier, 
the Honourable Adelard Turgeau, Speaker of the Legislative 
Council, and Judge Pelletier, former Postmaster-General. At the 
City Hall, the Technical School, the Fairbanks-Morse Munitions 
Factory, where hundreds of women work, insight was given into 
some Toronto activities. There was an interdenominational love- 
feast at Burwash Hall; and a call at Government House gave a 
special social edge to the afternooon. The University honoured 
itself by conferring a degree on Sir George Garneau. The banquet 
at the King Edward Hotel was unique for company, eloquence, 
spirit and absence of spirits. The Lieutenant-Governor was there 



THE BONNE ENTENTE 217 

as well as Premiers Gouin and Hearst. It might fairly be said that 
everybody was there. 

Hamilton did marvellously next day. Soldiers came to the 
station; the City Hall was crowded for the official welcome; the 
Mountain did for physical views what the intellectual interchanges 
did for mental outlooks. The lunch was followed by a uniquely 
frank and illuminating conference on the relations of the two 
peoples in Ontario a conference which the prophets would have 
pronounced impossible a few months before. The banquet was 
really a prolongation of the conference, as the verbatim reports 
of the speeches, now being edited, will show. At two o'clock in 
the morning it was agreed that Hamilton had even excelled Hamil- 
ton. 

The third day was Niagara day, with visits to the Toronto- 
directed power plant and lunch on the American side. It was a 
blizzardly day but none the less fortunate, and a khaki meeting 
on the way to Toronto ended the visit on the note of an apostolate 
for the war. 

It would be superfluous to elaborate the moral that belongs to a 
getting together in unity. When the Ontario pilgrims were leaving 
Sherbrooke a French student of Quebec Laval, named Donovan, 
suggested a Bonne Entente between university students all over 
Canada, an idea indeed for whose realisation efforts should^be 
made. 

ARTHUR HAWKES. 



WHERE PEACE ABIDES 



The weary months of war crept by. Fear and hate ruled the 
world, sweet peace had hidden her face, her soft voice hushed 
in the clang of guns. 

In fierce rebellion, weary and sick at heart, we watched the 
young go forth either to stain the already ensanguined earth with 
their life's blood, or to return to us broken and maimed. Was 
there in this mad world a quiet spot in which we might find forget- 
fulness? We longed for Ireland's "envied haunts of peace, calm 
and untouched, remote from roar", but could we find what we 
sought for "where Brother's hand was still 'gainst Brother "? We 
knew we could; passion-rent as she was at that moment, Ireland 
whispered to us to come we listened and went. 

It was a cold' and dreary evening when we took the train for 
Fishguard. We sped past darkened towns, catching a glimpse of 
huge factories where tired men and women were straining every 
nerve in fashioning into perfection weapons to destroy their fellow- 
beings, and we wondered as we sped by at the means that had to 
be used to preserve civilisation two thousand years after Christ. 
We were drawing nearer to the little land where' a struggle for 
civilisation held sway so long ago. It was a struggle of a different 
kind patient and gentle hands created beautiful things rather 
than destroyed them. It was waged in pain and travail, as it is 
to-day, but the peace of God was there and not the sound of guns. 
Thus, despite her seeming failure as a Nation, Ireland's glory is 
that she saved and passed on to us the gracious gift of modern 
civilisation. What better thing could we do, we who could only 
look on and therefore had time to ponder over many things not 
easy to understand, than to go and see some of the places where 
the Irish Monks had worked? 

The pale morning sun was shining when we arrived at Rosslare. 
We had not seen the last of war, as the train bound for the south 
was packed with tired and wounded Paddies. They overflowed 
into the corridors, sitting about on their forlorn looking kits. 
Battered as they were their spirit was not quenched, jest and 

1218] 



WHERE PEACE ABIDES 219 

repartee flew from one to the other. We stood for a moment en- 
joying their soft brogue, so blessed a change from the shrill cockney 
we had listened to so long. But how to get past them, tightly 
packed as they were, to get a badly needed cup of tea, puzzled us. 
At my feet lay a giant of a man sleeping the sleep of exhaustion. 
He was an Irishman, however, and therefore would prove himself 
gallant. I was not disappointed for on touching him on the shoulder 
and asking if I might pass, the answer came "Sure and ye may 
melady an' what is more I'd carry ye meself wheriver ye wanted 
to go only ye see I'm bounded. Get out of the way boys and let 
the lady pass". They tumbled over one another like big puppies 
and quickly made way for us but how they did it will always remain 
a mystery. 

As we got further away from Rosslare the scenery became so 
beautiful that we fell into feilence. On one side lay the great range 
of the Galty Hills, deep blue and purple in colour, the Knockmeal- 
down Mountains showing in .'"he distance. Softly and tenderly the 
low Irish sky bent down and touched the hills until Heaven and 
earth were one. On the other side ran Spenser's "Gentle Shure 
that making way by sweet Clonmell adorns rich Waterford". 

It was not "a long, long way t/> Tipperary" that day for it was 
one of exceeding beauty. Sometimes the Galtys reached a height 
of 3015 feet, to merge at the end of our journey into the Plains of 
Tipperary. The Suir deepened and widened as we went on, its 
rich valley grew richer and more beautiful until at Carrick-on-Suir 
and Clonmell it presented a scene not easily forgotten. It was the 
memory of such scenes that brought the ghosts of the "Wild Geese" 
" Homing in the dim light of dawn " to take a last look. It was the 
memory of such scenes that made the Irish Monks while working 
in strange lands in the cause of civilisation, leave record of theii 
longing for the hills and glens of their native land on the margin 
of the manuscript on which they were employed. 

We did not stay in Tipperary just then but went on to County 
Clare. Once there we went to bed, lulled to sleep by the Shannon's 
"brawling loud music", beginning our quest next day with ancient 
Killaloe, the home of part of our childhood. What mysteries the 
dirty old town had held for the six children who lived there long 
ago; everywhere was something for imaginative minds to feed 
upon. Once the stronghold of the O' Brians, the ancient Kings of 
Thomond, it was also one of the first places where St. Patrick 
taught. In the tower of the Cathedral, so the legend runs, Brian 



220 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

the Great used to hide his too beautiful wife when he went forth 
to battle, but dying at the battle of Clontarf, her hiding-place was 
forgotten. How often we had heard her cries of anguish and had 
seen her in the dim twilight leave her prison-house and walk in 
the lonely church-yard beneath, her golden crown and armlets 
and white flowing dress shining through the trees. How often we 
had fought the battles of the wild men of Connaught as against 
the men of Clare, or of the gallant Sarsfield and his men against 
William and the English. How often we had stood in the old 
oratory and hushed our play while we listened to the whispers of 
the Monks of long ago, who were hiding beneath waiting for the 
cruel and greedy Dane to pass by. These and many other old 
memories surged over us. 

Dim old St. Flannans, everything has been done that could be 
done to spoil you. The beautiful gray flags are covered by hideous 
black and yellow tiles. The old carved pulpit from which "Tom" 
Vereker used to keep an anxious eye ,on the wild Irish children he 
loved and chided as if they were his own, is pushed aside for a 
modern one; a vulgar glass screen* separates the choir from the 
fine old nave; one transept is used for a vestry, the other for an 
engine room. The beautiful Norman tower has been raised to 
admit a chime of cheap modern bells. But even modern vulgarity 
had not removed the graceful, deeply splayed lancet windows, 
nor had it touched the fine door in the nave which we had been 
told, as children, led to Murtough O'Brien's tomb. Curiously 
enough, its fellow is to be found in Caens, Normandy. Irish- 
Romanesque in design, four arches rise gracefully one above the 
other, each richly ornamented with either delicate spiral and leaf 
work, grotesque animals with tails twisted into the hair of human 
heads, or the familiar dog tooth pattern. Beside the Cathedral 
stands a tiny oratory, its high pitched roof of fitted blocks of stone 
showing its age. Partly ruined by the Danes, Brian Boru restored 
it and used it as his parish church. On the cold slabs, where we 
now stood, the good King used to kneel in prayer before going to 
war. Here, on his return, he came to offer thanks to God for each 
victory Christian Ireland gained over her Pagan enemy. 

England in her long and sordid political struggle with Ireland 
may be accused of forgetfulness of the debt she owes that country, 
a debt the Continent of Europe has generously acknowledged. 
Shortly after the outbreak of the war, when much was being said 
and written about German and English civilisation, an interesting 



WHERE PEACE ABIDES 221 

article appeared in the Contemporary Review. The writer, a Nor- 
wegian, dwelt on the evil influence German civilisation had had 
on his country in contrast to the good influence of the British 
Isles. In this influence for good, "Ireland, both Pagan and Chris- 
tian, had borne the larger part". "The virile power of her old 
songs and sagas borne across the ages quickened and influenced 
our literature". " From her too", he goes on, "came to us the light 
of the Christian religion". 

St. Flannan's oratory has a rival both in age and in our affec- 
tion in the oratory of St. Molua. Hidden away among a tangle 
of weeds and bushes on the tiniest of tiny islands, about half a 
mile down the Shannon from Killaloe, it is a link between legend 
and history, between Paganism and Christianity. The architec- 
ture is of the simplest kind, a single window with a round head, cut 
out of a block of stone, a square-headed, narrow inclined doorway 
and a steep stone roof. The ceiling has fallen in since we were 
children, and close to the roof we now saw the tiny croft which 
had served the Saint for a bedroom. The island was covered with 
water but we went wading and slipping through it hunting for 
the Holy Well. We found it at last and, making a cup of our hands, 
we drank from "the life-giving" water once more. We turned away 
unwillingly, knowing we were looking our last on one of Ireland's 
quiet places. 

Our stay in County Clare was drawing to a close and there were 
still many well-known haunts to see. We left for the last, the 
dearest place of all, the Elccesiastical city of Holy Island on Lough 
Derg. The Monastic school of "Holy Island" was founded by 
St. Caimen in the seventh century. The daily life was the usual 
one led in all the early Irish Ecclesiastical cities. Sometimes the 
students numbered three thousand. They lived in huts which 
were grouped about the Monastery. The classes were held in the 
open air, the tuition was free, but each pupil was expected to per- 
form some work in the interest of the community. Religion and 
learning went hand in hand, and if the Irish schools sent forth 
"the most fearless spiritual Knights the world has known", they 
sent forth also very learned men. Arithmetic, Rhetoric, the Pagan 
Classics, Astronomy and the Arts were taught side by side with 
Theology. On the Continent learning was at its lowest ebb; Greek 
was almost a dead language, so that to meet anyone who knew it 
was to assume at once that he had come from Ireland. 



222 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

We were to visit Holy Island in the way we liked best the 
way of our childhood going first to Derry Castle for tea, then 
rowing from there to Iniscaltra. The sun was low as we left Derry 
Castle; in the distance we could see the Island framed by stern 
Lough Derg, the stately Round Tower set in the midst. Gently 
the boat glided on the shore and in a moment we were alone. 
The hush of evening was already there, the silence unbroken 
except for the whisper of the yew trees and the lapping of the water. 
Once before in far-off Paestum I had felt the same stillness, sweet 
and fraught with meaning. A similar desire had inspired the build- 
ing of the magnificent Greek Temples and the seven little churches 
on Holy Island. Greek Fisherman and Irish Monk had chosen 
alike for his sanctuary a place set apart from the turmoil of the 
world in which to worship God. Over each to-day broods the peace 
and the presence of God. Near the landing place we found the 
remains of an oratory and the cell of the Penitents. A little further 
away was an ancient cemetery entered into by a low round-headed 
gateway, within which was the "Church of the Wounded Men", 
a church consecrated to those who had fallen at the hands of the 
Danes. In the churchyard we found some tomb-slabs covered 
with incised crosses beautifully designed after the early Irish 
manner. Four of the finest covered the graves of an Abbot and 
three of his Monks; side by side they lay but not in the usual way. 
When the trumpet calls them to arise he who had been their leader 
in life would not desert them, he would rise facing his companions, 
thus when their eyes opened they would fall first on his loved 
familiar face, gaining courage from it to go forth and meet their 
Maker. The rooks were on the wing when we turned to examine 
the church of St. Mary, the largest of the seven churches. It is 
almost in ruins but in the south hall there is left a fine, deeply 
splayed window. Before the altar, covered with the moss of 
centuries, knelt a poorly clad woman who, rising as we approached, 
passed swiftly down the narrow path. Soon we saw her figure out- 
lined against the sky as she rowed homeward. We had just one 
half-hour left before the boat was to return and we still had the 
Round Tower and St. Caimen's Church to see. Petrie claims that 
this beautiful 1 ttle church presents to-day the original features of 
the church built by St. Caimen in the seventh century. We lingered 
for a while over the west doorway, which is very beautiful. It 
consists of three semi-circular arches ornamented with chevron 
mouldings in hollow lines. The piers, which are rectangular and 



WHERE PEACE ABIDES 223 

rounded at the angles, have human heads at the capitals. The 
Round Tower is one of the finest in Ireland. Quite eighty feet 
high it is almost whole except that its conical cap a feature of 
all the Irish round towers is missing. The door was in the usual 
position placed for safety's sake twelve or fourteen feet from the 
ground. A Monk was usually stationed at one of the small windows 
ready to warn the workers of the approach of an enemy. Then 
quickly they would snatch up their most precious possessions, 
climb up the ladder to the door, pull it up after them and closing 
the door were for the moment safe. 

It was time to go; the boat had been at the landing place for 
some time. As we rowed home, the mist which had been gathering 
for the last hour, lay like a pearly veil about the Round Tower and 
churches, shrouding and lending a new beauty to the little Isle of 
the Saints. 

We left County Clare a/few days later for Wicklow, lovely 
Wicklow of the hills and glens and valleys. "The fair hills of 
Eire'o" are fairest in Wicklow; the valleys richer, the glens more 
silent and picturesque. Moreover, in a land where cloud and mist 
and sunshine seem always full of mystery, in Wicklow they are 
more appealing and full of change at least so it seemed to us. 

We put up for a night at Rathdrum, a halting place for Glenda- 
lough, the Vale of Ovoca, and other well known places. It was 
only five o'clock when we arrived at Rathdrum so we decided we 
would have a cup of tea and then drive out to Glendalough and 
engage rooms at the Royal Hotel. Sometimes we drove through 
an avenue of trees laced so thickly overhead as almost to hide the 
sky. Then past the Vale of Clara lying beneath us in its calm 
beauty, the hills rising beyond, then again into the Cathedral-like 
avenue of trees, coming at last into an open road where we caught 
a glimpse of the Glen of the lakes and the Round Tower. We 
drove up to the hotel with the eclat of a coach and four, instead of 
a humble Irish "Car". Late as it was in the season we were able 
to engage two rooms for the next day. As we drove into Glenda- 
lough in the morning light the promise of beauty of the evening 
before was fulfilled. The Vale of Glendasan joins that of the Vale 
of Glendalough. To the right and left rose rugged brown hills, the 
Round Tower showing from afar, standing like a stern sentinel 
guarding the ruins of the seven churches, a little lake glimmering 
at its feet. Through the trees rose plumes of purple smoke from 
the chimneys of cottages near-by. Such was Glendalough that day. 



224 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

It was founded, early in the sixth century, by Kevin, the Fair- 
born, a son of the King of Leinster. Buddha-like, he renounced 
women, riches and high birth; Buddha-like he lived the life of a 
hermit before he became a teacher. The scenery of the upper lake 
where Kevin passed the seven years of his novitiate is of a grand 
and lonely character. On both sides spring hills, as it were out of 
the water, meeting one another at the head of the lake so as to 
leave scarcely room for the mountain torrent which rushes down 
to feed the lake beneath. A shepherd, scaling the hills for a lost 
sheep, first spread the news that a new Saint was found and soon 
the people flocked to hear him. It was not difficult, as we sat in 
Kevin's bed, to conjure up the scene. On the rock jutting out 
beside me, centuries ago had stood a lean, brown-faced Monk, 
once the son of a King, while he told to the listening multitude, 
seated in their rough boats on the lake beneath, the story of the 
Son of a King who had died that they might live, the story of 
Christ. Kevin's fame grew until he was at last forced to leave his 
lonely retreat for the lovely valley where he built his Monastery 
and where he lived to a great age. 

King Edward and Sir Walter Scott made Glendalough the 
fashion. Char-a-bancs and motor cars dash by whose inmates 
wish to see Kevin's Retreat on the Upper Lake, but once you 
enter the enclosure in the lower valley such things are forgotten. 
The gate-way is of great beauty and is compared by Petrie to that 
of the Roman-built, Newport Gate at Lincoln. The little city is 
singularly impressive despite, or perhaps because of its ruined 
condition. Devastated many times by fire and sword in the hands 
of the Danes, the Normans and the English, enough of it remains 
to remind us that it was one of those places where, as Petrie says, 
"The flame of the lamp of civilisation was kept burning when 
England and the Continent were about to sink back into savagery". 
And as such we thought of it as we bade it farewell. 

The period when Irish genius of the Christian Era produced 
its greatest works in Art and Literature, the period in which it 
played no mean part in the History of Europe, was before the 
coming of the Normans. As early as the eighth century ' ' the most 
beautiful book in the world", the Book of Kells, was executed. 
Its colours are as fresh to-day as when they came from the brush 
of the artist Monk. The Book of Darrow is older still. The Cross 
of Cong, with its exquisite gold filigree and inlay of precious stones 
is several centuries later. But those who care to study Irish Art, 



WHERE PEACE ABIDES 225 

both Pagan and Early Christian, must visit the Museums of 
Dublin. There, for the English-speaking world to see, are remains 
of a civilisation as beautiful and as interesting in its way as that 
of Greece. 

But let him also go to the Rock of Cashel, "Cashel of the 
Kings ", the acropolis of Munster. The ruins of Cashel stand to-day 
as an impressive monument of Irish civilisation. They carry you 
back to Paganism, down through the days of Irish Christianity, 
on through the centuries when Irish and Norman civilisation 
seemed merged into one, down to the coming of an entirely alien 
race and religion when all that linked Ireland with her past was 
broken and smashed. Our few days at Cashel are filled with a 
vision of beauty never-to-be-forgotten. Our "first fine rapture" 
was the moment when quite suddenly from the windows of the 
train we saw the golden-gray rock outlined against the sky, its 
stupendous pile of buildings all turrets and towers. But when we 
had climbed to the top of the rock our allegiance to its ruins faltered 
for a time. At our feet lay the golden vale of Tipperary, one ex- 
panse of rich green in the summer sunlight. Mountains rose 
everywhere from the "sweet flowery plains", undulating, cragged 
or frowning. South-east and south-west rose the bold peaks of 
the Galtys; away in the distance on the other side of the rock 
towered Slievenam, "The Mountain of Fair Women", named after 
the Irish Atalanta, and always, as in Ireland, cloud and sunshine 
mingled, making a riot of ever changing colour. The Cathedral 
covers three- fourths of the Rock, near it rises the stately, slender 
Round Tower. The jewel-like chapel of Cormae lies nestling 
between the choir and the south transept of the Cathedral. 

Lovers of Greece and of Ireland have often compared the two 
countries. In the ruins at Athens and those at Cashel the resem- 
blance continues. "Both sites were covered with buildings of 
different ages and styles; both were strongholds of religion, honoured 
above all other sanctuaries in their respective lands". Both helped 
to exalt and humanise mankind. The great Cathedral at Cashel 
is the Parthenon of the Place, Cormae's Chapel is likened to the 
Erectheum at Athens. To-day the splendour of the sanctuary at 
Athens is still the wonder of the world; Cashel is practically un- 
known, but the gift of Christianity received there by the Pagan 
Irish King has still a meaning. While the glory of the Athenian 
Gods has departed forever, the story of the sacrifice of Christ, as 



226 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

preached on the Rock of Cashel, will thrill the pulse of man while 
the world lasts. 

We returned from wandering among the quiet places, where the 
spirit of love still lingered, strengthened and with a clearer vision. 
Love, we felt, was stronger and deeper than the deepest hate; 
peace was not yet, but the sacrifice of those who were daily dying 
for us would not be in vain ; Peace would come and with her Charity 
and an understanding born of pain. And that fair land to whom 
we were now bidding adieu, who so lately had sacrificed some of 
her best sons on the altar of Hate, would she not return to her 
earlier tradition and again give of her best enshrined in love? 

Beauty and learning are Ireland's birthright as much as they 
were those of Ancient Greece. In these days, when success and 
commerce are our Gods, the Irish Dreamers and Poets are as 
necessary to civilisation as in the days long past. 

KATHLEEN MACKENZIE. 



LETTER FROM THE FRONT 

The following are extracts from a letter written by Charles Pearsall Sills, 
B.A.Sc. '12, of Seaforth, who enlisted as a gunner in the 43rd Howitzer Battery, 
C.F.A. 

France, Dec. 23, 1916. 

In the first place I want you to know and remember always 
that your kindness shown in the many boxes you have sent me 
has been a great source of pleasure to me. . . . This fact that the 
people at home know and feel and show appreciation for the work 
of the sons at the front has done more, I believe, towards keeping 
up the morale of the Canadian forces than one would at first 
imagine. When we get loving tokens from home, be they body 
comforts internal or external, our feeling for the home land and 
the home folks is something that will loom large in the coming 
years of Canada's national growth. Those of us who have been 
close to death a few times get a new view-point on such subjects and, 
if given time to think, quite realise, even the poorest amongst us, 
just how dear to us are the home ties, how much the name Canada 
means to us and how proud we are, even though our part be a 
small one, to be able to say we helped a bit to save the Empire, 



LETTER FROM THE FRONT 227 

to save our homes and to save our loved ones from the rapacity 
and greed of a war-mad monarch. Often we grouch and growl a 
bit when things break badly for us, but I have yet to meet a Cana- 
dian who is ready to quit until the purpose for which we made our 
sacrifices is accomplished. We should be proud of our infantry 
and let me ask you to save also a little praise for the Canadian 
artillery. But first of all the infantry who have shown themselves 
under the most trying circumstances equal to the best old England 
could produce and inferior to none at all. In the Somme and in 
the Salient, anywhere you will, be the fighting that which required 
doggedness and perseverance as in Ypres, or that which required 
dash and absolute bravery as at the Somme, our infantry and in a 
lesser degree our artillery need not hand the palm to any. And the 
proof you see everywhere they fought, in trimly kept graveyards, 
from the Salient to the Somme. And this is not all the proof; not 
all our brave boys are carried back behind the lines when they go 
"west". I walked through No Man's Land in front of L. : while 
at the horse lines in the Somme. The whole place was pitted with 
shell holes and each hole held the body of a soldier. Imperial 
men here, yet they tell me it is the same in front of the trenches 
in Ypres and anywhere our boys have fought. And what did it 
mean ? So many little crosses in these shallow holes in front of our 
wire; yes, and in front of Fritz's too? It just meant this, that if at 
any time the powers that be called upon the infantry to risk certain 
death to further the cause of Empire, home and loved ones, there 
were just so many brave fellows left out when the rest came back, 
their mission accomplished, and these same crosses, if they could 
speak, might tell tales of bravery unsurpassed since the world 
was made, for who will ever know how many sacrificed themselves 
willingly that their comrades might be buried if only in a shell 
hole. When you consider that in No Man's Land the showing of 
a light, the making of a slight noise calls forth a hellish blast of 
steel bullets and death, then you will agree with me that the little 
crosses could a tale unfold. . . . How any living thing could cross 
the open country of the Somme, let alone live there and hold the 
ground against the enemy, is at once a tribute to the bravery of 
our infantry and the effectiveness of our guns. Fritz has no doubt 
a strong kick left yet, but you will travel a long way in the British 
ranks before you will find any one to say he has not been ' ' trimmed 
to a peak" on the western front, and we feel that sooner orjater 
he will get his just deserts. 



SALUT AU CANADA 



Notre Europe est en feu ; dans des flaques de sang, 
Son sol est d6trempe, partout il pleut des bombes, 
Et du bruit des combats tout est retentissant! 
Tous les flancs des coteaux sont jalonnes de tombes! 

Car 1' Injustice humaine a d'abord triomph6 
Et le bon Droit s'est vu, sous le talon du Boche, 
Aplati! Mais soudain 1'Univers s'est level 
L'heure du chatiment de jour en jour approche! 

L'on traquera bient6t L'Aigle du Brandebourg, 
Notre vieux Coq Gaulois, chanteur a voix sonore, 
Dej& cocoricote a 1'Echo d'alentour 
L'hymne a la Liberte, qui va renaitre encore. 

Slaves, Celtes, Latins, avec fraternit6 
Constellant de Soleils 1'azur de leur Histoire, 
Vont venger, sabre au clair, la triste Humanite 
Qui demain dans la Paix vivra de leur Victoire! 

Et vous avez compris, de par dela les mers, 
Qu'il nous fallait ici des bons compagnons d'armes 
Pour mener les combats, jusqu'au bout sans revers 
Et vous avez voulu partager nos alarmes! 

Et vous etes venus de par dela les mers 
Sur le vieux continent, ou crepitent les balles, 
Et le sang de vos preux a rougi nos pres verts 
Cependant que la Gloire effeuillait ses petales. 

Pour tapisser de fleurs les tombeaux des martyrs! 
. . . Quand la Diplomatic a perdu 1'equilibre 
Vers la France on regarde, on darde ses soupirs, 
La France est le pays du Droit . . . de I'Homme libre. 

Et notre France encor de vos lointains aleux 
N'est elle pas aussi la Pa trie eternelle? 
Ne vibrez-vous plus done du rythme harmonieux 
De la splendide ampleur de sa langue immortelle? 
[228] 



SALUT AU CANADA 229 

Salut! O Canada! Pays de Loyaute 

Dont rimmense prairie engendre la vaillance! 

Dans les guerres d'antan n'as-tu pas vu tombes 

Et Wolfe pour 1'Angleterre et Montcalm pour la France!!!!!! 

Salut! O Canada! Pays de 1'Epi d'or 
Qui se balance au vent de 1'ete sans nuage 
O toi dont 1'ceil naif n'osa jamais encor 
Admirer le Vieux Monde et son tentant mirage ! 

Salut! O Canada! dont 1'Hiver est moins beau 
Que le fond de ton coeur, aussi blanc que la neige! 
La France a ton contact verra le renouveau 
Car d'imiter les Saints elle a le Privilege! 

Salut! O Canada! Terroir de la Vigueur 
Dont le ranche a hante mon reve romantique 
O pays de Travail, de Liberte, d'Honneur 
O Mere des Heros! France Translantique ! 

France Translantique, Albion d'Outre-mer! 
Ou Frangais et Anglais, amalgamant leurs races, 
Ont produit 1'esprit neuf, Tendurance de fer 
Qui rend les nations plus fortes, plus vivaces! 

En vous THumanite, qui ne veut pas mourir, 
A trouve des Soldats aux ames aguerries 
Et THistoire dira, dans les jours a venir, 
L'effort qu'auront donn6 pour elle nos Patries. 

Quand viendra la colombe apporter 1'olivier 
A 1'Arche du Vieux Monde aujourd'hui naufragee 
Sous le souffle, tonnant des rafales d'acier 
A travers 1'Ocean san giant de la tranchee. 

A 1'Eternelle Paix, Freres, nous construirons 

Un temple de granit, Cathedrale admirable 

Et sur ses chapiteaux nous entrelacerons 

Nos Lys d 'argent de France et vos feuilles d'Erable. 

Camp retranch de Salonique 

Le 29 Avril 1916. 

(Signed) J. F. JAN. 



This poem was composed and recited by one of a party of French soldiers 
visiting No. 4 Hospital at Salonica. The copy was sent by Sergt. J. B. Brebner. 



RESEARCH IN CANADA 



The Dominion Government's Advisory Council for Scientific 
and Industrial Research under the Chairmanship of Dr. A. 
B. Macallum has recently made known some of the projects 
submitted to the Council. Some of the larger projects are a 
comprehensive industrial census, the training and utilisation in 
industrial establishments of efficiency experts, the creation of 
technical laboratories, the establishment of twenty or more student- 
ships and fellowships in the universities and technical schools for 
special scientific research. The Council will issue questionnaires 
to the manufacturers, technical societies, various government 
departments and the universities for information concerning 
laboratories and their agencies of research now in operation in 
the Dominion. The Council recommends that a few special pro- 
jects be worked upon at once. Two of those mentioned are the 
provision of good fuel for the western plains from lignite and the 
preservation of the forests of eastern Canada. 

Professor Macallum spoke on this subject before the Royal 
Canadian Institute, February 24th. In a brief review of the 
attitude of the people to Science he gave much praise to the Royal 
Canadian Institute as being the second to the oldest scientific 
organisation in this country and one that has always stood for 
scientific research. In the 50's and 60's there were a number of 
men attached to the universities who had the scientific spirit and 
conducted some very able scientific investigations in this country, 
but in the 70' s and early 80's the scientific spirit declined and very 
little work was done. Later in the 80's it showed signs of revival 
and under Dr. Loudon fellowships were established in the Univer- 
sity of Toronto for research work, but these while they tended 
to foster research did not accomplish all that was hoped for them. 
Later when the University was hard up these fellowships were 
changed to lectureships. The scientific spirit has, however, con- 
tinued to grow and the new conditions that have been inaugurated 
by the war will make it necessary to provide greatly increased 
facilities for the development of research work. 

[2301 



RESEARCH IN CANADA 231 

As accurately as Dr. Macallum could judge, all the Canadian 
universities together have devoted about five per cent, of their 
income to research. On this basis the University of Toronto spends 
about $40,000 a year on research out of an income of $900,000. 
Dr. Macallum felt that this was probably a high figure and that 
the real amount was considerably less than five per cent. In view 
of the great importance of the work this amount seemed far too 
small and in fact if the country was to develop properly along 
scientific lines and its full resources utilised, it would be necessary 
for the universities to spend very much more money on the re- 
search and post graduate side of university life and education. 

In the Council's survey of the conditions, they found that the 
country was very short of scientifically trained men. In Germany 
they granted every year before the war about 3,000 Doctors' 
degrees but of these 3,000, however, only about five per cent, or 
150 men found their way into the research laboratories and in- 
dustrial life of the country. From this group Germany has been 
able to develop her resources in a way that has astonished the 
world and she has now great numbers of trained scientists who are 
directing her industries. In Canada at the present time there 
are very few trained scientists and to produce a class of men of the 
type that has been developed in Germany will be a long process. 
But by the universities entering heartily into the project and 
providing facilities and means for the development of research this 
can be accomplished. It is to this end that the Advisory Council 
has decided to recommend to the Government the establishing 
of studentships and fellowships in the universities and technical 
schools. These studentships and fellowships will be given to 
students who have shown special aptitude for scientific research 
and at the end of the fellowship they will be in the position to 
enter the industrial life of the Dominion. 

j. p. 



IN CAMP 



Mr. J. B. Hammond of Nairn ; Centre, Ontario, who wrote this poem, will be remembered 
by older graduates of the early 80's. He has spent much of his time in close touch with 
nature and with the work of men in the woods. 

I 

Ho ! for the life in the woods ! 
The charm of the forest is on me! 
The camp life! The labour of logging! 
The enjoyment of fragrant tobacco! 
The solace of music and sleep! 

II 

We are French, English, Yankee, Scotch, Irish; 
Our sleep-camp is built of pine logs, 
And our turkey's our pillow at night. 
The horn sounds at four in the morning, 
And ninety men start from their bunks. 

Ill 

Our walking-boss visits us weekly; 
He swears like rattle of rifles, 
He weeps for the horse that is dead ; 
He snores like the cracking of timber, 
Or the distant rumbling of cannon. 

IV 

Our foreman, he's rough and he's tender, 
A driver of men and of horses; 
He has four million feet on the skidways, 
He has four million feet yet to haul! 

V 

Our cook dishes up the slumgullion, 
The skilly and liver-pads hot; 
At dinner the choke-dog is added ; 
At night it is shoe-pack pie. 
Russian dog is served up with fine-cut, 
And grillade is on every day, 
With sole-leather bread and with cold-shuts, 
Or bee-hive and honey-comb buns. 
He is sworn at for this and for that 
He's a high-class cook, just the same, 
And his praise is the pay that he draws, 
And the swift, hungry munching of men. 
[232] 



IN CAMP 233 

VI 

With axe and with saw and with wedges 
We fell the stately pine trees; 
We cut up the trunks into logs, 
And hustle them off to the skidways. 
The frost and the snow come upon us; 
We cut out our roads and build bridges, 
We pile up the logs on the sleighs, 
And our teams glide them down to the river, 
By torchlight, by moonlight and sunlight, 
From four in the morning till dark, 
Every day and in all sorts of weather. 
We lunch in the forest together 
About a small fire on the snow, 
And sup the hot tea from our basins. 
We have touches of chill and of fever, 
And an odd man is carried in stiff. 

VII 

To-day, an anchor-chain snapped, 
And broke Jim's ribs as it flew; 
A skid broke both Pierre's legs; 
A king-bolt gave 'way on a hillside; 
And our best team was crushed by the load. 
The storm sent flying a chicot, 
And poor Pat was crushed to the ground. 
Wednesday, Jack was picked up by the tote-team, 
Frozen and helpless and dying, 
But the hard work of logging went on. 

VIII 

We road-hogs and swampers and guipes, 
We rollers and loaders and dumpers, 
Buck-beaver and filer and blacksmith, 
Chore-boy, tinker, the clerk and the sealer, 
Have each our own work to do 
To do, or to jump, or get sacked. 

IX 

We teamsters sling oaths at the horses, 
And the whip picks the hair off their sides; 
The grade just ahead must be made, 
And the sand-hill is still to go down, 
And the tow-team is waiting beyond. 
Our trips must be made though our horses 
Are bushed and are ready to drop; 
Then, home to the stables and rest, 
Or to roll half the night with the colic 
And the oil and the dope of the barn-boss. 



234 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

X 

But, hurrah for the sound of the fiddle, 
By fingers and elbow of Frenchman, 
Of Scotchman, in quickstep or strathspey, 
The jigging and dancing and singing, 
The gag and the laugh and the yarn, 
And the games and the grog that we love ! 
The smoking of pipes and the dreaming 
Of sweethearts and wives and of children, 
And the sleep that is far below dreams 
But a plague on the shantyman's pets! 

XI 

In the spring, when the snow and ice melting, 
Flood the rills and the creeks and the river, 
When the birds at the bidding of Nature 
And the buds burst in leaf and the flowers 
Fill the air with sweet scent and with music, 
Then we whirl once again the swift peavey, 
Or bend to the oar of the pointer 
To the swing of the voyageur's boatsong, 
And drive down the logs on the flood. 
We get caught in the jams and the rapids, 
We dig graves on the bank of the river, 
But the logs must roll onward and onward! 

XII 

Ho! for the life in the woods! 
The charm of the forest is on me! 
The camp life, the labour of logging! 
The enjoyment of fragrant tobacco! 
The solace of music and sleep! 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Gaspard par Rene Benjamin, Fayard et Cie, Paris, 1915. 

A much-read and much-talked-of book amongst Frenchmen 
these days is Gaspard. The book opens with a description of the 
mobilising of a regiment for the front in a Norman village in 
what the author calls the "great week" of August 1914. With 
a few strokes the author makes a picture of the different types 
of villagers who are called, most of them unwillingly, to go to 
fight. Then presently the farmers come in from the surrounding 
region. In a short time a train from Paris arrives with seven or 
eight hundred men from the Montparnasse district. They are the 
lively boys who waken up the sleepy village. They make so much 
stir that one would think there were ten thousand of them. 
Amongst them is Gaspard from the rue de la Gaite Gaspard 
the marchand d'escargots, already possessing a reputation for strength 
and cleverness, a real poilu. 

Gaspard has been in the village before and feels at once quite 
at home. He soon makes the acquaintance of the Captain, whom 
he helps in equipping the local men in their uniforms and accoutre- 
ments. Carts are commandeered and Gaspard with his friends go 
into the storehouse and pitch out the goods. The caps, trousers, 
socks, belts and pots slide down the improvised shoots into the 
carts. Even the nightcaps are not forgotten, for as Gaspard says 
they can be used for straining coffee if for no other purpose. Finally 
all are ready. They get into their box-cars, the engine whistles, 
the station master waves his flag, Gaspard starts to sing a gay 
song and they are off for the front. 

The front turns out to be a very different place from what 
Gaspard expected it to be. After a slow, tedious journey in their 
cattle-cars and days of march without proper food he and his men 
face, not men, but shells and shot coming from men they cannot 
see. Companions all round about fall. Gaspard himself is wounded 
in the rear by a bursting shell. What a disgrace for him. He can 
hardly reconcile himself to it. To be wounded facing the enemy 
would have been an honour, but to have a piece of your hip shot 
awav, no, no, that is unbearable. Still the hail of hell pours down. 

[2351 



236 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

A bullet passes through the top of Gaspard's cap and he thanks 
his stars that he was not born taller. His friend the journalist 
Burette is severely wounded, and Gaspard in spite of his own 
wound picks him up and carries him a long distance to the ambu- 
lance. Poor Burette does not get better and one of the most 
touching scenes of the book describes his last moments with Gaspard 
watching and consoling him. 

Gaspard himself now becomes an inmate of the hospital and 
is the favourite of all the doctors and nurses. They love him for 
his frankness, his considerateness and his droll speeches. The 
long journey in box-cars from the front past Reims, round Paris, 
through Touraine, was hard on poor, wounded fellows, and Gaspard 
and the rest were so happy to be finally in a clean shelter, with 
sweet-smelling bed-clothes, waited on by gentle nurses, always 
kind and smiling. Gaspard's kindness and cheerfulness also are 
unending. Here is an example. A poor fellow seriously wounded 
lies near him in the hospital ward. In the long weary nights he 
had noticed that a cock in the neighbourhood had the habit of 
beginning to crow about four o'clock in the morning. As the weary 
days passed by and death was approaching he seemed to get con- 
solation from this cock crowing. On the last night of his life he 
asked again and again whether it was four o'clock. He wanted 
to hear the cock. He felt that he might perhaps get better if the 
cock would crow. So poor Gaspard got out of bed and crawled 
out into the corridor and crowed a time or two. The poor dying 
man heard it and passed away comforted. 

Finally Gaspard convalesces and determines to go back to the 
front. But he would like to visit Paris first and he gets a four days' 
permission. He hopes this will be long enough for him to go with 
his "woman" to the mairie and be married regularly so as to 
legitimise their child. The complicated procedure of a French 
marriage keeps him however beyond the permitted time, and he 
has interesting and amusing dealings with the authorities. When 
all is settled, however, he has the deep satisfaction of knowing 
that his "kid" can hold his head up with the rest. It is a proud 
day for him and he goes back happy to the front. He is wounded 
again, this time more severely and he loses a leg. After a long 
convalescence in a rich man's castle he returns to Paris and we 
part company with him walking with his family and satisfied that 
he had been able to do something for his child and others of the 
generations to come. 



BOOK REVIEWS 237 

Gaspard is the typical Parisian of the lower ranks, resourceful 
and intelligent, who has not received any literary tincture. Plain, 
simple-minded and direct he speaks his thoughts in the argot of 
what it is fashionable to call the slums. It is a form of speech not 
authorised by the Academy, having in it many solecisms, but 
always clear. Gaspard 's ideas regarding the proprieties would not 
suit what is called refined society, but he is kind, honest and high- 
minded. J. S. 

Vespucci Reprints texts and studies. (4) Amerigo Vespucci 
Letter to Piero Soderini, translated with introduction and 
notes, by GEORGE TYLER NORTHUP. Princeton University 
Press, 1916. (5) Mundus Novus Letter to Lorenzo Pietro 
di Medici, translated by GEORGE TYLER NORTH UP, 
Princeton University Press, 1916. 

The Princeton University Library has undertaken the publica- 
tion, with reproductions in facsimile, studies and translations of 
eight rare tracts relating to Amerigo Vespucci, which were purchased, 
from the Hoe Library and presented to the University by Mr. 
Cyrus H. McCormick. Two numbers are of special interest to 
us because they have been prepared by Professor George T. Northup 
of the Department of Italian and Spanish of the University of 
Toronto: (4) The Soderini letter, critical translation, with intro- 
duction, and (5) The Mundus Novus or Medici letter, translated. 
. . . These texts lend themselves admirably to philological treat- 
ment, and historians will doubtless welcome Professor Northup's 
fine contribution to the solution of problems that have given rise 
to much controversy. Only a trained philologist could have 
determined, as Professor Northup now does for the first time, the 
relative importance of extant versions and their probable interrela- 
tion. Needless to say he approaches his subject without bias of 
any kind, eager only to get at the truth. Professor Northup's 
principal conclusions may be summarised briefly. The so-called 
Soderini letter, giving an account of Amerigo Vespucci's four 
voyages was probably first written in Spanish and addressed to King 
Ferdinand. The hispanisms in which it abounds are not the result 
of Vespucci's long intercourse with Spaniards and a consequent 
of his Italian idiom, but are due to the ignorant and careless Italian 
translator. A doubting Thomas may ask however: "Why, if 
Vespucci was in the service of King Emanuel of Portugal in 1504, 
the date of the letter, did he make his report to King Ferdinand of 



238 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Spain"? If the personal allusions which run through the letter, 
and which were of interest only to Soderini, are interpolations, were 
they added by Vespucci to the Italian translation? If not, do the 
interpolations show any hispanisms? 

Professor Northup then goes on to show that the three extant 
versions are not based directly on the original draft, but have a 
family relationship and go back to a lost original. A genealogical 
tree is established, and the point is made that in order to ascertain 
the contents of the original letter, not one version must be consulted 
by historians, as they have done in the past, but all three. This 
Professor Northup does in his new translation, which is as it were a 
critical edition in English of a letter that accidentally gave the 
author's name to a whole continent. 

M.A. B. 

Report of the Seventh Annual Meeting of the Commission of Conser- 
vation. Pp. X. 283. Commission of Conservation, 
Ottawa, 1916. 

There is certainly no part of our Federal expenditure for which 
the public gets better value than for the comparatively insignificant 
$80,000 to $100,000 a year spent on the Commission of Conserva- 
tion. Through its efforts a new atmosphere of economy, of fore- 
sight, is being created which, by replacing our traditional "after 
the deluge" attitude, will mean not merely hundreds of millions of 
dollars, but increased opportunities of health and happiness to our 
descendents. 

The seventh annual report of the Commission, recently issued, 
makes all the more effective an appeal because of the enormous 
and inevitable war waste, which constrains us to economy in other 
directions. It contains eighteen papers upon various phases of the 
problem of conservation, besides reports of committees, appendices, 
and index. 

Several of the more prominent contributions deal with the pre- 
servation and reproduction of our forests; among these I notice 
a concise and thoughtful treatment by Dr. Fernow of " Silvicultural 
Problems on Forest Reserves". All of these papers are largely 
concerned with our stupendous and deplorable annual losses 
through bush fires. 

Fire losses in Canada, even apart from those in forest fires, 
mount up to an extraordinary figure some $23,000,000 per annum 
say $15 per year for every family in the country. If to this be 



BOOK REVIEWS 239 

added the excess of insurance premiums paid over losses incurred 
and the cost of fire protection, the total annual fire bill of the Domin- 
ion, exclusive of forest fires, reaches $50,000,000. 

Among the other important papers in the present volume is Mr. 
Thomas Adams' report on the work of the Town Planning Branch 
of the Commission. "Town planning legislation of an advanced 
character", he tells us, "has been secured in several provinces and 
thorough investigation of housing conditions has also been under- 
taken with a view to the drafting of model housing laws". Appen- 
dix II contains an excellent Draft Town Planning Act, which is 
recommended for adoption by the legislatures of the various 
Provinces. 

Economists will unite in desiring that the agricultural survey of 
1915, the results of which are communicated to us by Mr. F. C. 
Nunnick, may be carried on over a wider area, and that whole 
counties instead of selected farms, which may not be representative, 
may be studied. At the present time there is far too much heated 
declamation and far too little accurate information and cool 
reasoning on our agricultural problems. A comprehensive agricul- 
tural survey would give us the material for constructive work. 
A special grant from Parliament would of course be necessary, but it 
would be a hundred-fold repaid. 

Co-operation, whether of producers or consumers, is, in these 
days of myriad middlemen and ever-increasing cost of living, a 
particularly interesting subject. To most of us it will be news that 
co-operation among producers exists in the fishing industry on the 
shores of Lake Erie. The scheme is clearly described in a paper 
by the President of the Producers' Fish Company. 

The report is clearly printejd and adequately illustrated a 
desirable addition to one's library, so its contents are a desirable 
addition to one's stock of information. Would that the same 
could be said of all our other Federal and Provincial public docu- 
ments. 

Even in this time of strain and stress, when expenditures for 
other than war purposes must be reduced to the minimum com- 
patible with efficiency, it is dispiriting to see that the Commission's 
estimates for the current year are reduced from $93,000 to $80,000. 
Parsimony in education and the Commission of Conservation is 
an educational institution of enormous importance is the worst 
kind of extravagance. 

S. A. CUDMORE. 



240 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Studies in Tudor History. W. P. M. KENNEDY, M.A., F.R.Hist.S. 
The Copp Clark Co., Ltd. 

Augustine Birrell has an essay entitled "What, then, did 
happen at the Reformation"? and the question is one which will 
be echoed by every student of that troubled time. Mr. Kennedy's 
book is an attempt to unravel some threads of this tangled skein. 
Conceived in the very spirit which Mr. Birrell sighs for, that is, 
one of painstaking investigation of difficult evidence, the book 
commends itself likewise by reason of its admirable condensation 
and its vigorous and lucid setting forth of complicated and con- 
troversial questions. Advanced students will welcome new light 
on much debated issues, while the beginner will be grateful for the 
clear-cut analysis of confusing causes, such, for instance, as the 
Divorce Case. 

Two strains of thought may be detected in Tudor history, the 
religious and the commercial. Mr. Kennedy's concern is almost 
exclusively with the former, although, surveying the reign of 
Henry VII. and finding in it a foretaste of much that was to follow, 
he points out that the commercial impulse was really dominant 
with the people of the time. The Tudors were popular because 
they sedulously fostered trade, and maintained at home that order 
which is the necessary foundation of extended commercial under- 
takings abroad. The new nationalism was largely the result of 
this growth of industrial life; the Tudors stood for peace and 
progress, they^came to typify to the people the new ambitions of 
Englishmen so that between them and the great commercial 
classes there grew up a strong working alliance which was to hold 
as long as a Tudor sat on the throne. Old ideals faded away 
before this new commercial spirit. "From the moment that life in 
England became consciously national down to the end of the fifteenth 
century, there is evident, in civil and religious life, a clearly defined 
principle at work the good of the corporate body, rising up in various 
grades to the throne. It is true that it is not a uniformly harmonious 
principle, but on it every one, in spite of fluctuations and modifica- 
tions, based his life and actions. . . . Almost suddenly all this changed. 
Wht,n a New World awoke ambitions and aroused the spirit of ad- 
venture, when the commercial outlook became wider and more alluring, 
it suddenly dawned on the nation that money was the great means for 
advancement and money soon became an end in itself. . . . Henry 
VI I. ,'s reign stands at the beginning of the period which saw the 
national ideals, as revered in the Middle Ages, abandoned for what we 
may broadly call individualism". 



BOOK REVIEWS 241 

This background of materialism explains much that would 
otherwise be perplexing in the religious life of the time. A new 
sorting of the sheep and goats took place, only this time the goats 
were in the centre, and the sheep, black and white according to 
your taste, on either side. (We absolve Mr. Kennedy from all 
responsibility for this metaphor which is purely the frivolous 
adaptation of the reviewer). In plain terms, the great bulk of the 
people, absorbed in the new, fascinating game of money getting 
pursued their broad way untroubled by religious difficulties. 
They accepted cheerfully whatever shade of religious opinion the 
ruler of the time chose to impose. They were Protestants under 
Edward VI. or Catholics under Mary with a like obliging ease. 
"The vast majority of the country gentry were ready to become 
Jews or Mohammedans if it suited them to do so ". Mary's attempt 
to re-establish the Catholic Church went forward without let or 
hindrance until she proposed to restore the monastic foundations, 
then and then only did parliament lift its hands in a general pro- 
test. The representative Englishman of the time was indifferent 
to religion until his purse was touched, but he would suffer no 
attempt to deprive him of those lands which he himself had niched 
from the Church. 

While the Establishment held sway over the bulk of the people 
there were two dissenting parties who may almost be said to have 
divided between them the religious spirit of the age. Unlike in 
all other matters, the Catholics and the Puritans shared a con- 
tempt for the Laodicean attitude of the established church, the 
via medici had no attraction for them, for the man of conviction 
instinctively shuns the moderate position and is always prone to 
extremes. Mr. Kennedy analyses with great skill the aims of 
the different religious parties ; the chapter on Champions of Catholi- 
cism brings to light certain neglected facts in regard to the persecu- 
tions under Elizabeth while in the discussion of Elizabethan 
Puritanism he shows a fine understanding of the Puritan temper. 
This attempt to trace to its obscure sources and to interpret 
sympathetically the religious life of the age is perhaps the most 
welcome feature of the book. 

Studies in Tudor History is the result of years of research and 
reflection. Admirable alike in its comprehensive scope and in its 
wealth of pertinent detail it should prove a veritable treasure trove 
to the student of English History. It will be read with special 
interest by those who already know and value the services of Mr. 
Kennedy to this University. HELEN McMuRCHiE, 



TORONTONENSIA 



Appointments, etc. Professor J Fletcher and Mr. V. H. Mottram 
have been granted leave of absence, on ac- 
count of illness, for the balance of the current Session. 

The resignation of Assistant Professor G. T. Northrup, Depart- 
ment of Italian and Spanish, has been accepted to take effect at 
the close of the present Session. 

Professor J. E. Shaw has been appointed Professor of Italian 
from July 1st, 1917. 

Leave of absence for the Session 1917-18 has been granted to 
Mr. F. E. Coombs of the Faculty of Education. 

FACULTY OF ARTS. 

Lecturer in Bio-Chemistry (Easter Term), Dr. A. Bruce Macal- 
lum. 

Class Assistant in Biology (Easter Term), Miss F. Hardy. 

FACULTY OF MEDICINE. 

Therapeutics Demonstrator, Dr. C. E. Cooper Cole. 
Assistants, Drs. G. W. Ross (also Acting Head of Department 
in absence of Dr. Rudolf), S. R. D. Hewitt,* W. V. Watson. 
Anaesthesia Demonstrator, Dr. S. Johnston. 
Assistants, Drs. T. R. Hanley, M. D. McKichan 
Psychiatry Demonstrator, Dr. Harvey Clare. 
Dental Surgery Demonstrator, Dr. A. D. A. Mason. 

FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE. 

Demonstrator in Electrical Engineering (Easter Term), H. S. 
Weppler (vice R. J. Allen, resigned). 
* On active service. 

Faculty of In the examinations held in December for 

Education the B.Paed. and D.Paed. degrees, the follow- 

ing results were obtained by Toronto candidates: 

Science of 'Education: Geo. Hindle, G. S. Lord, J. G. McEachern, 

E, T, White, 

[242] 



TORONTONENS1A 243 

Educational Psychology: J. T. M. Anderson, W. C. Froats, Geo. 
Kindle, G. W. Hofferd, D. D. MacDonald, H. G. Martyn, Miss M. 
G. Oakley, P. M. Thompson, E. T. White. 

History of Education: G. E. Evans, Geo. Hindle, J. H. Hunter, 
F. F. MacPherson, Walter Scott, Arthur Smith. 

Educational Administration: J. T. M. Anderson, G. H. Arm- 
strong, G. E. Evans, G. W. Hofferd, Martin Kerr, D. D. MacDon- 
ald, F. F. MacPherson, H. G. Martyn, Arthur Smith, P. M. 
Thompson. 

John Whitehall Emery, of Stratford, Ontario, has completed 
all the examination requirements for the D.Paed. degree. 

The candidates were well distributed over Canada, four being 
from Toronto, thirteen from Ontario, one from Quebec, one from 
British Columbia, two from Alberta, and one from Saskatchewan. 

P. S. 

Trinity Two interesting addresses were given in the 

College Chapel of Trinity College on consecutive 

evenings by Dr. Taylor of Shanghai on "Student Work in China" 
and by B. J. Bouchier, Vicar of St. Jude's, Hampstead, on "The 
National Mission of Repentance and Hope in England". 

Miss Winifred Harvey, B.A. (T.) '11, of the Ontario Employ- 
ment Bureau addressed the students of St. Hilda's College last 
month on the subject of Patriotic and National Service Work 
during the summer. 

The Debating Shield of the Women's Intercollege Debating 
League was won this year by the students of St. Hilda's College. 

Mr. Emile Older graduates of the University perhaps 

Fernet remember with interest Emile Pernet, Lec- 

turer in French in University College from 1866 to 1883, and also 
on he staff of Trinity College. In 1883 he resigned his position 
and went to Philadelphia to continue his teaching of the Modern 
Languages, and his place at the University of Toronto was filled 
by Professor Squair. Last October he died in Philadelphia, leaving 
a request that his body be cremated. 

, ,. It is sometimes thought that a State uni- 
Receiit Benefactions . . & 

versity, while receiving a greater or lesser 

measure of public support, is not often favoured with gifts from 
individual citizens. The University of Toronto has, no doubt, 
suffered from this want at certain periods in its history. Recently, 
however, it has been most fortunate, as is shown by the following 



244 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

list of benefactions from private sources, some of which are, per- 
haps, not generally known to the public or even to the graduates 
of the University. 

$25,000 to be used for residence purposes, bequeathed by the 
late E. C. Walker, Esq. 

The annual revenue from $100,000 to be devoted to the main- 
tenance of the Department of Household Science, be- 
queathed by the late Mrs. Massey Treble.* 

$3,000 given annually for the last three years to provide the 
salary of the Director of Social Service, by Mrs. H. D. 
Warren. 

Five graduate fellowships of $500, given, two by Sir Edmund 
Osier, one each by J. W. Flavelle, Esq., Col. R. W. Leonard, 
and the Alumni resident in the United States. 

$10,000 for the foundation of the George Kennedy Scholarship 
and the Sarah Kennedy Scholarship, bequeathed by the late 
Dr. George Kennedy. (The former is for the student of 
the graduating class who takes the highest place in meta- 
physics, ethics and civil polity; the latter for the woman 
student of the graduating class taking the highest standing 
in the department of Household Science.) 

$1,000 given to found a scholarship in connection with the first 
year Science course in the Faculty of Arts and open to 
University College students; donated by Mrs. Jane Balmer 
in memory of her daughter, the late Jean Balmer, B.A. This 
donation has been made to carry out the wishes of another 
daughter, the late Eliza Balmer, B.A. 

The new Antitoxin laboratories given by Col. Albert Gooder- 
ham. 

The Riddell Scholarship in the Department of Modern History 
of $200 with free tuition for two years, making a total value 
of $280. 

The Matthews Scholarship in the same Department of the 
value of $100, with free tuition for two years, making a total 
value of $180. The last named Scholarships have been given 
for three years by the Hon. Mr. Justice Riddell, and Wilmot 
D. Matthews, Esq., respectively. 

The Quebec Section of The Bonne Entente has devoted $1,000 
to the University, but perhaps the exact object for which 
it is to be used has not yet been settled. 



*This is in addition to the original gift of the building of this Department, 
and other gifts and bequests to Victoria College. 



TORONTONENSIA 245 

Organisation of On Fri day evening, February 23rd, Dr. 

the University of Robert A. Falconer, President of the Univer- 
ISSSSl^ 1 ^ 111 sit y of Toronto and Professor A. H. Abbott, 
Buffalo and Organising Secretary of the Alumni Associ- 

Niagara Falls ation, who is temporarily in the service of 

the British Government as Ontario Director of the Department of 
Labour of the Imperial Munitions Board, were guests at a dinner 
in the University Club of Buffalo, arranged by the graduates of 
the University of Toronto, of that city and Niagara Falls. 

Some twenty registered for the dinner and a number, not able to 
attend, expressed their intention of joining the Alumni Associ- 
ation. Besides these, there are some fifty others in this vicinity 
eligible for membership, most of whom will doubtless avail them- 
selves of the social and other advantages of such an organisation. 

The dinner was served at 8 o'clock, after which Mr. Felix 
Prochnow announced the object of the meeting and Dr. John D. 
Bonnar was asked to act as chairman. President Falconer was 
then called upon to address the meeting. 

President Falconer spoke in a conversational way of the history 
of the University of Toronto and the important part its graduates 
had played and were still playing in the history of Canada, par- 
ticularly emphasising the part 'Varsity men had taken in the 
political and educational life of the Western Provinces. This 
history forms a fitting background and basis for the outlook for 
the future. The University of Toronto must maintain its place 
in the forefront of the great universities of Canada and to do that 
it must develop a large post-graduate work in all departments. 

The President also touched upon the part the University had 
taken in the Great War and spoke of the abiding traditions which 
were being made through the war both for the University and 
for Canada as a whole. Both the University of Toronto and Canada 
must recognise that the war has forced them out into the great 
wide world so that never again will either Canada or the Univer- 
sity be able to live a life apart from the struggles political and 
educational, which are part of the world's life. 

Professor Abbott told of the effect of the patriotic work done 
in Ontario evidenced in many a village, town and city, in the 
spirit of unity and co-operation which had been developed. The 
University of Toronto needed the development of the same spirit 
in its graduates. The University needed the help of the graduates 
in order to do its great work and this help could not be had unless 



246 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

the graduates got together and united in groups, large and small 
wherever they may be found, throughout Canada, the United States 
and the wide world. An Alumni Association has two direct func- 
tions to perform one social as between its members, the other 
filial as between the children and their Alma Mater. 

At the conclusion of Professor Abbott's address it was decided 
to form a branch of the University of Toronto Alumni Associa- 
tion of which Dr. John D. Bonnar '78, was elected President, Mr. 
Felix Prochnow '09, Secretary, and Mr. W. A. MacKinnon '97, 
Treasurer, and all the graduates present were named a committee 
to secure the membership and co-operation of every graduate in 
Buffalo and Niagara Falls. Those present at the dinner were: 
F. A. Ballachey, J. D. Bonnar, J. A. Elliott, N. R. Gibson, W. 
Jackson, J. T. MacBain, W. A. MacKinnon, E. W. Mclntyre, 
C. H. Phillips, F. E. Prochnow, W. F. P. Purdy, W. J. Stainton, 
A. Sutherland, V. C. Thomas. 

A vote of thanks to President Falconer and Dr. Abbott was 
rendered especially interesting by the mover, Mr. E. W. Mclntyre, 
expressing the way in which his interest had been aroused by con- 
tributing One Hundred Dollars to the University Hospital Supply 
Association. 

University Hospital Every graduate of the University should 
Supply Association ere t hi s have received a statement of the 
work done by the above Association together with an appeal for 
funds sufficient to keep the work going. The Executive Com- 
mittee of the Alumni Association had its attention called to the 
need of support for the Hospital Supply Association, and without 
question recognised that the work being done was an obligation 
resting on the University as a whole rather than upon a compara- 
tively small number of University women assisted by hundreds of 
willing workers. Hence the appeal sent out by the Alumni Asso- 
ciation. 

The urgency of the appeal is manifest if one considers the 
needs of the Canadian Red Cross Society. According to published 
statements they were able to supply only 2,500 cases to the French 
Hospitals in January where 5,000 had been promised and the 
returns for February are even less satisfactory. Recognising this 
need, a special appeal was made for workers early in February. 
As a great deal of work is given out from the rooms the complete 
result of this appeal cannot yet be reported. The January list 



TORONTONENSIA 



247 



will indicate the amount of work being done and the increased 
activity during February will be apparent in later reports. 

JANUARY 

Pyjamas (pairs) 726 

Dressing Gowns 40 

Bed Jackets 24 

Day Shirts 42 

Surgical Shirts 144 

Scultetus Bandages 66 

Sheets 144 

Pillow Cases 348 

Towels 96 

Miscellaneous Articles. .. 345 

Socks (pairs) 1,236 



Total. ..46 



cases 



Mrs. F. N. G. Starr, the Honorary Treasurer, reports the cash 
receipts during February to have been $727.17. 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow- graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
" The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



J. E. Wetherell, B.A. (U.) 77, for- 
merly Senior Inspector of High Schools 
for Ontario, has been appointed general 
editor of text-books for the Ontario 
Department of Education. 

William McBride, B.A. (U.) 79, 
M.A. '81, manager of the Metropolis 
Securities, Ltd., formerly of Winnipeg, 
is now living at the Mayhew Apart- 
ments, Los Angeles, California. 



I. M. Levan, B.A. (V.) '81, formerly 
Principal of the Woodstock Collegiate 
Institute, is now an Inspector of High 
Schools for Ontario. 

Professor H. R. Fairclough, B.A. 
(U.) '83, M.A. '85, Professor at the 
Leland Stanford Junior University, 
California, lately inaugurated a move- 
ment for the establishment of the 
" Pellissier Memorial Fund " in memory 
of Professor Robert Pellissier, one of 
his colleagues at Stanford University 
who, when war was declared, volun- 
teered his services and was killed last 
August on the Somme. With the 
subscriptions from friends and members 
of the University, amounting to ap- 
proximately two thousand dollars, a 
new ambulance has been purchased for 
the American Field Ambulance Service 
in France as a fitting memorial to the 
noble Pellissier. 



248 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Eugene W. Stern, a graduate of S. 
P. S. in 1884, now Chief Engineer of 
Highways, Borough of Manhattan, 
City of New York, has recently been 
commissioned a Major in the Engineer 
Officers Reserve Corps, U.S. Army, 
by President Wilson. 

D. J. Goggin, M.A. (V.) '91, D.C.L. 
(T.) '00, formerly general editor of 
text-books for the Ontario Depart- 
ment of Education, has been appointed 
Historiographer with general charge 
of the Departmental Library in St. 
James' Square. 

Professor Gordon Laing, B.A. (U.) 
'91, Professor in the University of 
Chicago, is at present holding the 
Sather Professorship of Classical Liter- 
ature in the University of California. 

J. F. Boyce, B.A. (V.) '95, of Red 
Deer, has been appointed by the 
Alberta Department of Education to 
take charge of vocational and pre- 
vocational work for returned soldiers 
at Calgary. 

W. J. Salter, B.A. (V.) '05, has 
accepted the appointment as Principal 
of the Woodstock Collegiate Institute. 

Miss Margaret K. Strong, B.A. (U.) 
'05, has been appointed Director of 
the Government Employment Bureau 
recently established in Hamilton. 

The Reverend Arnot S. Orton, B.A. 
(U.) '10, M.A. '11, B.D., of Chatham 
has been chosen as pastor of St. Paul's 
Church in Simcoe. 



Marriages 

McCLEAN WORTS On February 19, 
1917, at Toronto, Herbert Arnold 
McClean, D.D.S. '15, to Miss Edna 
May Worts. Address Milton. 

MENDIZABEL DAFOE On February 
17, 1917, at Madoc, Cpl. A. R. 
Mendizabel, 23rd Battery, 6th 
Howitzer Brigade, App. Sc. '16, to 
Miss Mary Wilhelmina Dafoe, B.A. 
(V.) '15, of Madoc. 

O'FLYNN WATERS On February 14, 
1917, at Belleville, Major Edmund 
Duckett O'Flynn, 247th Bn., Arts 
(U.) '05-09, of Belleville, to Miss 
Marjorie Waters of Belleville. 

Deaths 

GROUT On February 14, 1917, at 
Kingston, Canon George W. G. 
Grout, B.A. (T.) '58, M.A. '67, 
Clerical Secretary and Registrar of 
the Diocese of Ontario. 

HOUGH On February 25, 1917, at 
Toronto, Henry Hough, B.A. (V.) 
'63, M.A. '67, LL.D. (Hon.) '91. 

HOWLAND On February 27, 1917, at 
New York City, William Bailey 
Howland, LL.D. (Hon.) '15. 

JEFFERS On February 24, 1917, at 
Belleville, J. Frith Jeffers, B.A. (U.) 
'75, M.A. 77. 

MORROW In January, 1917, at Peter- 
borough, Robert Fowler Morrow, 
D.D.S. '96. 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO. APRIL, 1917. No. 7 



f lu> ititiiursitg 



THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED ON ACTIVE 

SERVICE. 
Private Victor Archibald Ferrier; University College, 

1915 (in June 1915). 
Lieutenant Arthur Gerald Knight, D.S.O.; Applied 

Science, 1918. 

Lieutenant Ayton Richey Leggo; D.D.S., 1915. 
Lieutenant Basil Menzies Morris, B.A.Sc., 1915. 
Lieutenant Stanley James Pepler; Applied Science, 

1911. 
Major David Benjamin Bentley, C.A.M.C., M.D.C.M.; 

1891. 



WOUNDED AND MISSING. 
Lieutenant George R. Parke; Phm.B., 1911. 

WOUNDED. 

Lieut. W. F. Annis; Vic. 1917. 
Lieut. S. H. Brocklebank; University College, 1914 
Lieut H. J. McLaughlin; B.A. (U.) 1913. 
Lieut. R. A. Connor; App. Sc., 1918. 
Lieut. J. A. Harstone, B.A. (U.) 1915. 
Lieut. R. A. Fraser, App. Sc., 1916. 
Gnr. J. S. Thibaudeau, U.C., 1919. 
Lieut. W. D. Hudson, U.C., 1919. 
Capt. A. C. Snivety, B.A. (U.) 1904. 
Lieut. H. Webster, B.A.Sc., 1913. 

ILL. 
Lieut. H. B. Kennedy; B.A. (U.), 1915. 

[249] 



250 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Erratum. Honours. D.S.C. Lieutenant Flight Commander 
T. D. Hallam, erroneously reported D.S.O. 

XVII. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY STAFF, GRADUATES AND 
UNDERGRADUATES NOW ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Continued from the February number. 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Bombr. Agnew, J. N.; 80th Bty., C.F.A.; Hamilton; Sc. '10 
Hon. Capt. Archibald, E.; Y.M.C.A. in France; Arts (V.) '05-07 
Lieut. Armer, J. C.; 2nd Fd. Coy., C.E.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '10 
Pte. Armstrong, R. K.; U. of T. Training Co.; Oakville; Sc. '17 
Sergt. Babcock, F. E.; C.A.D.C.; Yarker; Dent. '20 
Sergt. Barker, J. C. A.; C.A.D.C.; Winnipeg; Dent. '17 
Sergt. Bartholomew; J. W.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; Dent. '20 
Major Barton, J. W. ; Base Hosp., M.D. 2 ; Tor. ; Staff 
Sergt. Beckett, R. J.; C.A.D.C.; Brockville; Dent. '20 
Lieut. Beith, R. E.; 228th Bn.; Tor.; Sc. '09 
Capt. Birchard, C. C.; C.A.M.C.; Montreal; M.B. '11 
Sub-Lieut. Blatz, W. E.; R.N.A.S.; Hamilton; B.A. (V.) '16. 
Flt.-Lieut. Boulter, J. W.; R.F.C.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '15 
Sapper Brickenden, W. T. ; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '19 
Sergt. Brown, J. T.; C.A.D.C.; Woodstock; Dent. '20 
Lieut. Burt, A. W.; C.A.S.C.; Tor.; B.A. (V.) '14 
Flt.-Lieut. Bussell, E. I,; R.N.A.S.; Tor.; Sc. '19 
Capt. Campbell, C. C.; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. M.D. 2); Ashley, 

N.D.jM.B. '01 
Sapper Chantler, W. E.; Div. Sig. Coy.; Pt. Credit; Arts (V.) '20 

Sergt. Clairmont, W. L.; 122nd Bn.; Gravenhurst; Sc. '19 
Lieut. Clarke, H.; C.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.B. '14 
Capt. Collins, A.; C.A.M.C.; Bridgeburg; M.B. '08 
Sergt. Cooper, W. J.; C.A.D.C.; Strathroy; Dent. '20 
Cadet Cunningham, L. G. ; R.F.C.; Tor.; Sc. '20 
Lieut. Dawson, I. H, ; 54th Bty., C.F.A.; St. Catharines; Sc. '09 
Lieut. Dixon, E. C.; R.A.M.C.; Tor.; M.D., C.M. (T.) '03 
Sergt. Dupuis, L. S.; C.A.D.C.; St. Raphael; Dent. '20 
Lieut. Ewens, H. B.; C.A.M.S. (Base Hosp. M.D. 2) ; Owen Sound; 

M.B. '09. 
Pte. Eyres, J. A. ; U. of T. Training Coy. ; Eyremore, Alta. ; V. '19 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 251 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Sergt. Foley, W. J.; 256th Bn.; Ottawa; Sc. '20 
Lieut. Fergusson, A. T; 241st Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '11 

- Fisher, P. A.; Brit. Red Cross; Burlington; B.S.A. '11 
Gnr. Fraser, J. A.; 71st Bty., C.F.A.; Sc. 

Gnr. Forestall, T. F.; 56th Bty. C.F.A.; Campbellf ord ; St. M. '17 
Lieut. Forsyth, R.; 5th Bty., 2nd Bde., C.F.A.; Ottawa; B.A. (U.) 

'13 

Lieut. Gimby, J. E.; C.A.M C.; Sault Ste. Marie; M.B. '17 
Sergt. Girvin, P.; C.A.D.C.; Ottawa; Dent. '20 
Pte. Glennie, G. H.; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy . ; Elmira ; B.A. (U.) '14 
Cadet Goss, R. J.; R.F.C.; Vancouver; Arts (U.) '16 
Capt. Graham, P. V.; C.A.M.C.; Uxbridge; M.B. '15 
Capt. Gray, A.; 126th Bn.; Port Credit; Sc. '04 
Major Gray, J. E.; 182nd Bn.; Uxbridge; B.A.Sc. '11 
Cadet Graydon, A. R.; R.M.C.; Tor.; Arts (U,) '19 
Sapper Griffiiths, G. E.; C.E.; Thorold; B.A.Sc. '15 
Sapper Hamilton, A. E.; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '19 
Lieut. Harris, R. V.; 246th Bn.; Halifax; B.A. (T.) '02, M.A. '10 
Capt. Harrison, T. L.; C.A.M.C.; Tillsonburg; M.B. '07 
Sergt. Hawes, J. H.; 256th Bn.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '14 
Sergt. Haynes, N. W.; C.A.D.C.; Munro; Dent. '20 
Pte. Hawtry, R. A.; 204th Bn.; Ft. William; Sc. '20 
Capt. Henderson, J. E. C.; C.A.M.C.; Hamilton; M.D.C.M. '04 
Sergt. Hicks, E. D.; C.A.D.C.; Watford; Dent. '20 
Sergt. Hill, W. C.; 56th Bty., C.F.A.; Tor.; Sc. '15 
Pte. Howitt, M. H.; 102nd Bn. ; Hamilton; B.S.A. '13 
Capt. Howson, C.; C.A.M.C.; Cavan; M.D., C.M. '05 
Capt. Hurlburt, F. H.; C.A.M.C. ; Manitowaning; M.B. '07 
Pte. Hyder, A.; U. of T. Training Coy.; Wycliffe 
Sub-Lieut. Innes, P. C.; R.C.V.N.P.; Tor.; Arts (U.) '19 
Sergt. Ironside, G. A.; 55th Bty., C.F.A.; Ilderton; B.A.Sc. '15 
Pte. Jackes, F. P.; 257th Ry. Constr. Bn.; Thornhill; B.A.Sc. '15 
Capt. James, A. B.; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. M.D. 2); Brantford; 

M.B. '08 

Sapper Jessop, H. H.; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; Sc. '08-09. 
Sergt. Johnston, G.; C.A.D.C.; Strathroy; Dent. '20 
Capt. Chap. Keough, W. T.; 6th Res. Bde.; Winchester; B.A. (V.) 

'93, M.A. '97 

Sergt. Kidd, W. S.; 207th Bn.; Burritt's Rapids; Sc. '16 
Major King, G. C.; 241st Bn.; Kingsville; B.A. (U.) '99 



252 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit. Home College Year 

Lieut. Knight, F.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '17 
Lieut. Langworthy.. W. E.; 62nd Bty., C.F.A.; Regina; Sc. '14 
Sergt. Lawson, J. S.; C.A.M.C.; Guelph; Phm.B. '15 
Capt. Leary, E. J.; C.A.M.C.; Brittania; B.A. (U.) '10, M.B. '12 
Cpl. Linton, G. M.; 2nd Draft For. Corps; Tor.; For. '17 
2nd Lieut. Lloyd, R. H.; R.F.C.; Wingham; B.A.Sc. '15 
Sergt. Long, V. C; C.A.D.C.; Weston; Dent. '20 
Sergt. Lynes, J. P.; C.A.D.C.; Orillia; Dent. '20. 
Sapper McCandless, J. C.; Div. Sig. Coy.,; Brampton; U. '20 
Capt. Macdonald, G. A.; 228th Bn.; Brantford; B.A. (U.) '10 
Capt. McGibbon, Peter; R.A.M.C.; Bracebridge; M.B. "04 

- Mackenzie, W. T. ; Gravenhurst; Phm.B. '15 
Sergt. McKinnon, A. L.; 189th Bn.; Ed. '14 

Lieut. McKinnon, J. A.; 3rd Army Troops Coy., C.E.; Calgary; 

B.A.Sc. '11 

Pte. McLean, I. M.; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy.; North Sydney, N.S.; 

Arts (U.) '20 

Lieut. McLennan, A. L.; C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '02 
Lieut. McMurrich, J. R.; C.A.S.C., No. 12 M.D.; Tor. 
Lieut. MacNeil, % G. W.; C.A.M.C. (Base Hosp. M.D. 2); Owen 

Sound; M.B. '15 
Sergt. McNichol, P. H.; C.A.D.C.; Empress, Alta.; Dent. '20 

- McRae, W. F.; Gore Bay; LL.B. '07 
Lieut. Parke, G. R.; Hamilton; Phm.B. '11 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO OVERSEAS TRAINING COMPANY 

The following recently left in the seventh draft of accepted 
candidates for commissions in the Imperial Army: Sergt. T. G. W. 
Ashbourne, V. '17; Sergt. G. E. McKelvey, B.A. (Queen's) V.; 
Cpl.J. C.Millian, B.A. (V.) '14; Ptes. R. C. Calder, V. '17; W. S. 
Dyer, V. '17; G. H. Glennie, B.A. (U.) '14; G. H. Gooderham, U.C. 
'11; J. E. Gray, B.A. (U.) '12, M.A. '13, Wycl.; V. A. Hooper, 
O.A.C.; J. H. Howson, B.A. (U.) '16; F. G. Lighbourn, U.C. '19; 
C. D. McLellan, B.A. (U.) '16; H. C. Quail, B.A.Sc. '13; D. B. 
Shutt, O.A.C.; H. I. Anderson, R. W. Armstrong, W. E. Brown, 
A. W. Cameron, W. J. Carson, J. M. Challes, F. N. Creer, C. Ewels, 
W. H. French, E. A. Gunn, G. E. Harcourt, A. E. Jackes, F. V. 
Klingner, G. H. Parkhurst, D. R. M. Smith, J. W. Thompson. 

The following have been appointed to the Royal Naval Air 
Service: Lieut. L. R. Shoebottom, Sc. '17; Lieut. H. W. Reid, U.C. 
'18; Coy.-Sergt.-Major A. L. Huether, B.A. (V.) '15, Med. '18; 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 253 

Sergt. H. W. M. Gumming, U.C. '18; Ptes. G. E. Howard, V. '17; 
M. S. Taylor, Sc. '17; S. W. Rosevear, Sc. '19; A. Woods, B.A. 
(Queen's); Sergt. A. B. Massey; Ptes. A. G. Beattie, W. A. Carley, 
H. H. Costain, C. W. Lott, G. C. Mackay, J. McLinton, S. P. 
Waddell. 

The following have been appointed to the Royal Flying Corps: 
Ptes. R. K. Armstrong, Sc. '17; T. G. Drew Brook*, V. G. Snyder*, 
H. E. Gridley, R. H. Williams, W. C. Gibbard. 

The following have received commissions in the C.E.F.: 
J. L. Yule to be lieutenant in the 248th Bn.; C. R. Baker to be 
lieutenant in the 208th Bn.; W. E. Pengelly, B.Sc. (McGill) to be 
lieutenant in the Signal Coy, C.E. ; J. N. Gregorieff to be lieutenant 
in No. 2 Special Service Coy. 

The following have received appointment as N.C.O.'s in the 
C.E.F.: Lce.-Cpl. G. S. Patterson, V. '13; Ptes. A. F. Cooper, 
Dent. '20, 256th Bn.; J. E. Corbett, Forestry Draft; H. R. Bain, 
182nd Bn.; H. B. Henry, 256th Bn. 

Pte. N. Levinson has been discharged to enter the Intelligence 
Department of the British Government. 

Altogether 229 have now left through the C.O.T.C. as recom- 
mended candidates for commissions in the Imperial Army, or the 
Naval Air Service. All the later drafts have been composed of 
members of the Overseas Training Company. 



Correction. We regret three omissions in the list recently pub- 
lished of Professors whose sons are at the front. The writer 
inadvertently omitted the names of Dean Clarke, Professor Rose- 
burgh, and Ex- Chancellor Burwash. The latter has three sons 
serving in the forces, one of whom has been wounded. Since the 
list was compiled Professor Lefroy has lost a son in battle. 



*Matriculant. 



AMABILES IN VITA 



" It is good for a man that he bear the yoke in his youth ". 

Lam. iii. 37. 

THESE words were marked in his copy of a soldier's manual 
by George L. B. Mackenzie, of whose life a short memoir 
has been written and issued for circulation among his 
friends. 

Born in 1892, he was educated partly by private tutors, partly 
at Upper Canada College, and then entered University College 
in 1909. Here he had a distinguished career, winning in his fourth 
year the All Souls' Prize. For a year after graduation he studied 
law in the firm of which his father had been a member. On the 
outbreak of the war he volunteered for service in the ranks, but 
owing to shortness of sight was not at first accepted. Later in the 
year he obtained a commission in the 12th York Rangers and early 
in 1915 was one of the officers chosen from that regiment for the 
35th Overseas Battalion. In June of that year, with his friends 
Errol Platt and Arnold Davison, he was sent with a draft to 
England, and in October crossed to France to join the Third 
Battalion, in which he served till his death on June 7th, 1916. 
It was during the interval between the losses at Zillebeke and the 
recapture of the line that he was sent with one N.C.O. to recon- 
noitre the trenches temporarily held by the enemy. His companion 
was wounded, but Mackenzie brought him back safely to the British 
line. Their work was well done and important information 
obtained. When he was returning to his company, after reporting 
to Battalion Headquarters, he was killed instantly by a sniper. 
He was buried in the military cemetery at Lissenthjoek near to 
Errol Platt who fell a few days before. 

Such in brief outline is the career given in this memoir of 
one who was well known and admired by many of us in College. 
The extracts given from articles written by him, from speeches 
delivered before fellow students, and from letters written to his 
family from the front, all strengthen the impression which he then 

[2541 



AMABILES IN VITA 255 

made upon us. They reveal a cheerful and sunny disposition, 
considerable literary gifts and powers of expression, both in descrip- 
tions of scenery at home or abroad and in reflections upon men and 
events, a chivalrous idealism worthy of a Crusader full of the joy 
of life, brave and deeply religious. 

A friend of his writes : 

"The generous and chivalrous instincts illuminated by Sir 
Philip Sidney are still characteristics sometimes latent, more often 
apparent of very many young men". 

After attending Errol Platt's funeral, he himself writes: 

"The afternoon sun shone brightly and a crisp breeze rustled 
through the new leaves. The day was full of Spring and the grain 
of poetry in every man's nature was stirred by thoughts too deep 
for tears, yet underneath all was a gladness unconquerable and 
a strong assurance". 

His last letter was written the day before his death, just after 
the news of the Battle of Jutland: "A not too cheerful situation 
has changed for us in a twinkling, and we all now set about our own 
little job with lighter hearts and a sure confidence that it is not in 
vain". 

Of the many letters received by his family, none touched them 
more than one written by a private, who was his servant in the 
battalion: "Not only his platoon, but the whole company feel 
the loss, as he was so fearless, and could always be found on the job. 
Ever so many in the battalion have come to me expressing their 
sorrow at me losing my boss, so, Sir, you can be proud to know 
he was so popular, and may console to think that no one could have 
a finer death than for one's country. 

" I have been shown many kindnesses from him and as a soldier 
it was a pleasure to obey, and as a man a pleasure to serve, besides 
the more I knew of him the better I liked him . . . 

''We have stirring times ahead of us, and if I'm spared to come 
through this awful time, I shall always have fondest remembrances 
of your son " 

Every gifted man has something in him which is his alone, which 
marks him above most of his companions. Yet on occasions like 
the present we feel that often it is given to such not only to speak 
for themselves, but to give expression to the unuttered thoughts 
that lie hid in the minds of many others, some less gifted it may be, 
but all inspired with a like spirit. It will be no surprise to learn 



256 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

that with him his closest friends some of them College contem- 
poraries went overseas, and, like him, some have now made the 
same sacrifice. We have spoken of Errol Platt. In this memoir 
we also find the names of Maurice Wilkes, killed on the Somme, 
who a few days before his own death "wrote a tender, sweet letter 
to the mother of one of his men, informing her of the death of her 
only son he had held his dying head and did what he could for 
him"; of Hal Gordon, of Victor Van der Smissen, of Col. W. D. 
Allan, and of others whose names are on the Roll of Honour. 

Readers of these pages will remember Professor Van der 
Smissen's lines entitled "Carry On", which were published in 
THE MONTHLY of April 1916. This memoir quotes other lines 
written by him on his son and George Mackenzie words befitting 
their memory, and that of many others who 

"Have built a house that is not for Time's throwing 
Have gained a peace unshaken by pain for ever". 

HAIL AND FAREWELL. 

Hail and Farewell ! O gallant youths, in life 
Lovely and pleasant ever, and in death 
United ! Pure of heart and perfect sons ! 
Ye took the only way and followed it 
Unto the glorious end, your work well done. 
On faith and love ye fed, and giving both 
To others, led them on to Victory. 
Truth, Duty, Valour, such your motto was, 
Such be your epitaph. Hail and Farewell! 
For you the Victor's crown, for you a life 
That bears immortal fruit in wider spheres 
Of joyous action, and some charge to speed 
The coming of the Kingdom of your Lord. 
For us the sad sweet memories of the love 
That bound and binds us to you, and the hope 
To claim our precious treasures once again, 
Free from all taint of earth-born dust and stain. 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 

Address to the Empire Club, Toronto, on March 8th, 1917. 

BEFORE the Canadian Research Council was founded other 
Research Councils had been established and had been active 
in promoting their objects. The British Advisory Council 
was created in July 1915, and it has already twenty months of 
existence. A similar Advisory Council for the Commonwealth 
of Australia was appointed in January of last year and it presented 
recently the report of its first year of activity. In the United States 
three bodies are now concerned in promoting preparedness, not 
only for war, but for the peace that may follow. One of these, the 
Advisory Commission of the National Council of Defence, which 
grew out of the Naval Consulting Board appointed two years ago, 
has already taken stock of all the industrial plants in the United 
States that can be of service to the nation in war, and has lined up, 
in preparation therefor, all the national technological associations. 
A second body, the Committee of One Hundred of the American 
Association for the Advancement of Science, appointed to foster 
specially the development of the nation, embraces in its member- 
ship a great many of the leaders in the army of researchers of the 
United States. There is the third organisation, the National 
Research Council, appointed by the National Academy of Science 
early in 1916, and given a national and official position by the 
approval of the President of the United States. 

These three organisations are now at work and, undoubtedly, 
one of the results of their activities will be, in the immediate future, 
a marked development of scientific research in its application to 
industrial development and a marked increase in the industrial 
output of the United States. 

The Canadian Research Council was not called into existence 
too soon or too late. In the world crisis of to-day Canada has, 
industrially, a specially favoured position. We were, at the 
beginning of it, not wholly thrown on our own resources, industrial 
and natural, as Great Britain and Australia were. They found 
themselves at once cut off from the sources of their supplies in raw 
material in certain lines, and they were quite unprepared to 

[257] 



258 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

undertake the manufacture of products of a vitally essential character 
which they previously imported from abroad, chiefly from coun- 
tries now at war with them. They had to act, but they did not 
do so at once. The British Council was formed eleven months 
after the war began. The Australian Council came into existence 
seven months later still. We in Canada did not feel the urgency of 
action in this matter because we are side by side with a nation of one 
hundred million people, with resources largely developed, which so 
far has supplied us in very large part with what we formerly im- 
ported from Europe and at prices which, though considerably 
enhanced, were not prohibitive. The urgency that existed in 
Great Britain and Australia did not, therefore, obtain with us, 
and consequently Sir George E. Foster, who had charge of the 
matter, took the position, which I think was wholly correct, that 
before creating a Canadian Research Council the results of the 
experience gained elsewhere should be carefully studied and the 
conclusions drawn therefrom wisely applied in our case. 

Hasty action might have led to a situation which it would be 
difficult to remedy, while delay has not involved any disadvantages 
at least that we can see, beyond the fact that the Council now 
formed has to acquire more or less carefully the particular exper- 
ience and knowledge that our own Canadian needs render necessary 
for the solution of our problems in industry and science. 

The Council which began its existence three months ago has 
so far performed its duties with a directness and an earnestness that 
promises much for its usefulness. It has organised itself and 
prepared for its work in a way that certainly is encouraging not only 
to its presiding officer, but also to Sir George Foster and the 
Committee of the Privy Council over which he presides and with 
which the Research Council is associated. 

Its duties are comprehensive. They include the direct encour- 
agement and promotion of scientific and industrial research in 
Canada for the development and expansion of our industries, the 
co-operation and co-ordination of all the forces engaged in this 
object to prevent overlapping of effort and the waste of money that 
might result from this overlapping, the direction of the man power 
for research in Canada to the end that it may be utilised with the 
utmost effectiveness for the solution of the most practical and 
pressing research problems in our national industries. 

To indicate these duties thus is to understate the magnitude 
of the labour the Council has undertaken. They involve, if they 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 259 

are to be performed successfully, a result which will effect a revolu- 
tion not only in the industries of Canada, but, before everything 
else, in the attitude towards research of all those who are in any way 
concerned with our industries, of the Governments, Dominion and 
Provincial, with scientific bureaus and departments of our Univer- 
sity and of public opinion to which Governments bow. 

Hitherto in this country and for that matter also in Great 
Britain and the United States, the development of the technical and 
scientific processes, which are concerned in the expansion of the 
industries, has only in isolated instances been the intelligent concern 
of the State. The doctrines of leave-well-alone and of individualism 
have been worshipped as if they were the irrefragable principles of 
political wisdom, and in consequence the development of our 
industries was determined in great part, regardless of the propor- 
tions which should obtain between our needs and our resources. 
There was no concerted and co-ordinated action and the industries 
of the country, with the exception in part of agriculture, were left 
to take care of themselves. They had resort to scientific methods, 
of course, but in the great majority these methods were of the 
practical kind and research featured but a very small extent 
because corporations engaged in industry and their managers were 
not advanced enough in their views to recognise that research is a 
factor and a very powerful one in the development of a very large 
number of our industries. No stimulus came from Governments 
because these, recruited almost wholly from a class whose training 
has been almost wholly other than scientific, could not get the 
necessary point of view. 

The revolution in the attitude of the public has already taken 
place and our legislators have taken heed of it, but will the result 
remain after the cause of it has ceased to exist? Will the public 
and Governments have the new point of view after the war is 
ended? I am convinced that it will and for one very cogent reason, 
which is the enormous debt, $1,200,000,000, at least, which the 
country will have to carry when the war is over. This, with a 
dislocation of our industries, which will result on the cessation of 
the manufacture of war munitions, will impose on those guiding the 
destinies of our nation for the next two or three generations a 
concern and anxiety which will cause a decisive rejection of the old 
leave-well-alone policy once so popular in all Anglo-Saxon countries. 
To meet even the interest on this huge debt will require a care of our 
national industries and a utilisation of our resources that we have 



260 'UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

never shown in the past. The situation will be accentuated by the 
conditions that will prevail elsewhere. The debt of the belligerent 
nations of the world, as a result of this war, will be 
over $100,000,000,000. Helfferich, the German Minister of 
Finance, estimated that so far it is $75,000,000,000. This is a 
colossal burden. It equals the total of the national wealth of 
Germany and Austria and the higher estimate approaches closely 
the amount of the national wealth of the British Empire. It will 
involve an annual charge, perhaps for a century to come, of 
$5,000,000,000 a year. To meet this the nations will have to 
economise, work, in fact, strain all their energies to carry the 
staggering load. To ease it or to lessen it each nation will strive 
to speed up its labour, increase its manufactured exports and 
compete advantageously with its rivals in the markets of the world. 
To do all this successfully the highest skill, the most advanced 
knowledge will be employed and the competition that will prevail 
will be the keenest the world has ever known or perhaps will ever 
know. Science will be fostered and research, not only in pure 
science, but in its applications, will be promoted as it has never 
been before. 

What chance will Canada have of holding her own or of forging 
ahead in this after the war struggle, if she does not employ the 
most advanced, the most approved methods in her industries, and 
to this end cultivate research and train researchers who will place 
at her command the utmost that human ingenuity can devise in 
science or its application? 

To ask this question is to suggest the answer and I am confident 
that after the war and for many years to come the old casual 
policy, the let-well-alone attitude, will not obtrude itself in the 
direction of the affairs of the nation. 

I am not one of those who believe that the nation should be 
governed by experts or even by philosophers as postulated by 
idealists. The cause of this war is, in my opinion, to be found in the 
fact that Germany has put the idealists' theory into practice and in 
consequence every one of its Departments of State is manned by 
experts who neglect and have neglected every consideration except 
those which will tell in effecting the object immediately in view. 
Statesmanship comprehends something more than that. It gives 
place to the forces of prudence, the principles of humanity, the 
ethics and the wisdom that have been developed by man in the 
long and weary journey from barbarism to the higher civilisation of 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 261 

to-day. Had German statesmanship of the highest order been in 
command and assisted, but not dominated by experts, the history 
of the last three years would have been absolutely different. 

It is therefore certain that our system of government will 
continue unchanged because, on the whole, it is best suited to give 
play to all the forces that ensure civilisation and human happiness, 
but a system freed wholly from laisser faire tendencies, and willing 
to be guided but not directed on its executive side by experts, and 
that the needs of the near future, and especially those that will be 
concerned in the world struggle, will be met in this way. 

This is the significance of the situation. Expert knowledge 
is to be utilised as it has never been utilised in Canada, and for this 
purpose the Research Council was created. It is to be noted that 
it is a Council, not a Commission, and that this postulates that it is 
an advisory body only, as indeed the name "Advisory" in its title 
somewhat redundantly signifies. Its acts are valid only when the 
appointing body, the Privy Council, approves and consequently its 
executive functions are of the lightest character and involve the 
gathering of data and the concentration of the best scientific 
opinion in the country for the service of the Government. 

The Research Council has been engaged in this work for three 
months already and it has already made a report to the Government 
on its activities. It has discussed the question of undertaking two 
experiments which concern two of the important natural resources 
of the Dominion. One of these, the lignites of the Western plains, 
is not utilisable to any extent in its natural form, owing to the large 
percentage of water which they contain and which cause them to 
weather rapidly after extraction from the mine. The needs of the 
West in the matter of fuel are very urgent. Anthracite coal is 
obtainable in Saskatchewan and Manitoba only at higher prices 
than obtain anywhere else on this continent, ranging from $10 to 
$12 and more a ton, while in these provinces and in Alberta there is 
an enormous amount of lignite deposit, which even when utilised as 
requirements may demand will last for hundreds, perhaps for 
thousands of years. Attempts have been made elsewhere to use 
similar lignites by driving off the moisture and the gas which they 
contain and utilising the tar that is collected to bind the residue 
which may thus be compressed in the form of briquettes. The 
employment of this method in the West has not so far been attended 
with success, but it is believed that the lignites can be so utilised, 
providing the right methods are employed. The Research Council 



262 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

has made certain recommendations to the Committee on Scientific 
and Industrial Research of the Privy Council as to the way in which 
this problem may be solved in order to demonstrate that lignites, 
appropriately treated, are much cheaper than, and quite as efficient 
as high grade coal. What the line of attack on this problem may 
be I cannot say, for the recommendations are now before the Privy 
Council Committee, but action will be taken, I believe, in the next 
few months, so that the experiment will be completed before a year 
is over. 

If, as the Council believes, it will be demonstrated that the 
cost of briquetted lignites is much lower than the price of high 
grade coal per ton, an enormous service will be done to the public 
in these provinces. 

The Research Council has also given consideration to the 
question of studying forest growth. Our forests, unless care be 
taken, will be depleted before even we have the data on which to 
base any effort to prevent this depletion. The cutting down of our 
forests exceeds apparently the natural growth, but it is necessary 
that we should know all the factors that are involved in this growth. 

The Forestry Association of Canada and the Forestry Depart- 
ment of the Dominion have recommended to the Research Council 
the undertaking of these studies on forest growth and the Council 
has presented to the Privy Council Committee the results of its 
deliberation on the subject. Action will doubtless be taken at an 
early date with the view of getting accurate data as to forest 
growth in order to be prepared to take measures to conserve our 
forest wealth. 

This problem, like that on the lignites, is very urgent and the 
Research Council has placed it in the front rank for the moment. 

There are, however, other questions upon which the Council 
is taking time to formulate its point of view. These are the potash 
question, the phosphate question, and the electric fixation of 
atmospheric nitrogen. The potash question has for the moment 
an enhanced position. For years before the war practically all the 
potash in this country came directly or indirectly from the Stassfurt 
beds in Prussia. The supply there is an enormous one and easily 
mined and prepared for the market. The price was low and 
consequently the Stassfurt potash displaced potash from all other 
sources of supply of thirty to forty years ago. To-day the Stass- 
furt supply is cut off and in consequence we have to look round for 
the potash that must supply our agriculture and must be supplied 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 263 

as a fertiliser and for our arts and industries. We have very great 
quantities of minerals in our country which contain from 8 to 11 
per cent, of potassium. These minerals are in a more or less 
insoluble and unusable form as they exist, but by methods of 
manipulation the potassium in them can be obtained and it is a 
question whether the potassium from this source can be obtained 
in an economic way. 

The same may be said with regard to the phosphates. There 
are large quantities of phosphate-holding mineral in Canada. As 
phosphates are used as fertilisers, it is necessary to consider whether 
the Canadian phosphates should not be investigated to produce a 
product which would compete with the phosphates from Florida, 
where the grade is high and the cost of production is very low. 

As to the fixation of nitrogen, I desire to call your attention 
to the water power of the Dominion. You will note that where the 
lignites are scantiest there is an abundance of this power. In fact 
there is no other country on the globe in which the amount of water 
power, possibly, is so extensive as in our Dominion. The utilisation 
of this water power may be in three directions: for the supply of 
energy to run our industries; to furnish what is known as "white 
coal"; to convert the absolutely inexhaustible supply of nitrogen 
in the atmosphere into fixed nitrogen, available for fertilising our 
soils and to produce nitric acid and ammonia. 

The utilisation of the water power for supplying energy to our 
industries is now being solved in many parts of the Eastern portion 
of our Dominion, but the question of the conversion of water power 
into electrical energy for use in heating has not yet been brought 
to an economic practical stage. The utilisation of electrical energy 
from the same source for the fixation of nitrogen except in one 
particular line has not advanced to a point where economic action 
can be taken. 

The solutions of these two questions are all-important for 
Canada, and it is probable that our Research Council may attempt 
to help in reaching the solutions desired. 

Let me point out that, once these two questions are solved, 
there will be achieved an all-important change in our industrial life. 
We import enormous quantities of coal from the United States, and 
production from that source having reached its maximum will in 
the next few years begin to show a decrease. Indeed it is already 
doing so, and we shall have to depend for heating either upon the 
coal of Nova Scotia or upon electrical energy from our water 



264 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

supply. There is the possibility, also, that the United States may 
place an embargo on the export of its coal, in which case Eastern 
Canada would be placed in a difficult position if there was nothing 
to supply its place. 

It is therefore urgently important that the studies on the 
utilisation of our water power for the production of electrical energy 
should be fostered to the utmost extent. 

May I point out that for Canadian agriculture the production 
of potash, phosphates and fixed nitrogen is to be the problem of the 
near future. 

As to the world's supply of fixed nitrogen, it is estimated that 
in forty or fifty years the Chilean beds of saltpetre will be exhausted. 
The world must then turn to the nitrogen of the atmosphere to get 
its supply of fixed nitrogen, and the nation that has the largest 
supply of water power will be the leading producer of fixed nitrogen 
compounds that are necessary in agriculture and arts. You can 
therefore see what an important bearing our enormous water power 
has upon the future of our industries. 

There are a number of other problems which the Council has 
undertaken to consider and the solution of which they will attempt 
to furnish or assist in furnishing. I need not dwell upon these 
because they do not stand in the foreground at the moment. 

One of the most important functions of the Research Council 
is that of the promotion of research in Canada. This research is 
not to be wholly industrial. It is to be in pure science -also. I often 
think that the line of separation between pure and industrial 
research is only a matter of name or a point of view. It is, as I have 
on a previous occasion pointed out, impossible to prophesy whether 
a principle in pure science will be inapplicable to industrial advance- 
ment. An illustration which I have in mind now gives this em- 
phasis. Up till four or five years ago the principle in physics that 
we call "surface tension" was a pure laboratory concept. It was 
difficult to conceive that it would ever have any industrial appli- 
cation. Physicists, physical chemists and biochemists concerned 
themselves with it and made investigations upon it, with results 
which seemed to have only a purely scientific bearing, but it has 
now found an application which has already revolutionised certain 
milling and ore-separating processes. 

In many ores silica, or waste rock, preponderates and to utilise 
such minerals economically involves the separation in a convenient 
way of the two elements of the ore. Up till a few years ago attempts 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 265 

to separate them were made by means of gravity in water. The 
rock was ground into a fine powder and the powder treated with 
water which carried off a proportion of the silica powder, or gangue 
as it is called, and left the ore-containing part to sediment. The 
water, however, carried away not all the silica and it carried with it 
also a portion of the mineral which was thereby lost. Three or 
four years ago it was found that by putting into the water, separ- 
ating the two products of the milling process, a small quantity of 
oil and agitating, a large amount of foam was produced which 
carried in it from 80 to 90 per cent, of the mineral and contained 
practically none of the gangue or silica. 

This process (now called the " flotation process") was very 
soon employed as an industrial process and is being used in the 
United States in a large number of mining plants. It is utilised 
to-day at Cobalt and nearly half of the ore which is turned out in 
that ocality is now so treated. Through it ores which were not 
considered of economic value are now being treated and yield a 
very high return not only in the form of an output but very satis- 
factory dividends. It concerns ores like the sulphide of lead, zinc, 
copper, antimony, cobalt, and the process is used also in the 
separation of silver and gold from the rocks bearing them. 

The principle involved is surface tension, the force that rounds 
a drop of water or a drop of mercury or a drop of any melted element. 
It is the force that concerns the formation of a soap bubble, of the 
froth on water, it is the force that involves or determines the 
distribution of salts in the body and it constitutes many of the 
forces of living matter. 

I have concerned myself in my practical studies with this 
principle a great deal during the last ten years and I would have 
been very slow to predict that it could ever be utilised in such a 
fashion as that now involved in the "flotation method" of ore 
separation. 

I predict the extension of this process to a degree that is likely 
to enhance the industrial utilisation of a large supply of our 
minerals that are now supposed to be economically valueless. 
One can hardly, however, predict what transformations this 
flotation process will undergo in the next few years, but I should 
like to ask you to remember that it is at present only in the incipient 
stage of its utilisation. 

Now, the fostering of research in this country must be system- 
atically undertaken. The Council desires to develop research, 



266 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

to do so it must co-operate all the forces in the country to this end. 
It is useless to train the manual forces of the country without 
training the officers who are to lead. We hear much about manual 
training to-day, about what it will do for our industries. There is 
no doubt that manual training is very important indeed in furnish- 
ing a supply of skilled labour for our factories concerned in turning 
out more or less special products, but if there are no leaders to 
promote the development of these industries, if there are none to 
guide the rank and file, how is it possible to develop our industries 
as the conditions that now exist, or will exist when the war is over, 
demand? Managers of great business ability and of insight as to 
the conditions of labour and the market cannot and will not take 
the place that researchers only will fill. 

There were in Canada before the war not enough researchers 
to meet the needs which then prevailed. For the conditions which 
will obtain when the war is past there will not be enough to staff 
10 per cent, of the industries that will require them. 

There is current, I know, the opinion that every technologist 
in metallurgy, chemistry and physics is capable of carrying on 
research and achieving success in it. That opinion is, I know, also 
held by a very considerable number of the technologists themselves. 
Now, while paying the highest tribute to these because of their 
achievements in their calling, achievements in many instances of 
the highest distinction, I must say that the claim that technologists 
are necessarily research men is based on a misconception as to what 
research calls for. It demands in those who persistently follow it a 
special type of mind, representatives of which have always been 
more or less rare and to which the progress of the race has been due. 
It led to the production of the first chipped flint in the Eolithic Age, 
it invented the wheel and the sail, it discovered the Arts, in their 
crudest form, of smelting, forging, weaving and husbandry in the 
early dawn of our civilisation, and it is to-day as eager as ever if 
opportunity allows to explore the unknown and investigate the 
untried for the very peculiar reward, the mental satisfaction it 
gives, which can never be measured by any pecuniary or social 
standard. This type of mind is more or less what is known in 
biological terminology as a "sport", a special variant from the 
usual, and the number illustrating it in any generation must be 
very small, perhaps not more than one hundredth of one per cent. 
In the United States, with one hundred million of population, there 
are probably not more than ten thousand, all told, of such and only 



THE RESEARCH COUNCIL AND ITS WORK 267 

a moderate proportion of these are in the ranks of the technologists 
of al 1 classes. 

The German universities graduated every year before the war 
over 5,000 doctors of all classes from each of whom was required 
achievement of a research on which special stress was laid. Of the 
5,000 or more, about 3,000 were in the Scientific Departments. 
It has been maintained and I am inclined to believe justifiably that 
of this large number only about six per cent., or nearly 200, become 
permanently enlisted in the research class of the nation to which all 
advance in German science, pure and applied, is due The remain- 
der of the graduates, the vast majority, either become teachers in 
the Gymnasia and the Real Schulen, officials of the clerical class, 
or technologists of the routine type in industrial establishments. 
From the labours of these very rarely comes anything that makes 
for any advance in Science. They have not in their mental make- 
up the qualities which make their career very different from that 
of the members of the smaller class, the life-long researchers. 

The universities of the United States and Canada have been 
turning out graduates in Science, who are of both classes, but those 
of the rarer mental type have been very few in number and conse- 
quently progress along advanced industrial lines has not hitherto 
parallelled that of Germany. The other class, ineffectively trained 
for the most part and encouraged by their teachers to regard 
themselves as capable of research, go into scientific positions in 
industrial plants where however their lack of research capacity and 
their knowledge of the theory of their science are their outstanding 
characteristics. One hears much criticism of these from industrial 
managers who stigmatise them as "theorists", thereby indicating 
how much they are valued. 

Our universities have not hitherto made a systematic effort 
to find and train those who might become researchers of the 
permanent type. They have been engaged in the problems of their 
own development in meeting the immediate educational needs of 
the parts of the Dominion which they severally serve, and conse- 
quently the cultivation of research and the training of researchers 
have not been a very important part of their activities. Nor will 
these enter more largely into their object unless they can be induced, 
in the national interest, to make a special and sustained effort to 
encourage those who have the research capacity to enter on that 
career. 



268 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

The Research Council in order to stimulate our Canadian 
universities to promote this end has provided twenty studentships 
of $600, to be awarded this year to university graduates or others 
who have the required training therefor and who more especially 
have the capacity for advancing Science or its app ication by 
original research. The holders of such studentships may receive 
them a second year, provided the research work they do in the first 
is wholly satisfactory to the Research Council. In addition to 
these studentships, five fellowships of $1,000 each are to be awarded 
to those who have shown a very high capacity for research on some 
problem, the extension of which is of importance to the national 
industries of Canada. The holders of these fellowships may 
receive them for a second year on the score of having done excellent 
research work in their first year of tenure. 

The Research Council believes that these studentships will 
very greatly stimulate recruiting for the Research Legion in Canada. 
They will certainly in the years to come attract to a research career 
many young people of great capacity and endowed with those 
qualities of mind which are essential in a life devoted to research 
and who when their training in research is completed will find in the 
scientific development of our industries a career which in intellectual 
satisfaction as well as in the more material reward it gives will by 
no means fall short of their ambition to achieve and attain. In a 
few years there will be a very considerable number of these in the 
service of the industries. 

These studentships and fellowships will accomplish another not 
less important object. They will revolutionise our Canadian 
universities. These have hitherto, as already stated, not put 
research in the front of their programme, but under the competition 
which these fellowships and studentships will offer they will 
gradually, if not very soon, change their whole point of view and 
endeavour to develop research as a cardinal aim in their activities. 
What this fully signifies, only those who have paid careful attention 
to the subject understand, but I may say that it will profoundly 
enhance the usefulness of the universities to our young nation in its 
efforts to develop all its resources to the utmost. 

Is not all this that I have outlined as the work and aim of the 
Research Council an object worthy of the fullest attainment? 

A. B. MACALLUM. 



RE -EDUCATIONAL WORK FOR SOLDIERS 



DURING the past session a special phase of voluntary war 
work has been undertaken by members of the University 
staff in the Faculty of Arts. The term "re-educational", 
in this connection, is distinct from "vocational" in that the stand- 
point of the former is therapeutical rather than industrial. It is an 
attempt, through the use of special methods applied in the period 
of convalescence prior to final discharge, to restore as nearly as 
possible to normal certain types of physical and mental disability. 
The treatment referred to is also distinct from, and supplementary 
to the regular medical attendance furnished at convalescent 
hospitals and homes, and has been undertaken through the co-oper- 
ation of Dr. Goldwin Rowland and other medical practitioners 
now in charge of returned soldiers. Suitable cases for re-educational 
treatment are at present referred to the University from clinics 
in local military hospitals, where they regularly receive massage, 
and in addition the majority of such cases are attending one or more 
vocational classes. 

The principle underlying re-educational work is to put within 
a patient's reach the proper apparatus, assistance, and encourage- 
ment for practising such physical movements, or mental processes 
as may have been interfered with or have entirely disappeared 
through injury or shock. Individual attention is the keynote 
throughout, each case being a study in itself. In commencing 
treatment a detailed survey of the patient's present capacity of 
actual performance is first undertaken, to ascertain what functions 
are intact in whole or in part, that may serve as a foundation in 
working back to normal. An individual instructor then gives his 
attention exclusively to a given case, and apparatus appropriate 
to the condition is devised and constructed. There are several 
advantages of this arrangement as supplementary to the electrical 
and manual massage regularly given at military hospitals. Mechan- 
ical appliances need not be expensive to be effective, but they 
contribute toward restoration of movement and control by eliciting 
through a precise task that most essential factor, the patient's own 

[269] 



270 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

concentrated effort. The co-ordination of a partially paralysed 
arm, for instance, improves more rapidly by driving a nai!, catching 
a ball, whittling a stick, or threading a needle, than simply by 
having the lame joints flexed. Each man practices daily a variety 
of exercises suitable to his condition, and once a week is tested upon 
a number of typical performances. The careful measurement 
and recording of accomplishment, the interest aroused through 
individual sympathetic assistance, the sight of others' success, and 
the ambition to outgrow his own special apparatus, have served 
to increase the rate of progress of most cases, and to arouse others 
from a pardonable state of depression which had previously prohi- 
bited improvement. 

For example, a difficult case of hysterical paralysis of both legs, 
in a well-knit young man of twenty-two, was recommended in 
January 1917. There was a history of burial under sand-bags in 
April 1916, without visible injury. A suspected local injury in the 
spine was not substantiated, and in addition to electrical treatment, 
hypnotism had been used in England without permanent improve- 
ment. On coming to the University he could walk with great 
difficulty with the use of a cane, hitching the legs forward by 
movements of the body. He could not step over an inch stick, 
nor raise either foot from the ground. He could not displace a 
football that was one inch from his toe, nor put out either limb 
to save himself from falling. Any prolonged attempt to step 
forward would presently precipitate a most violent shaking of the 
limb. He thought he had ceased to improve, and was deeply 
depressed. After attending for two weeks his point of view 
changed he resolved he could improve. Within three months 
he has regained sufficient control to discard his cane, to walk about 
fairly easily, to mark time, to step over hurdles four inches high, 
and to kick a tethered football across the room at a target a yard 
above the floor. His spirits have vastly improved, and the prog- 
nosis is for full recovery. 

The treatment of distinctively psychological symptoms is more 
difficult than most cases of paralysis, but is"\neeting with success 
although improvement is usually less rapid. The cases of this sort 
include loss of speech, temporary partial blindness, disturbances 
of memory and association, and very frequently in "shock" cases 
an inability to concentrate upon the simplest tasks, this being 
marked by a high susceptibility to fatigue, and to brief periods of 
"confusion". It is found that discouragement and depression 



RE-EDUCATIONAL WORK FOR SOLDIERS 271 

often have deepened into obsessions regarding the impossibility of 
improvement, owing to supposed conditions or causes that have 
no basis in fact. The principles described above, namely active 
employment and measurement of such processes as are found 
intact are also used in these cases, the first requisite being to culti- 
vate a favourable attitude in the patient. 

The work was originally begun last fall, in a more or less 
experimental way, at the College Street Military Hospital. Two 
men were treated there daily in the open wards, and made sufficient 
progress to warrant the continuance of the work upon a larger 
scale. The accommodation, however, in all military hospitals 
being already overtaxed, space was offered by Prof. W. G. Smith 
in a lecture room of the Psychological Laboratory in the Main 
Building. With the approval of Dr. Rowland and other doctors 
in charge, a class was formed to treat men at the University daily, 
except Saturday, from four to five p.m. During the Michaelmas 
term three men who were able to walk from the College Street 
Hospital attended. At the opening of the new year it was decided 
to increase the number of selected patients to six, and it has since 
grown to nine. Additional members of the staff to the number of 
ten gave freely of their time to instruct men at special hours, and a 
daily service by private motors was arranged for soldiers unable to 
walk. The apparatus has now overflowed the original room into 
three others. 

Sixteen cases have been handled in all. Of these, one who 
learned first to creep and then to walk since August 1916, is now 
practically normal at the time of discharge. Unfortunately three 
have been discharged from the service while convalescing satisfac- 
torily, and have had to discontinue treatment in order to look for 
such work as they were able to do. Two patients have been absent 
some time through recent accidents, and one from sickness. In two 
further cases apparatus has been supplied to men at the hospital, 
in order to enable them to treat themselves. It is, in fact, a chief 
object of re-educational treatment to encourage and instruct the 
men to treat themselves. One case only has been discontinued 
for lack of progress. 

In an account of what the University re-educational work is 
doing there should be a place for acknowledgment of help from 
certain persons whose interest has made it possible. The incentive 
to commence such treatment in Toronto as war work is due to the 
suggestion, encouragement, and personal instruction of Dr. 



272 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Shepherd Ivory Franz, psychologist at the Government Hospital, 
Washington, D.C., whose pioneer work in the re-education of 
demented paralytics is attracting wide attention in the medical 
profession. It is desired, further, to thank Professor Mavor for his 
assistance in commencing a fund for this work. Mr. Currelly and 
Mr. Graham Campbell have facilitated the building of appliances 
in their University workshops, and thereby contributed materially 
to making the work a success. Mr. Campbell has also raised 
sufficient funds for the present term, the generosity of numerous 
subscribers having made it possible to purchase or construct the 
necessary equipment. Acknowledgment too is made of the 
co-operation of those citizens of Toronto who, through all weathers, 
have maintained a regular motor service between the hospitals and 
the University, also of the unsparing energy of Mr. H. K. Gordon 
who in acting as secretary has co-ordinated and intensified different 
, aspects of the work. 

The results achieved during the past session, as well as the rapid 
increase in the number and urgency of cases, unquestionably 
warrant an immediate development of re-educational work, not 
only in the University of Toronto, but wherever in the Dominion 
such convalescent cases are cared for. Such training is widely 
established in Britain and in France, why not in Canada? If the 
University re-educational work is to continue during the coming 
summer, a measure of re-organisation will be necessary, including 
further help in funds and in assistants. These are problems to the 
solution of which Alumni of the University can contribute. It is 
hoped that in the summer months a response as hearty as that 
given in the past winter will be forthcoming. 

EDWARD A. BOTT, 

Dept. of Psychology. 

EDITOR'S NOTE : An account of the work for returned soldiers now being 
carried on at the University was requested by the Editor for publication. We 
wish to emphasise that this work is one that admits of great development and 
that it would be of service to the country if citizens would give liberally of 
their means for this purpose. Dr. Rowland hopes that the re-educational work 
may be continued during the summer, but it is difficult to see how this can be 
done without some financial aid. Apart from the matter of assistance, $75 to 
$100 per month will be required for equipment necessary for efficient work. 
Contributions are sent to H. K. Gordon, Honorary Secretary, "University 
Re-educational Work", University of Toronto. 



THE PRESIDENTS REPORT TO THE 
SENATE ON NATIONAL SERVICE 



To THE SENATE OF THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO: 

In accordance with the instructions of the Senate the National 
Service Card was issued and announcement was made that every 
student, man or woman, in the University must fill in one and 
return it to the Registrar or Secretary of the respective College or 
Faculty not later than January 31st. I am glad to announce that 
nearly all students of the University in attendance have returned 
cards with the questions answered. 

The number of students who signed cards is 1,884 1,027 men 
and 857 women, made up as follows: 

Men Women 
Faculty of Arts 

University College 234 335 

Victoria College 87 172 

Trinity College 21 41 

St. Michael's College ' 99 47 

Faculty of Medicine 335 30 

Faculty of Applied Science 182 1 

Faculty of Education 59 231 

Faculty of Forestry 10 

Of men who have offered for military service but have been 
rejected there are in the 

Faculty of Arts 80 

Faculty of Medicine 89 

Faculty of Applied Science 39 

Faculty of Education 6 

Faculty of Forestry 5 

Of men who have not offered for service and whose health is 
only fair or who have some physical defect there are in the 

Faculty of Arts 123 

Faculty of Medicine 66 

Faculty of Applied Science 44 

Faculty of Education 14 

Faculty of Forestry . 1 

[273] 



274 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Of men students under the age of 18 there are in the 

Faculty of Arts 44 

Faculty of Medicine 8 

Faculty of Applied Science 6 

Of those who have offered to enlist and those whose health 
is only fair 215 have offered to do work in national service: 

Agri. Mun'tns. Either. 

Faculty of Arts 41 66 

Faculty of Medicine 21 28 7 

Faculty of Applied Science ... 4 32 

Faculty of Education 4 5 2 

Faculty of Forestry 4 1 

70 135 10 

Of men of all classes in the University there are 617 who are 
prepared to do national service in agriculture, munitions, or in 
some other employment. 

With regard to the Faculty of Applied Science it must be 
borne in mind that no chemists or those competent to do wireless 
telegraphy are permitted to enlist as ordinary combatants. Of 
those qualified for such service already five chemists and four 
wireless operators have been chosen. It is expected also that 
increasing demands will be made for mechanical engineers and for 
men qualified to serve in construction or flying corps, so that apart 
from munition work as ordinarily understood it is altogether 
probable that by the end of the term a large number of students 
in Applied Science will be enlisted for active military or other 
national service. 

In the Faculty of Medicine there is a very small fifth year by 
reason of the fact that the regular fifth year graduated last Decem- 
ber, and nearly all who received degrees are now on active service. 
I understand that from the first three years in Medicine about 
80 have volunteered to enlist for a Casualty Clearing Station. 

Of the 595 women students in the Faculty of Arts there are 524 
in good health, 71 whose health is only fair. Of these 540 are 
willing to do national service, 131 in agriculture, 332 in munitions, 
52 in either agriculture or munitions, 10 in chemistry, 15 in dietetics. 
Another opening for the work of the women students will be the 
Red Cross. It is obvious, therefore, that a very large proportion 



THE PRESIDENT'S REPORT TO THE SENATE 275 

of the women who are physically fit are willing to undertake 
whatever kind of national service they are best fitted for. 

The two faculties which are most likely to supply the largest 
number of workers for national service are those of Arts and 
Applied Science, because in each of these the regular work closes 
soon after the middle of April, so that it will be possible for these 
students to devote a much longer period to such service than those 
from the Faculties of Medicine and Education, the professional 
requirements of which will not permit the closing of the term before 
the end of May. 

Already authoritative requests have come for chemists and 
wireless operators, and students have been permitted to count this 
service as enlistment and have been given their year. It is doubt- 
ful, however, whether the demands for ordinary munition work will 
necessitate permission being granted to women and men students 
who are in poor health or who have been rejected for military service 
to leave before the regular work of the year has been completed. 
It is not yet known whether the demands of agriculture will be so 
pressing that exemptions may be asked for by any considerable 
number of students. 

As a general result of this registration it may be observed that 
of men and women students of all classes there are over 1,200 who 
are willing to do some kind of national service during the summer. 
Of the remaining students of the University now in attendance 
there will doubtless be some more available from the Faculty of 
Medicine and from the Faculty of Education when the work of 
the session is completed at the end of May. I understand also 
that there is a probability that a large number of women students 
will be employed in fruit harvesting in the summer and early autumn. 
It may be necessary for the University to grant these students 
dispensation from attendance for the first half of October with the 
remission of the ordinary fine. 

All of which is respectfully submitted. 

R. A. FALCONER. 



WHAT THE ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF 

AGRICULTURE IS DOING TO HELP 

INCREASE PRODUCTION 



FOR the past two years and a half recruiting has been the chief 
business in Canada. Farm hands, in the winter time, were 
induced to join the army, and farmers' boys in winter and in 
summer time left the old homesteads for the military camp. Any 
farmer who protested against his "help" being taken from him was 
called disloyal, and he received no sympathy from any man. i 

Now the cry is for food, and the farmers are asked to put forth 
an extra effort to see that British soldiers and British civilians shall 
not want for food. The .Ontario farmer, handicapped as he is, 
will heartily respond and will do his best to produce more grain 
and more hay and more roots, with what help he can get. 

The Ontario Department of Agriculture, realising that the 
greatest need, then, is not more acreage, but a better tilling of the 
farms now in cultivation, is endeavouring to secure more labour 
this year for the farms. Any man or boy who has any work in him 
may help the Empire now by offering his services for all or part of 
the spring, summer, or fall of 1917, to work on a farm. 

The High School boys are offering themselves by the thousands, 
and the Education Department is giving them their year after 
April 20th. One boy to the home should render splendid assistance 
by saving steps of the farmer and the farmer's wife, by driving the 
cows to and from the pasture, by helping in the barn and stables, 
and later on by assisting in cultivating and in haying and in 
harvesting the crop. 

Then, through Boards of Trade and other organisations, 
business men, men in shops, banks and factories, are being asked to 
spend their vacations on the farms, and the outing and experience 
should be good for every man. Regular wages will be paid. It 
must be distinctly understood, however, that this is not a Holiday 
Scheme. Some city dwellers have an idea that farming consists in 
lying on one's back under an apple tree, listening to the songs of the 
birds, and watching the clouds till supper time then to the evening 
meal, strawberries that have picked themselves, and cream from a 

[2761 



ONTARIO DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 277 

cool spring, left there by fairies, and biscuits from the kitchen range, 
and butter from heaven. These are dreams and pleasant ones, 
but they are not true. 

What is wanted is the Soldier Spirit on the farms, to do one's 
best, without grumbling and without criticism. Just "Here am 
I, send me". 

Then the farmers are being asked to clean their seed before 
sowing, to use the fanning mill over and over again, for large, 
plump seed will produce 20% more crops than small, cracked, or 
shrunken seed from the same bin. 

Farmers are also asked to raise twice as much poultry this year 
on each farm. This can be done without much extra labour, and 
will next fall give us a great increase in meat, and a better selection 
of pullets for next winter's eggs. 

The folly of killing female calves, lambs and pigs, is being 
pointed out. There is a world shortage of meat and it will take 
years to get back to normal conditions. We must not destroy our 
breeding stock, and if our townsfolk would stop ordering veal and 
lamb, it would help wonderfully to stop the slaughter of these 
"young innocents". 

If the British embargo remain on apples through the next fall, 
we shall have perhaps a million barrels more than we shall use, unless 
we stop eating oranges and bananas and other tropical fruit, and 
take to eating apples every day. 

We import into Canada ten millions of dollars' worth of fruit 
every year. Would the University people set the fashion and eat 
an apple or two every day from September 1st next? We expect 
big crops of good apples, and the housewife should, during the fall, 
can apples, dry apples, store apples; and the men folks should eat 
apples and drink apple juice to their fullest capacity. 

And then there is the "Garden for every Home" Campaign. 
This is practical and it is urgent. Any one can have a garden, and 
if every one grew vegetables this year what a blessing it would be 
to our own Ontario folks, and to the soldiers as well. We are 
shipping millions of dollars' worth of vegetables to the trenches from 
Ontario farms and canning factories. We have not nearly enough. 
This week fifty-five dollars a ton was paid in car lots for carrots 
for overseas, when seven or eight dollars is the normal price. 

The Department of Agriculture is working through the Farmers' 
Clubs, the Women's Institutes, and the district representatives to 
get larger vegetable production in the country. The towns and 



278 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

cities.can raise millions of dollars' worth, supply their own wants and 
leave the country grown produce for export. It will be good for us 
to work in the garden, it will be good for our families to have fresh 
vegetables, and it will be splendid for the Empire to have the 
surplus. 

The Ontario Department of Agriculture, with all of its branches, 
from the Premier Minister of Agriculture down to the mailing clerk, 
places itself at your disposal and information by telephone, by 
pamphlet, or by personal visit will be given fully. 

G. C. CREELMAN, 
Commissioner of A gr {culture for Ontario. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

I 

Erratum. In THE UNIVERSITY MONTHLY for March, p. 237, 
line 35, read: "The hispanisms in which it abounds are not the 
result of Vespucci's long intercourse with Spaniards and a 
consequent corruption of his Italian idiom . . . ". 

Similia Similibus par ULRIC BARTHE, Quebec, Imprimerie Cie du 
"Telegraph", 1916. 

Similia Similibus is one of the somewhat numerous books which 
have appeared in the Province of Quebec regarding the war. The 
author calls it an "Essai romantique sur un. sujet d'actualite". 
In order to bring home to Canadians, particularly those of Quebec, 
the dangers to which they are exposed, he imagines a situation in 
which the country has almost fallen into the hands of the Germans. 

Before the outbreak of the war Germany had planned the 
conquest of Canada. She had sent emissaries who had bought 
land in various parts of our country, notably in the Island of Orleans, 
where platforms of cement had been laid on which to place heavy 
artillery for bombarding Quebec. When the war broke out a 



BOOK REVIEWS 279 

certain Goelinger was in Quebec with his plans all laid and bold 
enough to issue a proclamation to the inhabitants of Quebec 
announcing their delivery by the German Emperor from the 
tyranny of England. A state of siege is declared and a certain 
number of German troops proceed to take Quebec and the surround- 
ing country. They go far enough in their mad design to burn 
houses and shoot down certain inhabitants who oppose them. 
Their plans are brought to nought finally by the general rising of the 
population, aided by the Canadian militia and particularly by one 
of their own number, Franz Billow Meyer, who was in reality a 
Canadian called Frangois Boileau, born near Quebec. This man 
had by a curious series of developments drifted into the service of 
the Germans and seemed ready to be as brutal as any, when his 
conscience pricked him and he determined to save his native land. 
He, knowing where the German munitions were, was able to arm the 
Canadians and defeat the invaders. We are not told what horrors 
were enacted at the close; the author merely says: "Jetons un voile 
sur cet horrible cauchemar". 

In developing his story the author makes frequent use of the 
incidents of the German invasion of Belgium and France and 
reminds Canadians in this way of what would happen to them if 
their country were really invaded. Canadians are slow to realise 
what danger they have been in. They are loth to acknowledge 
that there has been any danger at all, that if it were not for the line 
of French and English troops from Ostend to the Vosges and the 
watch-dogs of the English navy, German ships might have sailed 
up the St. Lawrence and Canada, particularly Quebec, might have 
been devastated like Belgium. Hence the appropriate title of the 
book. 

After the story is told the author adds an interesting epilogue 
in which the somewhat strained relations between Ontario and 
Quebec are discussed. The much-talked-of regulations regarding 
bilingual schools issued by the Education Department of Ontario 
are made by the author to bear their share of blame. They have 
given extremists in the Province of Quebec the opportunity to 
assert that the people of Ontario are as cruel as Prussians are in 
their administration of the conquered territories of Alsace and 
Poland. We do not attempt to discuss the question in this brief 
review. We merely wish to call the attention of our Alumni to 
what is said by a moderate fellow Canadian of the Province of 
Quebec. j. s. 



TORONTONENSIA 



Annual Meeting The annual meeting of the Alumni Association 

f the , Univer- will be he i d in the We st Hall of the University 

sity of Toronto 

Alumni on Thursday, May 17th, at 4.30 p.m., for the 

Association election of officers and the transaction of business. 

Appointments, The appointment of Professor J. Watson 

etc - Bain has been amended so as to read 

"Professor of Chemical Engineering" instead 
of "Professor of Applied Chemistry". 

J. H. Parkin, Lecturer in Mechanical Engineering, has been 
granted leave of absence from February 1st for munitions work. 

Miss I. G. O'Neil has been promoted as of January 1st to the 
position in the Registrar's Office formerly occupied by Miss Dickson. 

FACULTY OF EDUCATION. 

Supervisors of Observation and Practice Teaching. In High 
Schools, John Jeffries; in Public Schools, W. E. Groves. 
Instructor in Household Science, Miss L. L. Ockley. 

u . - The Alumni of the University of Toronto 

Toronto Alumni resident in Los Angeles, California, met at a 
luncheon at the University Club on Tuesday, 
March 13, 1917. The occasion was a most 
enjoyable one. C. H. Montgomery, M.B. '02, and Edgar F. 
Hughes, B.A. (U.) '03, were elected as representatives from the 
Southern Section to the Board of Officers for the California Branch 
of the Toronto Alumni Association. Those present at the meeting 
were H. R. Fairclough, B.A. (U.) '83, M.A. '85, President of the 
California Alumni Branch Association; William McCormack, 
B.A. (U.) '90, M.A. '91; E. A. Healy, B.A. (V.) '83, M.A. '96; 
W. T. McArthur, M.B. '95; Allan Shore, B.A. (V.) '95; C. H. 
Montgomery, M.B. '02; Edgar F. Hughes, B.A. (U.) '03, and 
William McBride, B.A. (U.) '79, M.A. '81, who is spending a few 
months in Los Angeles. 

[280] 



TORONTONENSIA 281 

The following note was taken from the Journal des DSbats, 
Paris, March 3, 1917. Monsieur J. Mark Baldwin will be remem- 
bered as a Professor in the Department of Philosophy at the 
University of Toronto from 1889 to 1893: 

POUR LA MAISON SERBE. 

Gr&ce a la " Maison serbe", installed actuellement 121, boulevard 
Saint-Michel, quatre-vingts tudiants serbes, mal pourvus, trouvent 
des repas quotidiens et un lieu de repos. On est heureux de leur 
procurer ce reconfort dans 1'horrible d6tresse qui 6treint leur pays. 
Mais les ressources qui alimentent cette ceuvre s'6puisent rapide- 
ment dans les temps si durs que nous vivons. Les dons pour la 
Maison serbe devront tre adresse"s directement a M. J. Mark 
Baldwin, tr6sorier, 11 bis, boulevard Delessert. De plus, nous 
transmettrions tres volontiers les fonds qui nous seraient remis par 
nos lecteurs. Si, par un hasard providentiel, quelqu'un d'entre 
eux possdait dans le quartier latin un local inoccupe plus spacieux 
que celui du 121, boulevard Saint-Michel, on le benirait de vouloir 
bien le mettre provisoirement a la disposition de 1'oeuvre. Le local 
actuel est petit et le nombre des etudiants serbes dans I'embarras 
est grand. Tant d'ceuvres de guerre beneficient deja de la gene>o- 
site de propri6taires sans locataires que nous esperons qu'il se 
trouvera aussi une maison vide pour nos jeunes amis serbes. 



Lecture by ^ large audience assembled at Trinity College, 

Professor J. on Saturday afternoon, March 10th, to hear 

Carter Troop Professor J. Carter Troop, M.A., of New York, 

lecture in aid of Belgian Relief, on "Sir James Barrie and 
His Plays". The subject was one which gave great scope to a 
lecturer of imaginative powers and so admirable was Mr. Troop's 
treatment that his hearers were transported for the time to a fairy 
realm where they forgot the horrors of war and the sad day in which 
they lived. 

Mr. Troop made an interesting comparison between the plays of 
Barrie and Bernard Shaw, showing among other points how much 
more human, if less brilliant were the characters of the '"ormer. 
He also gave clever synopses of " Peter Pan ", " What Every Woman 
Knows", and Barrie's latest success, "A Kiss for Cinderella", 
which is now being played in New York to crowded houses. In 
this play, as in "Peter Pan" Barrie seems to point out that we are 
all living in dreams and that these dreams are both real and true. 



282 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

He shows us a Cockney kitchen maid exalted by dreams and with 
a little chamber in her brain as brilliant in colour and as warm in 
beauty as her little person is drab 'n colour and shivering with cold. 
Barrie gives us the fairy tale as it passes through the mind of this 
"slavey" and gives it with all the gentle subtlety and wise humour 
in which he is so inimitable. 

Mr. Troop's description of the exquisite manner in which Miss 
Maude Adams filled the r61e of Cinderella made every one keenly 
anxious to see a play which is both as universal and as human in 
its qualities as that other triumph of its author which it so much 
resembles, that is, "Peter Pan". 

At the conclusion of this delightful lecture, Mr. Troop read a 
war poem by Helen Gray Cone, the well-known American poetess. 



Professor Squair Professor S Q uair has J ust had the honour of 
at Laval being invited to lecture at Laval University, 

Quebec. The subject of his lecture was 
Les Bases de 1'Union Sacree des Frangais, and the date, March 
16th last. There was a large and distinguished audience composed 
of the Faculty and students of Laval and of citizens of Quebec. 
In honour of the Bonne Entente movement, whose Chairman, 
Sir George Garneau, was present at the lecture, Professor Squair 
made a donation to the University of Laval for the founding in 
perpetuity of a prize in English, for which he received the hearty 
thanks of the Rector of Laval, Mgr. A. Pelletier. 

Lectures in Cele- Under the aus P ices of the University of 
bration of the Toronto a series of four lectures was arranged 

of ^onfederatioii in celebration of the Semi-centennial of the 
Union of the Canadian Provinces. These 

lectures dealt with the political fabric of Confederation, its archi- 
tects and master builders, the working of the machinery, and the 
quality of the Canadian life. The lectures in the series were as 
follows: March 6, " The Creation of the Federal System in Canada " 
by Professor G. M. Wrong; March 13, "Some Political Leaders in 
the Canadian Confederation" by Sir John Willison; March 21, 
"The Working of Federal Institutions in Canada" by Mr. Z. A. 
Lash; March 27, "The Quality of Canadian Life" by President 
R. A. Falconer. These lectures will be published later in full by the 
University of Toronto as its contribution to the celebration of the 
Semi-centennial of Confederation. 



TORONTONENSIA 283 



Dinner to n tne ^3rd f March last a complimentary 

Professor dinner was tendered to Professor Macallum 

by a number of his friends, the majority of 
whom were graduates of the University. Dr. R. A. Reeve was in 
the chair. Some of those who made brief speeches were Sir Edmund 
Walker, Chairman of the Board of Governors; Sir John Willison, 
President Falconer, Principal Hutton, Dr. I. H. Cameron, Mr. W. 
F. Maclean, Professor J. C. McLennan, and Mr. J. M. Clark. 
Two poems also were read which are published herewith. The 
speakers called attention to the honour that had been conferred 
upon the University by the appointment of one of its staff to the 
very important position of Chairman of the Honorary Advisory 
Council for Scientific and Industrial Research. They look con- 
fidently for a long and useful career for Professor Macallum in his 
new work. The resources of Canada are largely undeveloped and 
Professor Macallum and his Council will contribute very much to 
their successful development. 



Sonnet 

To A. B. MACALLUM. 

A petrel walking on a stormy sea 

Becomes an owl, Minerva's sacred bird; 

Close to the ear of Jove your voice is heard 

Which erst the rude wind's sport was wont to be. 

Some men may marvel, surely not so we 

Whose hearts that voice so many a time has stirred 

To firmer faith in spite of hope deferred 

In folly's fall and wisdom's victory. 

You like an owl, keen sighted in the dark 

The iron and the phosphorus that dwell 

Hidden in each remote and secret cell 

Sources of strength and life did note and mark; 

Seek out the strong, of genius fan the spark 

You're on the watch, we know all will be well! 

W. H. ELLIS. 



284 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

A Research Chairman's Difficulties 

Lines from an adolescent shy 
Who'd rather not disclose his name, 

We'll keep the secret, and not pry, 
Let him remain unknown to fame. 

" I dreamed a dream, I saw, I thought, 

Macallum in his chairman's seat, 
The letters which the mail had brought 
In heaps unanswered at his feet. 

" Oh dear, he said, had I but known 

What awful problems men would bring, 
I might to honoured age have grown, 
Where students mild surprises spring. 

" What wizard do they think I am 

That I should clear solutions find 
For difficulties real and sham, 
Perplexing to the human mind? 

" A man from out Bobcaygeon way 

A wandering epistle writes, 
To know if soon when cutting hay 
We may not have sunshine at nights. 

" Another loyal subject true, 

Demands the government shall fill 
All that to loyalty is due 

By making rivers run up hill. 

" Another versed in Bible lore 

Hopes Canada will found a prize 
For him who now and evermore 
The widow's cruse will modernise. 

" No empty barrel, empty jar 

On pantry floor or shelf need stand, 
In time of peace, in time of war, 

No food should lack throughout the land, 



TORONTONENS1A 285 

" Another says a prize should go 

To him who getting at the clue, 
Should teach the people high and low 
To eat their cake and have it too. 

" We need research, investigation, 

Of nature's secret ways and laws, 
And then suspend their operation, 
When understanding well their cause. 

" Why gravitation's tyranny? 

We might, at least when pitching hay 
High overhead, at times, be free 

To change the law's accustomed play. 

" Another wrote to tell the Board 

That he would rent his corner field 
As cheap as he could well afford 
To tap the heat beneath concealed. 

" The Reeve of Kedgemakooge sends word 

That in the clay was found a stone, 
Perhaps the egg of some rare bird, 
Which when you rubbed it all alone 

" In summer-time, cooled hands and feet, 

Whilst in the winter, as he knew, 
The coldest house it soon would heat, 
Would boil potatoes, meat would stew. 

"f)h learned doctor, thus by me, 

A simple, poor, but honest man, 
Heating and freezing would be free, 
If you would buy my secret plan. 

11 I'd take a knighthood, K.C.B., 

A doctor's hood like yours I'd wear, 
A plain degree, B.A., D.D., 

Or of bank stocks my honest share. 



286 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

" Briquettes of heat, briquettes of cold, 

To make I'd give a guarantee. 
My wondrous process I'd unfold, 
If I received a proper fee. 

" Then sudden y a noise I heard 

Which woke me from my curious dream. 
Out of the darkness flew a bird, 

With rustling wings and piercing scream. 

" 'No humbug can his mind beguile, 
Macallum's safe, be not afraid. 
He's proof 'gainst every witching smile, 
Firm on the rock of science stayed'". 

J. SQUAIR. 

University The readers of THE MONTHLY ha,ve already 

Supply* received the appeal sent out by the Alumni 

Association Association for contributions to the University 

of Toronto Hospital Supply Association. It is therefore unnecessary 
to refer in detail to the past work of the Association or to the 
pressing need of the moment. The women of the Association have 
done excellent work both in their workrooms in the Library Building 
and through the various outside organisations that have sewed 
for them. The need for Red Cross supplies is more urgent 
than ever and the Executive of the Alumni Association felt that it 
would reflect discredit on the University as a whole were this work 
to be hampered now for lack of funds. It was to prevent this that 
the appeal to the graduates of the University was made. Out of 
the 14,000 letters sent to graduates, $3,875.90 had been received 
up to April 10th from 579 contributors. While this response is 
somewhat disappointing, both the Alumni Association and the 
Hospital Supply Association acknowledge, with sincerest thanks, 
the assistance which this money will give. Contributions are still 
coming in and therefore this amount may be considerably increased 
within the month. 

The information which has been received through this appeal 
in the way of correcting the addresses of graduates is of very great 
value. We know now more definitely than we did a month ago 
how much labour will be required to get our mailing list in the 
condition in which we should like to see it. 



TORONTONENSIA 287 

The following report of the work of the Hospital Supply Associa- 
tion for March will prove of interest to all contributors and may 
very well act as a reminder and stimulus to those who have neglected 
to send in the contribution which they intended to g^ve. 

Mrs. F. N. G. Starr, Honorary Treasurer of the University 
Hospital Supply Association, reports the receipt of $2,069.21 since 
the statement published March 3rd. Of the above amount 
$1,125.96 was a gift from the Students' Administrative Council, 
being part proceeds of the sale of THE VARSITY War Supplement. 

Mrs. F. B. Kenrick Convener of the Packing Committee, 
reports that a total of 114 cases and 16 bales were packed during 
February and March. The contents were: 186 sheets, 342 pillow 
cases, 66 draw sheets, 276 towels, 378 surgical shirts, 114 laparotomy 
stockings, 672 arm bandages, 2,214 pyjamas, 762 shirts, 2,242 pairs 
of socks, 81 dressing gowns, 24 kit bags, 565 miscellaneous. 

The bales and 106 cases went to the Canadian Red Cross 
Society and 8 cases, containing 1,008 pairs of socks, went to the 
Soldiers' Comforts, 60 King Street West, and were forwarded to 
the Canadian Field Comforts' Commission. 



288 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor -will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
" The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



Professor A. B. Macallum was 
selected as the Hatfield Lecturer to 
address the College of Physicians, 
Philadelphia, on April 9, 1917. 

Professor William Gillespie, B.A. 
(U.) '93, of the Department of Mathe- 
matics at Princeton University is 
planning to accompany a party of 
students to England for war relief 
work under the auspices of the Army 
Y.M.C.A. Professor Gillespie is a 
brother of Walter H. Gillespie, B.A. 
(U.) '94, who is on the staff at Phillips 
Exeter Academy, Exeter, N.H. 



Lieutenant Flight Commander Theo- 
dore Douglas Hallam, R.N.A.S., Arts 
(U.) '06-08, has done splendid work 
since his enlistment. He was mentioned 
in dispatches and received the D.S.C. 
for gallantry at Gallipoli in December, 
1915. 

Miss Margaret Eleanor Herrington, 
B.A. (T.) '12, M.A. '13, is teaching at 
the Catholic School of St. Mary's, 
Garden City, New York. 

John W. Taylor, M.A. (V.) '14, holds 
a valuable fellowship in the Depart- 
ment of Greek, University of Chicago. 

Miss Kate S. Harte, B.A. (T.) '14, 
has been appointed Assistant Director 
of the Government Employment Bureau 
at Hamilton. 

Birth 

On February 25, 1917, to Mr. and 
Mrs. Arthur Henry Ralph Fairchild, 
B.A. (U.) '00, Ph.D., University of 
Missouri, Columbia, Mo., a son. 

Marriage 

MCDONALD KENNEDY In March, 
1917, at Peterborough, Captain 
Wilbert Lome McDonald, 235th, 
Battalion, B.A. (U.) '08, of Weston, 
to Miss Syvil Franc I^ennedy of 
Peterborough. 



It is necessary to hold over to the May Number several items, including 
additions to the Roll of Honour, articles on a Master's Course in Chemical 
Engineering, the University of Toronto Sketch Club, the Franco-British Aid 
Society, and Book Reviews. 



VOL. XVII. TORONTO, MAY, 1917. No. 8 



Hniiu>rstt 



THE ROLL OF SERVICE 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS.* 
Corporal Warren George Brown; Applied Science, 1916 

(in June 1916). 
Lieutenant Albert Edward Bright; University College, 

1917, Knox College. 

Private Ivan Bernard Marty; Medicine, 1920. 
Lieutenant Ernest Reece Kappelle ; Victoria College* 1914. 
Second Lieutenant Thomas William Penhale; Applied 

Science, 1918. 
Lieutenant Maurice Arundel Clarkson; B.A., University 

College, 1915. 

Thomas Newell Vickers; Applied Science, 1911. 
Lieutenant William Henderson Gregory; B.A., Univer- 
sity College, 1913, Wycliffe College. 
Lieutenant Reginald Herbert Manning Jolliffe; Victoria 

College, 1917. 
Second Lieutenant Osmund Bartle Wordsworth; B.A., 

(Cambridge), Staff, Trinity College. 
Second Lieutenant Harold Sylvester Edmonds; Forestry, 

1918. 

Lieutenant William George Butson; Education, 1913. 
Sergeant Reginald David Turnbull; B.A., University 

College, 1915, Knox College. 
Lieutenant George Geoffrey May; B.A., University 

College, 1915. 

Captain Elfric Ashby Twidale; B.A.Sc., 1914. 
Lieutenant Frederic Gundy Scott; B.A., Victoria 

College, 1916. 

Captain Robert Home; M.B., 1913, Staff. 
Flight-Lieutenant George Rivers Sanderson Fleming; 

Applied Science, 1907. 
Lieutenant James Mitchell Souter; Applied Science, 

1918. 

Captain James Robertson Duff; D.D.S., 1904. 
Andrew W. Archibald; Education, 1912. 



* Dated May 1st. 



290 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

MISSING. 
Second-Lieut. Henry Lawrence, University and Wycliffe Colleges. 

WOUNDED. 

Lieut. R. M. Barbour, Dent. 1917. 

Lieut. J. F. Smith, Trin. 1906. 

Capt. J. R. Paulin, B.A. (U.C.) 1904. 

Lieut. W. Proudfoot, B.A. (T.) 1910. 

Sec.-Lieut. F. R. Malcolm, App. Sc., 1919. 

Lieut. G. E. Macklin, Ed., 1912. 

Major J. A. Hope, Law, 1916. 

Lieut. N. C. Wallace, Trin., 1918. 

Lieut. A. S. Bleakney, B.A. (U.C.) 1915. 

Major I. M. R. Sinclair, U.C., and App. Sc., 1917. 

Lieut. C. G. Grier, Trin., 1919. 

Lieut. G. M. Eraser, Med., 1919. 

Lieut. H. S. Ryrie, B.S.A., 1913. 

Lieut. R. Meikleham, Phm.B., 1912. 

Lieut. J. F. L. Simmons, B.Sc., F., 1916. 

Lieut. E. V. Chambers, B.A.Sc., 1914. 

Lieut. T. H. Bevan, App. Sc., 1905. 

Lieut. K. C. Mickleborough, Med., 1919. 

Gnr. W. G. Philp, Trin., 1917. 

Sergt. J. R. Ferguson, U.C. 1918. 

Lieut. A. M. Latchford, B.A. (U.C.) 1916. 

Pte. F. C. Teskey, B.A. (U.C.) 1914. 

Sec.-Lieut. N. Wardlaw, U.C. 1918. 

Pte. O. G. Darling, App. Sc., 1918. 

Pte. D. W. S. Mackenzie, Vic. 1918. 

Lce.-Cpl. A. H. Heatley, App. Sc., 1919. 

Lieut. S. H. Brocklebank, U.C. 1914. 

Capt. T. W. Macdowell, D.S.O., B.A., (V.) 1915 

Capt. H. E. Hartney, B.A. (U.C.) 1911. 

Lce.-Cpl. H. D. Lang, U.C. 1919. 

Pte. G. Park, U.C. 1918. 

Lieut. E. L. Fielding, B.A. (U.C.) 1914, Ed. 1915. 

GAS POISONING. 
Pte. W. E. Mothersill, B.A. (U.C.) 1910, Knox. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 291 

HONOURS. 

Military Cross Lieut. C. Smythe; Lieut. H. K.Harris; Lieut. 
W. E. Poupore. 

Military Medal Cpl. G. A. McEwen. 

Serbian Order of the White Eagle Lt.-Col. G. Gow. 

XVIII. 

MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY STAFF, GRADUATES AND 
UNDERGRADUATES NOW ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 

Continued from the April number. 

Faculty or 
Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

- McRae, W. F.; Gore Bay; LL.B. '07. 
Cadet Mahon, H. M.; R.M.C.; Tor.; Arts (U.) '19 
Sergt. Mallett, G. S.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; Dent. '20; Sc. '20 
Pte. Mallough, A. C.; C.A.M.C.; Dent. '19 

Sergt. Marion, R. J.; C.A.D.C.; Edmonton, Alta.; Dent. '20 

Maynard, W. A.; Can. Div. Engin.; Port Hope; Phm.B. '99 
Sergt. Montgomery, J. G.; C.A.D.C.; Dent. '20 

- Morrison, N. F.; C.A.M.C.; Port Arthur; Arts (U.) '19 
Lce.-Cpl. Mounteer, D. G.; No. 2 C.A.S.C.; Lindsay; Arts (V.) '20 
Sergt. Munn, J. A.; C.A.D.C.; Hensall; Dent. '20 

Sergt. Murchison, C. A. L.; 226th Bn.; Souris, Man.; Arts (U.) '19 
Capt. Nickle, M. A.; C.A.M.C.; Weyburn, Sask.; M.B. '07 
Lieut. Park, R. T.; R.F.C.; Peterborough; Sc. '18 

- Parker, T. H.; Ottawa; B.A. (V.) '07, M.A. '10 

Lieut. Pearson, H. M.; Kapuskasing Camp; Hamilton; B.A. (U.) '15 
Lieut. Pratt, F. M.; 7th Fd. Coy., C.E.; Ottawa; B.A.Sc. '12 
Pte. Purdom, L.; U. of T. O.S. Tr. Coy.; London; Arts (U.) '19 
Cadet Read, K. B.; R.F.C.; Leamington; Arts (U.) '19 

- Reed, F. J.; Woodville; V. '17 

Sergt. Reid, C. G.; C.A.D.C.; Niagara-on-the-Lake ; Dent. '20 

- Reynolds, C. W.; Randall; Phm.B. '09 

Sergt. Richardson, H. R. F.; C.A.D.C.; Ottawa; Dent. '20 
Major Roaf, J. R.; Tunnelling. Coy., C.E.; Bickerdike, Alta.; 

B.A.SC. 'oo 

- Robertson, A. S.; Tor.; B.A.Sc. '14 

Sergt. Rochon, R.; C.A.D.C.; Hull, Que.; Dent. '20 
Sergt. Rogers, C. J.; C.A.D.C.; Ottawa; Dent. '20 
Sub-Lieut. Russell, A. H. K.; R.N.V.R.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '15 
Lieut. Ryerson, W. M.; C.A,S.C.; Brampton; Arts (U.) '18 



292 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Faculty or 

Rank Name Unit Home College Year 

Col. Saunders, B. J.; Trans. Dept., England; Sc. '80-81 
Lieut. Schwalm, H. V.; C.A.D.C.; Winnipeg; Dent '17 
Cadet Scott, R. W.; R.F.C.; Ottawa; Arts (U.) '20 
Sergt. Scott, T. A.; 52nd Bty., C.F.A.; Walkerton; Sc. '16 
Sub-Lieut. Sharpe, O. E.; R.F.C.; Tor.; B.A. (U.) '14 
Capt. Shaw, F. P.; A.D.D.S., M.D. 1; London; Dent. '17 
Lieut. Sheard, T.; R.C.H.A. (Quebec) ; Tor. ; Arts (U.) '19 
Pte. Soule, I. E.; P.P.C.L.I.;; Milltown, N.B.; Arts (U.) '18 
Gnr. Smith, C. T.; 73rd Bty., C.F.A.; London; Sc. '19 
2nd Lieut. Smith, W. R.; R.G.A.; Hespeler; B.A. (U.) '13 
Lieut. Sparrow, W. H.; B.E.F.; Tor.; Arts (U.) '19 
Pte. Storey, G.; C.A.S.C.; Wawanesa, Man.; B.A.Sc. '15 
Cadet Sydie, J. E.; R.F.C.; Edmonton; Arts (U.) '17 
Pte. Tanton, J. F.; Mech. Tpt., C.A.S.C.; London; Sc. '19 
Sergt. Taylor, H. D.; C.A.D.C.; Watford; Dent. '20 
Sub-Lieut. Taylor, M. S.; R.N.A.S.; Regina; Sc. '17 

- Thompson, C. E.; Stoney Creek; Arts (V.) '19 
Capt. Thornton, L. H.; C.A.D.C.; Montreal; D.D.S. '14 
Lieut. Treadwell, N. H.; C.A.D.C.; Ottawa; B.A. (U.) '13 
Capt. Tyer, W. L.; No. 5 Can. G.H.; Barrie; M.B. '14 
Sapper Vardon, L. M.; Div. Sig. Coy., C.E.; Tor.; Sc. '19 
Sergt. Voaden, W. W.; C.A.D.C.; Peterville; Dent. '20 
Lieut. Waters, D. M.; 13th Bde. C.F.A.; Belleville; Sc. '15 
Gnr. Watson, J. M.; 55th Bty., C.F. A.; Woodstock; Sc. '16 
Lieut. Watson, P. J.; C.A.D.C.; Tor.; D.D.S. '14 

- Waugh, B. W.; C.E.; Kitchener; B.A.Sc. '12 
Sergt. Webster, R. N.; C.A.D.C.; Brockville; Dent. '20 

- Welford, P. G.; C.F.A.; Gait; B.A.Sc. '13 
\Vilford, E. C.; C.A.M.C.; M.B. '08 

Staff-Sergt. Willson, W. C.; C.A.M.C.; Kitchener; Phm.B. '16 
Pte. Wilson, W.; C.A.M.C., No. 7 Can. G. H.; Tor.; Med. '14-15 
Lieut. Wilson, W. S.; 38th Res. Bn.; Hanover; Sc. '16 
Gnr. Wood, G. H.; 71st Bty., C.F.A.; Kincardine; Sc. '17 
Gnr. Youell, A. W.; 5th Bty., C.F.A*; Sherbrooke; B.A.Sc. '11 



EDITORIAL 



THE Ontario Educational Association has been here and has 
gone. Its six hundred members have had their three days' 
amusement in some twenty-five departments and sections, 
listening to more than a hundred papers read by all types of people 
kindergartners, country school teachers, inspectors, high school 
teachers, professors and non-specified. The most bewildering list 
of subjects was discussed. National unity, defence of the Empire, 
imagination, care of the teeth, the Bonne Entente, will there be a 
new Canada? magic properties of numbers, the training of memory, 
the linguistic tendencies of teachers were all there and others too 
numerous to mention. Some day a new Homer may make a poem 
out of such a catalogue. But for the present the papers will be 
presented to the public in a volume of four or five hundred pages, 
to be consulted in the coming days by controversialists looking 
for arguments or by the mythical person sometimes called the future 
historian. 

Subjects in connection with the study of the Latin and Teutonic 
languages received some attention. French, Spanish and Roumanian 
were mentioned but it was not observed that any Slavonic topics 
had their place on the programme. Surely some one might have 
advocated the introduction of Russian or Serbian into the school 
curriculum. That may come next year. 

The claims of Spanish were presented by Dr. Buchanan in a 
very reasonable paper. He reminded his hearers of the large 
number of people in the world who speak Spanish, of the vast and 
excellent literature of these people, as well as of the commercial 
relations existing between them and us. Since the war began the 
number of pupils taking Spanish in educational institutions, 
particularly in the United States, has enormously increased. 
And the movement is pretty certain to spread, not only in the 
United States, but also in Canada and in Britain. The following 
paragraph from the Northern Scot of Elgin, Scotland, of March 
24th, 1917, will be read with interest in this connection: 

[293] 



294 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

"The Value of Spanish. At a special meeting on Monday 
afternoon the Elgin Burgh School Board considered the advisability 
of introducing the teaching of Spanish into Elgin Academy and the 
continuation classes. The Chairman (Mr. Alex. Hogg) said that 
as it was the duty of every School Board to consider what was to be 
done for commercial advancement after the war, he wished to bring 
forward the study of Spanish as a purely commercial subject and as 
an asset for the days of peace. Mr. Wat tie, H.M.I.S., agreed that 
the idea was an excellent one, the only drawback being the funda- 
mental difficulty of obtaining suitable teachers for this language. 
,He suggested that, should the matter be taken up, a combination of 
several School Boards would be the most feasible method of carrying 
it out, and that it would be advisable to begin the subject in the 
day school and continue it in the evening classes. The clerk stated 
that he had written to Sir Archibald Williamson, asking his advice 
as a competent authority, and submitted the reply received, in 
which Sir Archibald gave his opinion that Spanish would prove a 
most useful addition to the school curriculum. It was a valuable 
'bread and butter' language, and as such was really of more worth 
to a young man entering commerce than either French or German, 
Sir Archibald also intimated his willingness to give for each of the 
next three years the sum of 3 to be divided into a first prize of 
2 and a second prize of 1, or otherwise as the Board might 
4ecide for boys studying Spanish, provided that not fewer than 
ten went in for the subject. It was agreed that the clerk should 
convey to Sir Archibald the Board's thanks for his kind offer and 
their hope to be able some day to take advantage of it. It was also 
decided to communicate with the Secondary Education Committee, 
placing before the members the Board's idea of introducing the 
teaching of Spanish, the purport of Sir Archibald Williamson's 
letter, and the meeting with Mr. Wattie, and asking if the Com- 
mittee would be willing to take up the suggestion of a combination 
of Boards in the matter". 

A word or two of warning, however, should be uttered in 
connection with these things. Men may be pushed too far in their 
hostility to German by the atrocities of the Germans in war. It 
may be worth while for a goodly number of English-speaking people 
to learn the German language in the future, if for no other purpose 
than to watch what Germany will be doing. 

Another matter is the weak equipment of our Ontario schools 
for the study of any foreign languages whatsoever. French, 
German and Latin have been and are being badly done, and to add 



EDITORIAL 295 

Spanish and perhaps Russian under present conditions would not 
tend to improve matters. More time must be found for language 
studies. Pupils enter the High Schools at too advanced an age and 
after entering do not spend enough of time in such work. Our 
governments spend money on the encouragement of science, but it 
is many a long day since any one has devised anything to help 
the language side. 

One of the most interesting things in connection with the 
Convention was the announcement that the superannuation scheme 
at which committees of the Association had been working for two 
or three years had been adopted by the Government and Legislature 
and would now be put into operation as part of the School Law. 
Particular mention should be made in this matter of Mr. R. A. 
Gray, to whom great credit is due, for the good work he has done 
in bringing this scheme to a practical completion. Many years 
ago under the regime of Dr. Ryerson, a superannuation scheme was 
inaugurated in Upper Canada, but about 1885 the government of 
Sir Oliver Mowat in a moment of unwisdom abolished it. Now, 
after thirty years, we are to have a restoration of a wise policy. 



CAUSES OF THE WAR 

Address at a Private Club, March 2?th, 1917. 

THE most important cause of the great war in which the world 
is now engaged was the diplomatic, military and industrial 
success of Prussia and Germany since Bismarck became 
First Minister of Prussia in 1862. 

The first enterprise conducted by Bismarck was the war with 
Denmark. In 1863 Christian IX became King of Denmark. For 
years there had been trouble regarding the three duchies of Schles- 
wig, Holstein and Lauenburg. The rights of Denmark over this 
territory had been recognised by the powers of Europe, but not 
by the smaller German states. A competitor to Christian IX as 
far as Holstein was concerned arose in the person of Friedrich of 
Augustenburg and war began. The smaller German states sent 
aid to Friedrich but Bismarck persuaded Austria to join Prussia in 
securing the three duchies for their own purposes. In February 
1864 Prussian and Austrian troops invaded Holstein. The Danes 



296 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

fought well, but, getting no help as they had expected from England, 
were soon overcome and made peace in the Treaty of Vienna by 
which the three duchies were ceded to Austria and Prussia jointly. 

A year after (August 14th, 1865) by the Treaty of Gastein, 
Prussia obtained Lauenburg as her possession and the other two, 
Schleswig and Holstein, were placed under a condominium. Bis- 
marck tells in his Gedanken und Erinnerungen, how unwilling the 
king of Prussia was to acquire this territory when Bismarck was 
trying to persuade him to take it. But he tells us how he noticed a 
psychological change in his master after Gastein. The royal taste 
for conquest was aroused by obtaining such advantages as Lauen- 
burg, the harbour of Kiel, a military position in Schleswig and the 
right to dig a canal through Holstein (as the French say, 'Tappetit 
vient en mangeant"). The Treaty of Gastein may be called 
success No. 1. 

Peace between Austria and Prussia was of short duration. 
They quarrelled as Bismarck had foreseen regarding the adminis- 
tration of the two duchies and the Prussian army marched through 
Saxony into Bohemia where at Sadowa (or Koniggratz) on July 3rd, 
1866, the Austrians were defeated. On August 23rd at Prague 
peace was signed. Schleswig and Holstein both became Prussian 
territory and later, within a few weeks, Prussia absorbed Hanover, 
Hesse-Cassel and the free city of Frankfort, and took indemnities 
from Austria, Wurttemberg and Saxony. The King and the 
military men wanted also to take a slice of Austria but Bismarck 
resisted and was successful in his resistance. He wanted an 
Austria which would not feel her losses too bitterly when he came 
to fight with his great adversary, France, which he purposed to do 
as soon as convenient. The North German Bund was formed 
(July 1st, 1867) and Austria was excluded from German affairs. 
This may be called success No. 2. 

A vacancy in the succession to the throne of Spain had occurred 
in 1868 and a Hohenzollern prince, Leopold, in 1870 appeared as a 
candidate. France, conscious of the growing military strength 
of Prussia, was alarmed and the Imperial Government took active 
measures to prevent Leopold's accession. Bismarck saw that this 
was a good chance for war and laid his plans to enveigle Napoleon 
III. He was afraid, however, that on account of the somewhat 
pacific nature of the Prussian king, now 73 years of age, he might 
be thwarted in his endeavours to bring on the contest. For some 
weeks the diplomats were active and finally the king of Prussia 



CAUSES OF THE WAR 297 

and the representative of France (Benedetti) met at Ems, a watering 
place where the king was taking a cure. Bismarck, being absent 
from his master, trembled for fear some arrangement might be 
found by which war might be averted. He tells in his Gedanken u. 
Erinnerungen, vol. II., pp. 91 and 92, how he succeeded in securing 
that Napoleon III should declare war on Prussia. On July 13th, 
1870, Bismarck was in Berlin at dinner with his two friends Roon 
and Moltke, a telegram from Abeken at Ems arrives giving an 
account of the negotiations between the King and Benedetti,which 
was intended for publication in the press. Bismarck thought the 
wording of the telegram might be changed so as to make it more 
certain to provoke war and he changed it, and this is his description 
of the effect upon himself and his two friends. ''After I had read 
to my two guests this concentrirte Redaction Moltke remarked, 
'Thus, it has quite another sound; it sounded before like chamade 
(signal for parley) now it sounds like a fanfare (challenge) in answer 
to a provocation'. I explained, 'If I immediately communicate 
this text which contains no changes in, or additions to, what is 
comprised in the royal telegram, not only to the press but also to 
our ambassadors, it will be known before midnight in Paris, and 
both on account of its content and of the manner of publication it 
will make den Eindruck des rothen Tuches auf den gallischen Stier. 
Strike we must unless we are willing to assume the r61e of being 
attacked without a struggle on our part. But success really depends 
on the impressions on us and others which are produced by the 
origin of the war. It is important that we should be attacked and 
French boastfulness and susceptibility will make us appear to be so, 
if we with European publicity (in so far as is possible without the 
speaking trumpet of the Reichstag) make it known that we fear- 
lessly face the public threatenings of France. These explanations 
of mine produced in both generals such a change to joyful feeling 
that its liveliness surprised me. Suddenly they began to eat and 
drink with pleasure and to speak in jolly humour. Roon said, 
' Der alte Gott lebt noch und wird uns nicht in Schanden verkom- 
men lassen'. Moltke departed so far from his even calmness as 
to cast a glad glance to the ceiling and forgetting his usually careful 
manner of speaking placed his hand on his breast and said, 'Wenn 
ich das noch erlebe, in solchem Kriege unsere Heere zu fiihren, so 
mag gleich nachher die alte Carcasse der Teufel holen' ". 

Bismarck and his fellow ghouls got their hearts' desire. Two 
days after, on July 15th, France declared war on Prussia. The 



298 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Prussian army was ready. The French army was not. Nor did 
France get help as she hoped from Austria or Bavaria. When the 
shock came France was defeated. For a short time the French 
bravely withstood the force of the German assault, but on Septem- 
ber 1st the great victory of Sedan was w r on and on the following day 
the Emperor, Napoleon III, surrendered. The German armies 
pressed on, Paris was invested and bombarded, and on October 5th 
the Prussian king took up his headquarters at Versailles in the 
castle of Louis XIV. Brave fighting was done by Frenchmen all 
round Paris and south to the Loire, but in January, 1871, peace 
negotiations were opened at Versailles. The preliminaries of peace 
were arranged by March 1st. France was to pay five billion francs 
and cede Alsace-Lorraine. The German army entered Paris in 
triumphal procession on March 1st, and remained there forty-eight 
hours. It held France till September 1873 when on the payment 
of the last part of the indemnity it was completely withdrawn (the 
Treaty of Frankfort had been signed May 10th, 1871). This may 
be called success No. 3. 

The effect of this success upon the German mentality was very 
great; opposition to Bismarck and his methods largely disappeared. 
The German people were at his feet in an attitude of adoration. 
Here was the great hero who had welded Germany into one, who 
had poured an immense treasure of gold into the economic 
machinery of the state, who had humbled the great hereditary 
enemy France and added two provinces (5,580 sq. m.) and some 
million and a half souls to Germany's strength. And how had he 
done it? By making the army powerful, by making the govern- 
ment practically independent of popular control and by casting 
to the winds all regard for humaneness and straightforwardness in 
international dealings. Duplicity and cruelty were exalted to the 
rank of the virtues in the conduct of European politics. Fidelity 
firstly to Prussia and secondly to Germany would cover as with a 
mantle all forms of wrong-doing. Fear was to be made the great 
means of persuasion in dealing with other nations, particularly 
with vain, cock-sure France, always likely to break out in ebullition 
and pour her lava over her peaceable, unoffending neighbours, such 
as Germany. Listen to some of the Bismarckian phrases to be 
found in Busch's memoirs: vol. I, p. 391 (English translation) : 
"These Frenchmen are really very funny people"; vol. I, p. 402: 
"A fine presence, a pompous style of speech, and a theatrical 
attitude are everything with the French"; vol. I, p. 464: "The 



CAUSES OF THE WAR 299 



French are intellectually impotent and full of self-conceit"; vol. II, 
p. 20: "The French cannot be judged by the same standard as 
other nations". 

All this ate deeply into the German soul. Not only so, but 
soon the example and spirit of Bismarck began to hypnotise the 
rest of the world. Before the war was over even, Thomas Carlyle 
with his barbaric pomposity was into print lauding to the skies 
Bismarck and the Germans, and pouring his hatred and disdain 
upon the French. Here are some passages from his letter to the 
Times of November 18th, 1870: "The cunning of Richelieu, the 
grandiose long-sword of Louis XIV, these are the only titles of 
France to those German countries"; "As to Strasbourg it was a 
housebreaker's jemmy; as to Metz la pucelle and the three bishop- 
rics it was force of fraudulent pawnbroking"; "Let France speak 
of her honour! 'Signally disgraceful to any nation was her late 
assault on Germany'"! "A government subsisting altogether on 
mendacity"; "I know not when or where there was seen a nation 
so covering itself with dishonour"; "France a mass of gilded, 
proudly varnished anarchy has wilfully insulted and defied a 
quietly human, sober and governed state, an array of sanguinary 
mountebanks against a Macedonian phalanx"; "The German race, 
not the Gallic, are now to be protagonist in that immense world- 
drama". (We must remember, however, that the Times did not 
agree with its distinguished correspondent). 

And soon all over the world it became fashionable to look upon 
Germany as the means in the hands of God for punishing degenerate 
France. C. A. Fyffe in a History of Modern Europe says: "The 
catastrophe of 1870 seemed to those who witnessed it to tell of more 
than the vileness of an administration; in England not less than in 
Germany, voices of influence spoke of the doom that had overtaken 
the depravity of a sunken nation; of the triumph of simple man- 
liness, of God-fearing virtue itself, in the victories of the German 
army". The Rev. Dr. Cobham Brewer, in A History of France 
down to i8?4i speaks thus: "The invincible army was a mere wreck, 
and still on marched the Prussian forces steadily, resolutely, 
grandly, carrying all before them"; and in another passage: 
"Never was dishonesty so common as under Napoleon III". 
Even Chambers' Encyclopaedia in 1889 says of Napoleon: "Confi- 
dent in the efficiency of the army, and anxious to rekindle its 
ardour, he availed himself of a pretext to declare war against 
Prussia". 



300 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Even France began to imitate Germany so that she might be 
able to obtain la revanche some day or other. She copied her enemy 
in military, industrial and educational matters. The legend of 
German efficiency spread. We in Canada even thought we had a 
school system patterned after the Prussian. In the United States 
adulation of Germany became very widespread and the phrase 
"that is what they do in Germany" became a sort of hammer by 
which all kinds of arguments were clinched. No wonder Germany 
was hypnotised. She drank of all this wine and it went to her head. 
In addition there were real material grounds for German pride. 
She increased in population at a remarkable rate; her industry 
and trade increased. Her cities grew and some of them, like Berlin 
for example, became pompously and aggressively huge, and 
supposedly beautiful. How could the nation resist the temptation 
of believing that it was ordained to dominate the world? To be as 
successful as Germany was for fifty years is not a good preparation 
for humility. We should not be surprised at all the arrogance and 
boastfulness displayed by Germans from the Kaiser down to the 
paltriest lieutenant in the army. It was most natural that they 
should consider themselves invincible and look forward to the day 
when they should humble all their enemies. We do not need to go 
back to the Stone Age or even to the Thirty Years or Seven Years 
wars to find reasons for the desire of Germans to make war. We 
find a sufficient explanation of that desire in the profit they had 
derived from war from 1864 onwards. Unvaryingly successful, 
how could they have been otherwise? 

Such considerations, particularly when taken in connection 
with many statements made by German publicists in books and in 
the press, lead us to hold the view that the national pride of Ger- 
many and her warlike spirit had been raised to an intense pitch 
before 1914, and that she was quite ready for violent, warlike 
aggression on her neighbours if a favourable opportunity occurred 
and we must now discuss the question as to whether she actually 
was the aggressor which we have seen that fifty years of her history 
had fitted her to be. The Kaiser and his Chancellor have quite 
frequently declared that Germany was attacked and was fighting 
only in self defence. We may ask them by whom was she attacked ; 
certainly not by England. No one familiar with English opinion 
would believe that the English government could ever have made 
the attack. Some Englishmen doubtless are just as bellicose as any 
German, but the bulk of the nation would never willingly go to war. 



CAUSES OF THE WAR 301 

The same, I believe, can be said, although some think a little less 
confidently, regarding France. The government of France had 
outlived the desire for revenge. The wild fire-eaters like Deroulede 
and Drumont could not lead the nation. The leaders were largely 
pacifists. Would Russia then have declared war? Some may feel 
less sure regarding her than regarding England and France, but she 
surely knew she was not prepared to fight with a nation so highly 
equipped as Germany and it is hardly to be believed that she would 
have taken the first step. In spite of all the mock-pious ejacula- 
tions of the Kaiser, the world, at least outside of Germany and to 
some extent inside that country, is well convinced that he and his 
entourage planned the war, and made peace impossible. 

A careful study of events of the last days of July and first days 
of August, 1914, makes it clear that if the German government 
had wished to prevent war there would have been no war. The 
plea of Germany is that she made war because Russia was mobil- 
ising. But Austria was the first to mobilise and Russia's first 
movements were intended to meet this action of Austria. More- 
over, mobilisation is a different thing from declaration of war and 
often takes place without being followed by war. But in an 
address like the present one it is impossible to discuss properly 
such a large and complex question as the exact priority of the move? 
made by the various governments in those fateful days of 1914. 
The state documents are themselves bulky and in addition many 
books have been written on the points involved. The most 
enlightening reading which I have done on the subject is contained 
in three books written in German which I venture to recommend 
to you. These books debate the question pretty thoroughly from a 
variety of standpoints and the net impression left on one's mind 
is that Germany was guilty of bringing on the war. The first of 
these books bears a French title, T accuse. It contains 363 pages 
and was published on April 20th, 1915, at Lausanne and is anony- 
mous, but the bona fides of the author is vouched for by Professor 
Suter of the University of Lausanne. The author says of himself: 
"Dieses Buch schrieb ein Deutscher. Kein Franzose, Russe oder 
Englander. Ein Deutscher, der sein Vaterland liebt, wie irgend 
einer; aber gerade weil er es liebt, darum schrieb er dieses Buch" 
No brief analysis of the book would be sufficient to show how 
clearly the guilt of Germany is proved by analysing and comparing 
the papers published by the various governments. All one can do 
now is to state that the author establishes to any fair-minded 



302 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

reader's satisfaction that Germany is guilty, in company with 
Austria, of having brought on the European War. 

The second book in the series is entitled Ein Verleumder by 
Professor Th. Schiemann of Berlin. It was published in Berlin in 
1915 and contains sixty-eight pages. It professes to be a reply to 
T accuse but disposes of the main question discussed by T accuse 
by passing it by entirely. One reads patiently through sixty-six 
pages of matter more or less relevant to the great issue, as to who is 
responsible for the war, and on the sixty-seventh page one reads 
this astonishing sentence, " Auf eine Polemik gegen seine Auslegung 
der amtlichen Publikationen des Materials, das die Zeit zwischen 
der Ermordung des Erzherzogs und dem Ausbruch des Kriegs 
betrifft, lassen wir uns nicht ein". And so we are cheated out of 
the enlightenment we expected regarding the origin of the war. 
There is plenty of abuse of the author of J 'accuse, there is a laboured 
attempt to show that French and English jealousy of one another 
and of Germany caused them to attack the innocent, lamb-like 
Vaterland but there is no attempt to show that at the last moment 
they did actually make the attack. Nothing could be more 
significant. It is an admission from Professor Schiemann that 
he considers it impossible to show that Germany was not the 
aggressor and it is not going too far to look upon him as a sort of 
official spokesman for his government. 

The third book in my list is called Gerade weil ich Deutscher bin. 
It contains seventy-five pages and is written by one Hermann 
Fernau and published by Fiissli of Zurich in 1916. The book is a 
reply to Schiemann and a defence of f accuse. Put briefly, it is 
an attempt to show that Schiemann evades the real point of 
T accuse and trails all sorts of red herrings across the scent in order 
to confuse the German reader. Let me quote a sentence: "Damit 
ist eigentlich die Broschiire des Herrn Professors schon zur Geniige 
gekennzeichnet. Aber die Aengstlichkeit, mit der er den eigent- 
lichen Inhalt von ' T accuse' umgeht und die laute Geschwatzigkeit, 
mit der er Dinge erzahlt, die gar nicht zur Discussion stehen, 
treten so krass in seiner Schrift hervor, dass ich nicht umhin kann, 
noch naher darauf einzugehen." 

So, as far then as these three books are concerned, the net result 
is that the accusation of T accuse that the guilt of causing the war 
lies fully on the shoulders of the German government is sustained. 
But I wish to bring forward another German witness. On December 
31st, 1916, there appeared in the Frankfurter Zeitung an article 



CAUSES OF THE WAR 303 

by the historian Friedrich Meinecke which was probably entitled 
Der Rhythmus des Weltkriegs. (I was unable to get the original 
text of the article and so I quote from the "Journal des Debats" 
of January 9th, 1917). 

" Meinecke is faithful to the official theory that Germany is 
carrying on a defensive war in the political sense of the word, but an 
offensive war in the military sense. He says we began the war 
with the purpose of crushing; we staked everything on a rapid 
concentration of our forces. The intention was to precipitate them 
altogether on the adversary and annihilate him in the open field: 
to beat France first, then turn round against Russia, and finally 
settle England. But the plan failed, the battle of the Marne 
occurred. It was not a tactical victory but a great strategical 
success for the French. Then the Germans adopted the warfare 
of positions. Attacked by the whole world, central Europe lived 
and breathed freely in the protection of its trenches, its grape shot 
and its shells. The policy of crushing was abandoned for the 
policy of wearing out the enemy. But attempts to break through 
the hostile line were made at the Yser, the Bzura and Verdun. 
Then it seemed prudent to give up the plan of destruction and offer 
peace to our enemies. In that we are only following our policy 
of choosing the most suitable means at our disposal. It is what we 
have done at every turn since we entered Belgium". Could 
anything be more cynical? 

Whatever surprises the war may have in store for the world, 
it is pretty certain that Meinecke's statement regarding Germany's 
reasons for bringing on the war will be generally accepted. She 
believed that she had to fight for political and economic profit and 
defence, although she knew that from a military standpoint she was 
safe. France and England contain many citizens willing and eager 
to go to war and many more willing to play tricks in diplomacy in 
order to gain national advantage of one kind or another. But 
France and England had learned certain lessons regarding the 
horrors of war and the advantage of peace and you never could get 
either to declare war on a nation like Germany for the sake of any 
problematic gain. It would be too hazardous. They were content 
to play the diplomatic game and make what little they could out 
of it. Russia too with, its vast peaceful populations would never 
make war in a large way. She was content to wait and watch the 
development of Panslavism working itself out by force of high birth 
rate, peaceful penetration and the like. But Germany could not 



304 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

bring herself to keep her huge army and her growing navy with her 
submarines and airships in the background. She was proud of 
herself and of her history for the last fifty years and since war during 
that time had always been profitable to her she believed she could 
aid diplomacy very effectively by dealing a few sledge-hammer 
blows with her military machine. Such things too as the treaties 
regarding the Balkans and Morocco strengthened " her in these 
opinions. Algeciras and Agadir were from her standpoint disap- 
pointing and had failed to satisfy her love of gain and prestige. 

As an English-speaking man addressing other English-speaking 
men I consider it important and not too futile to insist upon the 
difference there is between declaring war and merely conducting 
diplomacy. The latter may involve many bad things, such as 
treachery, hypocrisy, over-reaching and the like, but the former 
must involve all these as well as all forms of bestial cruelty. And 
the most conscientious pacifist amongst us must have a certain 
satisfaction in feeling that England did not deliberately imbrue her 
hands in the blood of the millions slain. 

The question of peace naturally arises in men's minds when 
discussing war. When will peace be made, what will it be like, 
will it continue when it does come, are all interesting points. Many 
of the nations were already converted to peace. Germany was not; 
she still believed she could make war profitable; and she will not 
keep the peace in the future unless she is content to play the game 
of international politics without a bludgeon up her sleeve. And 
she will drop the bludgeon when she is convinced that it is unpro- 
fitable to use it. Whether she is convinced by this time that war 
for her is a disagreeable and undesirable business is doubtful; but 
let us hope that her enemies will soon be able to pound the idea 
into her, for only by her conversion will peace be assured. 

Another guarantee of peace would probably be the more com- 
plete popularisation of governmental machinery. It is likely that 
where parliaments should have complete control, preparation for, 
and declaration of, war would be more difficult. Popular govern- 
ment is open to much criticism, but if it is able to prevent war it will 
justify its existence with all its defects. Learning, science, art, 
religion, commerce, all seem to be very poor bulwarks against the 
madness of war. Where are Norman Angell's arguments now? 
Perhaps our final hope lies in the ballot box. 

J. SQUAIR. 



A MASTER'S COURSE IN CHEMICAL 
ENGINEERING 



THE conditions of the present day have thrown into strong 
relief the services of the chemist to modern industry, 
although the emphasis which has been laid upon the output 
of explosives has led undoubtedly to an attitude of mind on the 
part of many which has been aptly expressed by Browning's lady of 
fashion : 

"Now that I, tying thy glass mask tightly, 
May gaze thro' these faint smokes curling whitely, 
As thou pliest thy trade in this devil's smithy 
Which is the poison to poison her, prithee?" 
But even as the smiths shall beat their swords into ploughshares 
arid their spears into pruning hooks with the dawn of peace, so shall 
the chemists turn once again to the transformation of the useless 
into the useful, no longer for war but for the need of every day. 

The great explosive factories will be largely altered for the 
manufacture of synthetic dye-stuffs and drugs ; the hateful chlorine 
of the battlefield will be used once more beneficently for bleaching 
and disinfecting; and the hydrogen which buoys the air ship will 
find, as in the past, other outlets in the industries. 

Turning from the feverish activities of the production of 
munitions to the industrial conditions of the day, we note that under 
the stimulus of demands on the one hand for explosives, and on the 
other for chemicals to replace those formerly manufactured in 
Germany and Austria, the chemical industry among the Allies and 
in the United States has prospered amazingly. 

With this growth has arisen a demand for trained men, which, 
having exhausted the available supply, directs our attention afresh 
to the much discussed problem of the training of the chemist for 
industrial pursuits. It would lead too far afield to discuss here, 
even in the briefest terms, the manifold activities of the chemist, 
using that name in its widest sense. 

It will, however, be obvious that with the multiplication of 
chemical factories, there has arisen in recent years a new brother 

[305] 



306 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

in the engineering fraternity one who combines with a knowledge 
of chemistry the constructive skill of the engineer. Such a man 
who is now known as a chemical engineer, demands a training 
which was not in any college curriculum twenty years ago and, as 
is usual in such cases, many voices have been raised in exposition 
as to the best method of equipping the man for the work. The 
views advanced have been fairly divergent, and the subject has 
been under prolonged and serious discussion by chemical and 
engineering societies. One can hardly pick up an issue of the 
industrial chemical journals without finding a fresh contribution, 
and these recurring expressions of opinion convey some idea of the 
widespread interest which has been aroused on this matter. 

The Massachusetts Institute of Technology is one of the best 
known schools for technical training in America, and deservedly so. 
The standards are high and have been well maintained, and the 
Faculty are of the highest rank; their decision to inaugurate some 
new features in their course on Chemical Engineering deserves 
therefore our attention. As is usual in American universities, the 
older course in this branch of engineering extended over four years 
and led to the degree of Bachelor of Science. The innovations 
consist in the establishment of a five year course leading to the 
Master of Science, and the introduction of seven months of factory 
practice under the guidance of the staff of the Institute. The 
reasons which have brought about this important step and a 
description of the working details of the scheme are set out by Dr. 
William H. Walker in an interesting article in the Journal of 
Industrial and Engineering Chemistry for August, 1916. 

The older four year course is to be retained, and up to the end 
of the third year there will be no differentiation in the curriculum. 
When this stage has been attained, students who have acquitted 
themselves creditably may be admitted to the five year course, or 
may complete the shorter course if they so desire. Turning our 
attention to the five year course, the first term of the fourth year 
is spent at the Institute, and on February first the works' training 
commences. This will be carried on at five stations, at each of 
which a group of students will spend six weeks in rotation; these 
stations are situated as follows: 

Station A Bangor, Me. At the plant of the Eastern Mfg. 
Co., makers of electrolytic caustic soda and calcium hypochlorite, 
cellulose from wood, bond and ledger papers. 



A MASTER'S COURSE 307 

Station B Everett, Mass. At the plant of the New England 
Gas and Coke Co., makers of gas, coke, ammonia and tar by- 
products. 

Station C Niagara Falls, N.Y. At the plant of the Carbor- 
undum Co., makers of carborundum, silicon and other electric 
furnace products. 

Station D Stamford, Conn. At the plant of the American 
Synthetic Colour Co., makers of phenol, picric acid, dye-stuffs and 
coal tar intermediates. 

Station E Northampton, Pa. At the plant of the Atlas 
Portland Cement Co., makers of Portland cement. 

For instructional purposes the Institute will maintain at each of 
these stations an analytical laboratory, a drafting room, a conference 
room and a special library selected with reference to the needs of the 
station; a member of the Institute Faculty resident at the plant 
will be in charge. 

By such a sojourn at these various factories it is hoped that the 
student will be able to acquire a first hand knowledge (a) of the 
processes of the plant and the machines with which it is equipped ; 
(b) of the chemical control of industrial products through the 
laboratory ; and (c) of the methods of factory management and cost- 
keeping. That such experience will tend to inspire a feeling of 
confidence in the superintendence of work undertaken later on is 
obvious, nor is .there any necessity to emphasise the importance 
of this system in bringing into closer touch the manufacturers and 
the University. At the close of this seven months' work the 
student will return to the Institute for his fifth year with a much 
broader outlook and a fresh interest in his academic studies. 

For a sound training in engineering, actual contact with com- 
mercial operations is as essential as the hospital practice is to the 
medical student. Unfortunately the opportunities for a few 
months' work in the chemical industries are uncommon, since the 
employer is usually interested only in those men who can be 
trained for permanent service. Many students are thus compelled 
to carry on their academic course with little or no knowledge of the 
conditions under which they must live their professional life, and 
their outlook is narrower in consequence. This difficulty will be 
overcome in an admirable manner by the system outlined above, 
which will no doubt be adopted by other technical schools elsewhere. 
The chief objection to the initiation of similar factory courses is, 
naturally, the cost of equipping and maintaining the stations, at 



308 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

each of which one of the Faculty must be resident. The less 
wealthy universities will perhaps meet this difficulty by contenting 
themselves with fewer stations, at the expense of providing for 
their students a more limited experience. 

Under present conditions in Canada our undergraduates can 
secure work in chemical plants without any difficulty, and the 
writer believes that this is the best of all trainings in factory 
practice. No academic control can place upon the student the 
responsibility which he assumes when he becomes an employee, 
and the necessity of proving himself to be an intelligent and 
industrious workman as an essential condition for promotion is a 
much more powerful driving force than the mere approval of a 
university faculty. The question as to which system will produce 
the better men is open to argument but the subject is too extensive 
to be discussed here. 

After the war the opportunities for service in the factories will 
undoubtedly decrease and this probability will lead Canadian 
chemists to watch with keen interest the operation and the results 
of the new course in Chemical Engineering at the Massachusetts 
Institute of Technology. 

J. WATSON BAIN. 



THE FRANCO-BRITISH AID SOCIETY 

THAT the Franco-British Aid Society of Toronto has the right 
to claim the University of Toronto as its foster mother 
would readily appear from a glance at the names of the 
Executive of the Society: Honorary Presidents : Sir William Mulock, 
Mrs. Plunkett Magann; President, Professor Squair; Executive 
Committee: Professor Keys, Professor Pelham Edgar, Mrs. Squair, 
Mrs. W. N. Rose, Mr. Percival Parker, Professor de Champ; 
Convener, Mademoiselle Malaval; Treasurer, Miss Florence 
Neelands; Secretaries, Miss Beatrice Embree, Mr. Philippe Trivier. 
It will be seen that nearly half of the members are more or less 
directly connected with the teaching staff of the University. Not 
only do they serve as members of the Executive of the Society but 
since its inception in September 1914, there has not been a pro- 



THE FRANCO-BRITISH AID SOCIETY 309 

gramme arranged by this Society on which the name of at least one 
member of the University Faculty has not appeared. 

The varied and interesting series of lectures on subjects con- 
nected with the war which were given in the early days of the 
Society by Professors Squair, Hutton, Pelham Edgar, Keys, Mavor, 
Franklin Johnson and de Champ were an auspicious beginning of 
the close connection between the University and the Franco-British 
Aid Society. 

Then, as the programmes changed from lectures to groups of 
short plays, histrionic talent was revealed in a marked degree 
among the members of the Faculty. Some of this talent was 
already well known, but in other cases it was latent, and the Society 
has reason to be proud of being the means of developing it. The 
thanks of the Society are due to Professors Keys, DeLury, Will, de 
Champ and Swedelius, and to Messrs. J. B. Wallace, Lipari, W. F. 
Bowles and Passarelli of the faculties of the various colleges for the 
help they have given in this way. Of the above, Professor Keys 
has proved himself most versatile. Besides his appearance as the 
exasperated sire in "Les Precieuses ridicules" and as other person- 
ages, he now enacts a r61e as indispensable to a Franco-British 
programme to-day as it was to the Greek drama of ancient times 
that of Prologue explaining in poetic vein "who they are and why 
they do it ". Professor DeLury, whether in the capacity of a quasi- 
domineering husband in "Dieu merci, le Couvert est mis", or as a 
frankly henpecked one in "Madame Bigarreau n'y tient pas", has 
always shown great skill in make-up. 

At each entertainment given by the Society, Professor Squair 
has filled the r61e of genial chairman and during the intervals 
between the monthly programmes, he and Mrs. Squair have 
generously lent their hospitable roof as a shelter for many a 
strenuous rehearsal. 

The connection with the French was not so prominent in the 
first series of lectures and in the well-remembered one by Stephen 
Leacock, when, by the way, many in the audience found the galaxy 
of "grave and reverend" professors on the platform their gravity 
and their reverence much disturbed by mirth an attraction only 
second to that of Professor Leacock's humorous talk. The main 
features on the remaining programmes have been French either by 
birth or by descent. 

It has been the aim of the Franco-British Aid Society to widen 
the interest of the public in the French language and literature, to 



310 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

cement the fast growing friendship between French and English in a 
"Bonne Entente" of sympathetic appreciation of the beautiful 
language and literature of France. Besides Moliere's masterpiece, 
"Les Precieuses ridicules" there have been presented, in many 
instances for the first time in America, quaint farces from mediaeval 
times and about a dozen one-act comedies from the rich stores of the 
Modern French school. In keeping with the spirit of the " Entente " 
a one-act play in English usually translated from the French 
is given on each programme. The translation is done by a member 
of the Society if no other version is available. A patriotic feature 
with a French setting has concluded each entertainment this season. 
The Society gave a successful presentation of the four-act 
comedy "Le Voyage de Monsieur Perrichon" by Eugene Labiche 
in May. The steadily growing number of "faithful adherents" 
at each performance proves that the aim for increasing the interest 
in the French language is meeting with most gratifying success. 

But while this aim is of great importance to the Society now as 
in times of peace, its chief aim as long as the war and the conseqnent 
distress may last is to raise as much money as possible for relief 
work in France, where the sacrifice has been so splendid and 
uncomplaining, and where the need is so great. Since the formation 
of the Society, two months after the outbreak of war, a sum amount- 
ing to well over $5,000 has been sent for this work. This has been 
made possible owing to the fact that all entertainments have been 
conducted at a minimum of expense as it has always been a point 
with the Society that all stage properties should be either home- 
made or borrowed, keeping in view as far as possible their motto 
"Everything for Nothing"! 

While other parts of France have received contributions, the 
province of Brittany has been the chief care of the Society. Miser- 
ably poor even in times of peace, this province has suffered greatly 
since the war, and provision to succour the great number of refugees 
Belgian and French the wounded, and the widows and orphans 
has been far from adequate. Monsieur Paul Bellamy, the Mayor 
of Nantes, the largest city in Brittany, a man whose integrity and 
judgment are of more than local reputation, has been made the 
distributing agent for the funds forwarded by the Franco-British 
Aid Society. He sends regularly a formal acknowledgment of these 
funds and later an account of their distribution. In the newspapers 
of Nantes are given detailed statements of the disbursement of 
charity funds, and among these the contributions of the Franco- 
British Aid Society of Toronto appear. 



M. VESNITCH'S SPEECH 311 

Relief work has been carried on among the destitute families of 
the "poilus", the "grands blesseV', and now the blinded soldiers 
and the hospital and school for the re-education of the blind recently 
opened at La Persagotiere are also recipients of our contributions. 
The Belgian refugees of whom there are a large number in Brittany 
have received a large share of the donations of the Society, which 
have been acknowledged in a letter of thanks from King Albert. 

In addition to money, boxes of clothing and surgical dressings 
have been sent to the refugees and wounded. Several hundred 
pairs of socks have been forwarded direct to the French soldiers in 
the trenches in France and Serbia. In each case, acknowledgment 
of safe arrival has been received. In the many letters of thanks 
full of appreciation that is pathetically grateful, a splendid spirit of 
hope and courage is revealed. In spite of suffering and privation, 
of loss of home and kindred, of hardships due to insufficient food, 
clothing and medical supplies, that these noble "poilus" have 
undergone and are yet to undergo, "ils sont certains de la Victoire; 
la France soutiendra heroiquement jusqu'au bout la lutte pour le 
droit et la Iibert6, et justement parce qu'elle combat pour cette 
noble cause, elle ne peut pas tre vaincue"! 

BEATRICE M. EMBREE. 



M. VESNITCH'S SPEECH 

[A translation from the Journal des Dbats, of an address at 
Paris, February 9th, 1917, under the auspices of the Committee 
'TEffort de la France et de Ses Allies", by the Serbian Minister 
to France and Belgium. Made by Miss Ruth Robertson, B.A. 
'12.] 

HIS Excellency M. Vesnitch, Serbian Minister to France and 
Belgium expressed his deep gratitude to MM. Stephen 
Pichon and Paul Labbe who had organised the meeting, 
to M. Edmond Pervier, member of the Institute, who was in the 
chair, and to the speaker of the evening, M. Joseph Reinach, for 
their friendship for Serbia. 

"How," he said, "am I to thank M. Joseph Reinach, who is and 
has been for some time one of the busiest men in Paris? Serbia was, 



312 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

if I may so express it, his first love. It was not difficult for him 
to speak to you to-day of my country, of his sorrow concerning it in 
the past and his hopes for it in the future. His unwavering affection 
is dear to all my fellow countrymen, and, dear friends, I am very 
glad to express to you here all our gratitude. 

"Do not forget, I beg, that in speaking of the Serbs, you must 
always take the term in its broadest sense. It does not only 
include the citizens of the kingdom of Serbia as it existed before 
the war, but also the Serbs who lived outside this kingdom, as the 
Croats and the Slovenes. It is not as the official representative of 
Serbia that I ask you to accept this definition. I simply re-echo 
the wish of all those Serbs, Croats and Slovenes, natives of all the 
regions inhabited by our race, whose claims unite and form one 
single demand 'Union and Liberty'. Our forbears formed but 
one race when they lived in the different countries to which they 
had migrated fifteen centuries ago. We are determined to remain 
united in this time of stress and we wish to remain united in the 
glorious and prosperous future in which we trust. 

"Serbia, as she was regarded before the war, only plays among 
the countries of Europe, the r61e formerly assigned to the He de 
France in your country or to Piedmont in the Italy of to-day. 

Notice again that, situated between the Danube and the 
Adriatic and Aegean Seas, the people of the Serbian race have 
found themselves since their earliest history compromised, so to 
speak, between the two distinct worlds of Rome and Byzantium 
which represented two very different things. Rome for us was 
represented by the Germans and the Magyars. Byzantium was 
quickly replaced by the Turks. For fifteen centuries we fought for 
our national existence Primum vivere against foes all the more 
terrible because they often united against us. Our zeal for our 
national individuality brought upon us the gallows under Turkish 
and Magyar domination, the stake under the Ottoman yoke and 
the galley and dungeon under Venetian rule. Thus it was that the 
attention of all Serbs, Croats and Slovenes was directed toward 
that country covered with oaks which we call Chou madia, to the 
native land of Karageorge, on that memorable day in 1804, when 
that glorious son of our people unfurled the standard of liberty. 

No political or administrative dissension, and you know we have 
not been spared these, has been able to undermine the moral unity of 
our race. 



M. VESNITCH'S SPEECH 313 

The most energetic and resolute representatives of our nation, 
in whatever reign they were born, have soon left their homes and 
families, sometimes with the consent of their parents, more often 
on their own responsibility, and taken the road to Belgrade, where 
had been lighted the torch of Serbian liberty. 

This serves to explain how the new Serbian State was enabled to 
possess at the beginning of the nineteenth century an organisation 
relatively modern, and an outburst of literary and artisti'c genius, 
when only one inhabitant out of every 1,000 could read or write. 
All the southern Slavonic countries, or as we say, Yougo-Slavs, 
instinctively and enthusiastically united to build up their country. 
You might cite as many examples as you wish of this historical fact. 
The tutors of the young princes of Serbia were for the most part 
Dalmatian Catholics. The men who built up the Serbian State 
came often from countries under foreign domination. A few years 
ago when I was asked to contribute to an English article on Serbia, 
a paper which dealt with our diplomatic service, I was forced to 
state that only one of our ambassadors was a native of this country, 
and that all the others came from countries under foreign rule. 
The most striking of these instances is perhaps that of our national 
hymn, which was written by a Serb of Hungary, put to music by a 
Slovene, and was never better sung than by a famous Dalmatian. 
As the national unity of the Yougo-Slavs was now firmly established 
in our hearts, if not on the map, the decisive victory of the Serbian 
army over the Turks at Koumanovo in the autumn of 1912 was 
nowhere received with greater joy than in such cities as Loubliana, 
Spalato, Cibenicho, or Serajevo, which are under foreign govern- 
ment. This spontaneous enthusiasm was for the moment fatal 
to us. It gave the Austro-Germans an opportunity to hurry on 
their warlike preparations and it served as a pretext for that 
memorable meeting some months before the war between the 
Emperor of Germany, Archduke Francis-Ferdinand, General von 
Moltke and Admiral von Tirpitz. It was also to cope with this 
patriotism of the Yougo-Slavs that the Archduke was sent to 
Sarajevo, where he was to meet that strange death which served as 
a pretext for the great uprising. 

Devastated by the frightful war, divided by foreign masters who 
made our race on the one side martyred hostages and on the other 
unwilling soldiers, we have never been more united than during 
these days of stress. The stand made by our soldiers on the Balkan 
front and in the Dobroudja has amazed all beholders. But there 






314 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

was something unwitnessed the heroism of those men and women 
whom the Austro-Hungarian authorities imprisoned while the 
young men were sent to certain death. Crushed by a superior 
force, cut off from all communication with the Allies, they suffered 
willingly privation and even torture. 

This spectacle of a desperate resistance is so terrible that we 
are forced to ask why our compatriots willingly bore such frightful 
suffering. It is because we all wish to be at last our own masters. 
We have reached the point where the detested foreign yoke can 
no longer be borne. We love our liberty and our independence 
more than our lives and property. 

Believe me, these are not idle words. For centuries our race 
has fought for religious autonomy and for political independence. 
Ever since this small centre of freedom was formed, the whole race 
has laboured to create a complete intellectual independence, in 
order to spread as soon as possible the benefits of modern civilisation. 
This effort was accomplished spontaneously, each branch of the race 
co-operating with the others, without planning together however, 
which would have been often very dangerous. We succeeded in 
this way in founding a scientific culture and we can affirm with 
pride that there is now a Yougo-Slavic science, as there is a Yougo- 
Slavic literature. The differences which divide us, be they funda- 
mental as the idea of religion or more superficial as differences of 
writing, have in no way affected this result and will never affect it. 

United in suffering, united also in devotion to the Allies' cause, 
we wish to be united from now on in a national State, as free as 
any other state, large or small, of the civilised world. The principle 
of equality is so profoundly rooted in us that in some cases the ruler 
himself is bound by the same obligations as is the least of his 
subjects. Every Serb, and the English as well as the French 
have felt the truth of this, considers himself a gentleman, that is, 
he recognises no human being as socially or legally his superior. 
We have the same conception of equality or right in international 
relations as in our national existence. Certainly our country has 
been invaded like Belgium and Roumania. Its soil has been 
desecrated by Bulgars and Germans. But our honour is un- 
touched. 

M. Joseph Reinach has pictured to you our tragic retreat from 
Albania and how our soldiers, reduced to mere shadows after the 
disembarkation at Corfou, were nursed back to life by the generous 
help of our Allies. He has told you how, strengthened and re- 



M. VESNITCH'S SPEECH 315 

equipped, these men who seemed to come from the beyond, pulled 
themselves together and forced the enemy to withdraw to Kaimakt- 
chalan, replying to the energetic call of the French general com- 
manding the Eastern army and of Prince Alexander of Serbia. 
What is the cause of such unprecedented endurance, which sus- 
tained through such suffering the morale of our officers and men? 

It is faith in the justice of our national cause, it is confidence 
in our great Allies who from the outbreak of the war have inscribed 
on their banners the liberation of oppressed peoples. The Entente 
considers the principle of nationality as the basis of future Europe 
the President of the great American republic took this stand. The 
note of reply of the Allies is the basis of our hopes and will be the 
charter of humanity, as M. Steed, the great English journalist, 
so well expressed it the other day. When you consider, you see well 
that it could not be otherwise. France is a member of the great 
Alliance. The titans who have engraved in the soul of all peoples 
the principles of their great Revolution and who have written in the 
great book of humanity Liberty, Equality, Fraternity have 
wished to make these principles, commandments and guarantees 
as efficacious for whole peoples as for individuals. Europe has 
required a century to assimilate these ideas, and Germany in 1914 
had not yet understood them, but the soldiers of Joffre, of Nivelle, 
of French, of Douglas Haig, of Broussilof, of Cadorna, of Leman, 
of Averesco, of Sarrail and of Boiovitch carry on the heroic work 
of Lafayette, of Carnot, of Kellermann, of Gourko, of Garibaldi 
and of Karageorge. 

It is a heavy task, but it must be accomplished. Peace will not 
be assured until the day when states will be formed everywhere on 
the basis of free consent of all citizens, recognised as equal before the 
law, irrespective of their territorial importance. The brotherhood 
of nations, dreamed of by Leon Bourgeois and by President Wilson 
will not have birth except by the union of liberty and equality. It 
is on this condition only that we shall be able to devote ourselves 
to the work of reconstruction, of rebuilding our homes and our 
country for the good of all humanity. Into this untroubled and 
more fruitful future, the men of my race will carry a debt which 
they owe to you, a debt which Serbia will never forget. 



BOOK REVIEWS 



Report of Conference of the Civic Improvement League of Canada, held 
in Ottawa on January 20th, 1916. Pp. 73. Commission 
of Conservation, Ottawa. 1916. 

Each succeeding census of the Dominion of Canada has shown 
a larger percentage of its people living in cities and a smaller 
percentage in the rural districts. This phenomenon is practically 
universal in those countries which are inhabited by Europeans and 
their descendants. Many of the wisest of mankind have believed, 
many still believe, that it involves the decline and degeneracy of 
the race. Down to the latter half of the nineteenth century, at 
least, the cities were the graveyard of population. The lack of 
proper sanitation, the unchecked transmission of infectious diseases 
amid a crowded population, the defective food and water supply, 
the lack of fresh air and exercise, were the chief causes of a death 
rate which usually exceeded the birth rate. City population, down 
to 1850, had continually to be reinforced by fresh drafts upon the 
country districts. 

In the past half century sanitation has made great progress, 
and the inspection of the water, meat and milk supply of cities has 
saved the lives of millions. Many cities are now as healthy as the 
countryside itself. London, for example, has a death rate which is 
below rather than above the average rate for the United Kingdom. 
The city, though much remains to be done, is becoming the nursery 
of population. Of the city of the future one will be able to say 
with Aristotle, "The city exists for the sake of life." 

Life, however, is in itself an unimportant matter. The city 
must, like Aristotle's, go farther and promote "the good life". 
How are cities to promote the good life? By town planning, by 
better housing, by improving municipal government, by preventing 
unemployment and distress among the citizens, by education. 
Such were the answers given to this question at the first meeting 
of the Civic Improvement League of Canada held in Ottawa in 
January 1916, This League, in which a considerable number of our 
graduates are taking a prominent part, is deserving of the warmest 
support of every Canadian. 

S. A. CUDMORE. 
[316] 



BOOK REVIEWS 317 

Bourru, soldat de Vauquois, par JEAN DES VIGNES ROUGES, Paris, 
1916. 

This is another powerfully written war story, somewhat like 
Gaspard which was reviewed in the March number of the MONTHLY. 
Louis Bourru is a peasant from Burgundy whose regiment was 
engaged for months in the dreadful contests waged with the Boches 
for the possession of the hill of Vauquois. Before the war Vauquois 
was a little, picturesque and very ancient village whose first 
inhabitants were of feudal times, who had been attracted by the 
dominant situation of the place. It lies in the Meuse, some twenty 
kilometers north-west of Verdun, not remote from Montfaucon, 
and after the battle of the Marne became the centre of hot fighting 
between the French and Germans. 

Bourru is the calm, proud man of the fields, too proud to ask for 
a "soft" place in the service; he is a Burgundian peasant and as a 
civilian knows only how to cultivate his fields and vines; as a soldier 
he knows only the business of fighting; it is a sort of pride with him. 
Down in the bottom of his heart he would not be sorry to be a 
teamster, for he loves horses, but so many are intriguing for such 
work that he prefers to abstain. And the consciousness of absten- 
tion affords him great satisfaction. Fortunately the Bourru type 
of men predominates in the army. They are people who are not 
too resourceful, but are clear-headed, unselfish and solid in character. 

Bourru is not afraid when the bullets whistle and the shells burst, 
but he has a clear perception of the danger to which he is exposed. 
He would like to live he is anxious to live with all the strength 
stored up in his blood by generations of healthy ancestors. But he 
keeps his body under control, although it is constantly urging him 
to flee. It is his body which keeps his soul uneasy and wakes him 
up in the morning. But he reproaches his poor, old carcass for its 
lack of comprehension. It cannot understand why he (Bourru) is 
there in the muddy trenches amidst shot and shell and he cannot 
explain to it the reasons. All he can do is to hold it down and make 
it fight. 

The modesty of Bourru is admirable. What he has done does 
not astonish him. He is willing to yield the opportunity to talk to 
any other who may come along. He does his "stunt" to the best 
of his ability, but he never thinks of playing the r61e of a hero. He 
knows that the soldiers have been called heroes by the newspapers, 
but then, you know, journalists must be talking and using big 
words. 



318 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

One of the charming things is what might be called the religious 
atmosphere in which Bourru and his companions move. It is a 
very simple kind of religion. There is no argument, nothing is said 
regarding doubts. It is no religion of lofty cathedral or of imposing 
ceremony. Obedience to duty, kindness to companions, respect 
for the dead, are the things that rule and they are very impressive. 
Bourru likes to dream about his comrades who sleep their last sleep 
where they fell, doing their duty. They are not far away. He 
thinks pf the sermons of the old cure at home in Burgundy who used 
to preach the doctrine of the communion of the dead and of the 
living and he feels, as he had never felt, the truth of the doctrine. 
He says to his fallen comrades: "Sleep on in peace, we shall avenge 
you" ; and the comrades from their graves stretch forth their hands 
as if making signs of friendship and encouragement. j. s. 



SNOW DIAMONDS 

As I walked over the beautiful snow 

One moon-lit night, 
And my heart was all aglow, 

And my step was light, 
It was then with a sudden surprise 
That I gazed in the diamond eyes 

Of my new-found love, 

From above; 
Drank in bliss from her dazzling eyes. 

Then she hid at the feet of the pines, 

And her eyes she closed ; 
But I traced the graceful lines, 

As she softly reposed. 
It was then, in the ardent guise 
Of a lover who seeks his love's eyes, 

That I sought them there; 

In despair, 
Sought again for those glittering eyes. 

Then I knelt at her feet, all subdued, 

And my blood ceased to flow; 
And I trembled as I woo'd. 

But she said me, No! 
All in vain were my amorous sighs, 
But her bright-sparkling, love-laden eyes 

Searched my very heart 

With a start, 
I discovered her love in her eyes! 

And my soul in that moment of bliss 

Was lost to me quite. 
And I longed for love's pure kiss 

That beautiful night. 
But a loving and true look and wise 
She impulsively flashed from her eyes, 

As if warning me, 

Tenderly, 

Not to trust e'en her soft, pleading eyes. 
[319] 



320 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Naught could check then my passionate haste, 

And with fiery breath 
Then I kissed her, and embraced 

Something cold as death ! 
Oh! my pitiful, pitiful cries, 
As forever she closed her bright eyes! 

And at last I could see, 

Tearfully, 
I had put out my love's diamond eyes! 

J. B. HAMMOND. 



SURREY, 1916 

Beside the fresh and fragrant green of rolling meadowland, 

The silent stream with rushing current swirls along its course: 

O'erhead, the lemon-coloured heav'n displays a delicate pink band 

Of lacy cloudlets, soft and warm: on earth, broad clumps of gorse 

Add striking hues to nature's fading evening twilight scene; 

A rising mist enshrouds the distant prospect of the hill 

And blends the blue of dark'ning sky with foliage of green: 

A heavy hush is felt around, and every leaf is still. 

A peaceful summer night is closing in on field and stream ; 

The dying sun still lingers in a dull and spreading glow 

Which slowly fades, and leaves the west, one broken, fainting gleam. 

A solitary star peeps out above a hilltop low. 

This quiet English countryside is stirred by no alarms 

Of war and tumult, grim and dire, which curse a neighbour's land; 

The Surrey summer evening seems remote from clash of arms 

Or seismic throb of mine and gun, as some Pacific strand: 

Yet leagues, a score or two alone, suffice to dumb the sound 

That rises, rolls, reverberates from Flanders' stricken plain, 

Where many of Surrey's fallen sons enrich the hallowed ground. 

That sombre graveyard long will feel the stabs of tearing pain 

Before a twilight, sweet, serene and homely, shrouds its scars. 

But sometimes, through the quiet leaps the shock from shore to 

shore, 

The superthund'rous mammoth guns hurl distant subtle jars 
Which, faintly sensed by English ears, proclaim the world at war. 

CLIVE CARRUTHERS, B.A. '12. 



TORONTONENSIA 



The President of the University of Toronto has sent a letter 
to all the graduates resident in the United States, with greetings 
on behalf of the University now that the United States has defin- 
itely entered the war and taken her stand along with us for the 
maintenance of free democracy and righteousness in modern 
civilisation. 

The Convocation and closing exercises of the 
Knox College 73rd session of Knox College were held on 

April 10th in the College Chapel. Principal 

Gandier paid high tribute to the many graduates and students 
who had enlisted for active service overseas. He gave especial 
praise to Captain William Beattie, Chaplain of the 40th Northum- 
berland Regiment and a graduate of Knox College, who went 
overseas with the first contingent and received the order of C.M.G. 
from his Majesty the King, and upon whom the Senate of the 
College had conferred the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity 
last fall. Thirteen graduates were presented for diplomas by the 
Reverend J. A. Turnbull. The degree of Bachelor of Divinity 
was conferred on six graduates, and the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
was conferred on the Reverend James Webster Mitchell, M.A., 
and the Reverend Cheng Ching-yi, Secretary of the Chinese Con- 
tinuation Committee. The Reverend J. W. Mitchell has given 
long and useful service and is still carrying on the ministry under 
rigorous conditions in the Mattawan district. The Reverend 
Cheng Ching-yi, who received the degree of D.D. in absentia is 
doing splendid work among the Chinese people. The Reverend 
W. A. Sedgwick of Hamilton addressed the graduating class. 

On April llth Wycliffe College held its 

Wycliffe College annual Convocation. The honorary degree 
of Doctor of Divinity was conferred on the 

Primate of All Canada, the Most Reverend S. P. Matheson, 
Archbishop of Rupertsland; the Bishop of Toronto, the Right 
Reverend James F. Sweeny; and the Reverend Edward C. Acheson, 
Bishop-Suffragan of Connecticut, U.S. The Reverend Professor 

[321] 



322 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Cotton also received the degree of Doctor of Divinity. The degree 
of Bachelor of Divinity was conferred on three graduates and 
President N. W. Hoyles presented diplomas to thirteen members 
of the graduating class. 

To celebrate the closing of the Tenth Session 
Education ^ ^ e Faculty of Education, a reunion, which 

took the form of a dinner, was held in the 

Faculty of Education on April 10th. The speakers were President 
Falconer, Principal Hutton, Dr. Waugh, Dean Pakenham, Professor 
Crawford, and the Reverend Mr. N. Willison, '07-08. About one 
hundred and fifty attended the dinner and the consensus of opinion 
was that the reunion was an eminent success and should be made an 
annual affair. 

During Easter week, Professor Sandiford of the Faculty of 
Education was the principal speaker at the Saskatchewan Educa- 
tional Association Convention held at Regina. Audiences ranging 
from 600 to 2,000 attended the meetings. 

The annual meeting of the University College 
Ai n umnae y College Alumnae Association was held on April llth, 

1917. The President, Dr. C. C. Benson, was 

in the chair. Mrs. Pakenham in a very interesting paper on 
"Occupations" told of the many vocations now open to women. 
Miss McKelvey spoke on the work of the University Settlement 
where thirty-four graduates are volunteer workers. Miss A. M. 
Young's report on the First-Aid and Home Nursing courses was 
read by Miss Laura Mason and Mrs. D. Wilson of Parkhill spoke 
on "Women's Use of the Vote". 

The following officers were elected by acclamation: President, 
Miss Alice Willson; Vice-Presidents, MissSealey, Miss Mona Mc- 
Laughlin, Miss Whyte of Ottawa, and Mrs. D. Wilson of Parkhill; 
Recording Secretary, Miss Christina Cooper; Corresponding 
Secretary, Miss Ruth Robertson; Assistant Corresponding Secre- 
tary, Miss Marjorie Read; Treasurer, Miss Middleton; Treasurer 
of the House Committee, Miss Jessie Reade; Historian, Miss Kate 
Stewart; Auditors, Miss Patterson and Miss Gall. 

Victoria College At t ^ ie annua l meeting of the Alumnae 

Alumnae Association of Victoria College, held recently, 

the following officers for the year 1917-18 

were elected: Honorary President, Mrs. Burwash; President, Miss 
L. Ockley; First Vice-President, Miss E. Bowes; Second Vice- 



TORONTONENSIA 323 

President, Mrs. King; Secretary-Treasurer, Miss R. E. Spence; 
Corresponding Secretary, Miss Eva Dunlop; Representatives, Miss 
Addison, Mrs. Auger, Miss Lilian Smith. 

. . The annual dinner of the University of 

Toronto Alumni Toronto Club of the City of New York was 



hdd at the Yale Club n the evenin of 
March 29th. The number of alumni pre- 

sent was unusually large, the arrangements were perfect, and the 
meeting was in every respect one to be remembered. 

President Falconer presented greetings from the alma mater and 
outlined the work undertaken and done by the University and her 
alumni in relation to the war. His speech was received with proud 
enthusiasm. 7 Professor Giddings of Columbia University spoke 
effectively on the duty of the United States in this crisis in human 
affairs, insisting that there was but one issue and that there was 
but one decision that should be reached. Professor DeLury, in the 
absence of Dr. Abbott, who has in hand the problem of organising 
the alumni, indicated what was to be expected from a closer bond 
between the University and those who had gone out from her halls. 
Mr. Paul S. Cravath, an outstanding member of the New York Bar, 
spoke interestingly of a recent visit to England and to the lines on 
the western front, and Mr. Barrows, editor of the Wall Street 
Journal, dwelt on the moral gain that comes to the individual 
through the discharge of a high duty. General Woods of the 
United States army was unable to come to the dinner, but was 
represented by his aide (Major Halstead Dorey), who revealed the 
"good soldier" as he spoke of regretted war. 

The thanks of the meeting were given to the speakers and to the 
President, Dr. Snyder and the Secretary, Mr. Barclay for the care 
taken to assure a successful meeting. 

At the annual meeting of the New York Alumni on April 26th, 
C. V. Campbell, B.A. (V.) '90, was elected President for the coming 
year. 

On Friday evening, April 13th, Mr. Edgar 
Belgian Relief Rickard and Mrs. C. Kellog spoke at Convo- 

cation Hall at the invitation of the Belgian 

Relief Committee of this city. This is a branch of relief work in 
which the engineers have done splendid work and many of them 
were glad of the opportunity to hear Mr. Rickard who is himself 
an engineer and until 1916 was business manager of the Mining 



324 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Magazine. Since that time he has been in hearty co-operation with 
Mr. Hoover in his beneficent undertaking and is at present assistant 
to the Director of the American Organisation of the Commission 
in New York. Mr. Rickard told of the noble work done under the 
direction of Mr. Herbert Hoover for the relief of the Belgians. 
Mrs. C. Kellogg, American Member of the Belgian Commission, 
also described graphically the heroism of the women of Belgium 
at their work in the soup kitchens and in the halls where they 
bravely sang the old folk-songs as they sewed. 



Patriotic Work ^ e following is a report of the patriotic 

by the Women work of the women of the University of 

of the University Toronto, October 1916 to March 1917. 
oi 1 oronto 

Money subscribed and collected, $3,007.02; 

socks knitted for the University Base Hospital, 569; other socks and 
knitted articles, 1,825; overseas boxes, 798; hours of work (approxi- 
mately) 2,291; scrap-books, 65; comfort kits, 40; enrolment in 
V.A.D. and Home Nursing courses 49; enrolment in agricultural 
work during the vacation, 151; enrolment for military hospital 
dietitians' work, 24; total enrolment of women in the colleges and 
departments included in this report, 901. 

University College Enrolment of women, 346. 
The women of University College have given approximately 
2,201 hours to Re'd Cross work, most of which has been done in the 
workrooms of the University Base Hospital Association. They 
have knit 2,324 pairs of socks and other woollen articles, of which 
522 were for the Base Hospital. Thirty-five women were enrolled 
in V.A.D. and Home Nursing courses, and fifty have enlisted for 
agricultural work during the summer. Money has been raised to 
the amount of $1,138.40, of which $198.20 was collected in monthly 
subscriptions, $246.00 given by college societies, and $694.20 
subscribed to the patriotic funds raised by the whole University. 

Victoria College Enrolment of women, 193. 
During the college year the Victoria women have raised money 
for patriotic purposes in the following ways: Collections, $353.00; 
patriotic tea-room, $163.87; ITS Play, $40.00; Ladies' Choral Club 
$140.00; total $696.87. Besides this, 697 boxes were sent overseas 
and 572 pairs of socks were knitted, 85 pairs of which were sent 
through the Victoria Red Cross. The women also made forty 
scrap-books to be sent to hospitals at the front. Three women took 



TORONTONENSIA 325 

the V.A.D. course during the Michaelmas term and sixty have 
offered their services for agricultural work during the summer. 

St. Hilda's Enrolment of women, 46. 

The women of St. Hilda's have raised money for Red Cross 
supplies by monthly subscriptions of ten cents each and by means 
of a "waste-box" into which was put money saved by self-denial 
and fines for wastefulness. A considerable sum of money was 
contributed for patriotic purposes. The women kntted 179 pairs 
of socks of which forty-seven pairs were for the University Base 
Hospital. Six women took the V.A.D. course during the Michael- 
mas term and five took the Home Nursing course in the Easter 
term. Twenty-one have enlisted for agricultural work during 
the summer. 

St. Michael's College Enrolment of women, 55. 
The women of St. Michael's College, resident at St. Joseph's 
College and Loretto Abbey, have shown a special interest in the 
convalescent homes. This has been demonstrated by personal 
visits and gifts and by the furnishing of a ward in the hospital on 
College Street. By means of a dramatic performance, a musical, 
a pageant, and a patriotic tea, they have collected $430.50 which, 
with $47.90 handed over to the University patriotic funds, makes 
a total contribution of $478.40. They have made 171 knitted 
articles, 15 overseas boxes, 25 scrap-books, and 40 comfort kits, in 
addition to sending overseas every month magazines and papers. 

Faculty of Medicine Enrolment of women, 37. 
The senior years at the Faculty of Medicine by doing extra 
work and attending a summer session have succeeded in reducing 
the length of their course by one year. The women have therefore 
not organised for special patriotic work. Individual students, 
however, have knitted 36 pairs of socks, sent off 80 boxes to 
soldiers overseas, and spent approximately ninety hours in Red 
Cross work. They also have subscribed altogether $106.37 in the 
campaigns organised by the University. 

Faculty of Education Enrolment of women, 224. 

The Red Cross Society at the Faculty of Education during the 

past year has raised funds by monthly subscriptions from students, 

the presentation of a student play twice, and a special candy sale. 

Their total receipts were $259.23. The following Red Cross 



326 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

supplies have been made: 20 pairs of pyjamas, 40 wash-cloths, 38 
hot-water bag covers, 50 pillow-slips, 10 pairs of slippers, 10 trench 
caps, 85 pairs of socks, 27 amputation bandages, 26 packages of 
small bandages. This report does not include work which is still 
incomplete. 

The Women Students' Council, which represents all the women 
of the University, has organised two patriotic collections during the 
year 1916-17. By a tag day $327.92 was raised for the wives of 
British sailors on the high seas and for the guard at the internment 
camp at Kapuskasing. The "Two-and-a-Half Million Campaign" 
for the Red Cross and Patriotic Funds was conducted among the 
University women by their Council, and resulted in the subscription 
of $676.45, of which $539.95 was actually collected at the time. 

Among inter-college organisations mention should be made of 
the Dramatic Club which has allocated to patriotic purposes 
$100.00 of the proceeds from the performances of "The School for 
Scandal", besides repeating the play twice for the benefit of 
patriotic organisations. 

University Mrs. F. N. G. Starr, Honorary Treasurer of 

Hospital Supply the University Hospital Supply Association, 

reports the receipt of $6,602.56 since the 

statement published March 31st. This includes $4,000.00 the 
result of an appeal to the graduates of the University of Toronto, 
$1,410.84 from the Ontario Society for the Reformation of Ine- 
briates, $140.00 from Victoria College Ladies' Choral Club. 

Mrs. Kenrick, Convener of the Packing Committee, reports 
that during the month of April, 53 cases were packed composed of: 
912 pairs of pyjamas, 162 day shirts, 144 caps, 988 pairs of socks, 
45 dressing gowns, 126 surgical shirts, 54 laparotomy stockings, 
378 miscellaneous articles. 

These were all forwarded to the Canadian Red Cross Society, 
excepting 630 pairs of socks which were sent to the Canadian Field 
Comforts' Commission for the use of the men in the trenches. 



TORONTONENSIA 



327 



PERSONALS 



An important part of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the faculties. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
11 The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 

Protessor J. C. McLennan has been 
attached to the Board of Inventions 
and Research of the Admiralty of which 
Lord Fisher is chairman and is going to 
England to attend to his duties. 

Professor A. B. Macallum has been 
appointed a Member of the American 
Philosophical Society of Philadelphia. 
This Society is one of the oldest of 
American learned societies, having 
been founded by Benjamin Franklin. 

William Pakenham, Dean of the 
Faculty of Education, has been elected 
President of the Ontario Educational 
Association. 

George P. Sylvester, M.B. (T.) 75, 
of Toronto, is to examine Chinese 
coolies for the French Government. 

George H. Locke, B.A. (V.) '93, 
M.A., has been elected a Fellow of the 
Library Institute of America. 

James D. Curtis, M.B. '94, of St. 
Thomas, has accepted a position on the 
Surgical Staff of the Ontario Work- 
men's Compensation Board. Dr. Cur- 
tis has recently returned from England 
where he served a year on the R.A.M.C. 

Colonel Perry G. Goldsmith, M.D., 
C.M. (T.) '96, is appointed President 
of the Officers' Standing Medical Board 
in England. 

Donald McFayden, B.A. (U.) '96, 
and R. O. Jolliffe, B.A. (U.) '97, two 
successive McCaul medallists, both 
received the degree of Ph.D. from the 
University of Chicago at the Convo- 
cation in September, 1916. 



The Reverend Arthur Newton St- 
John, B.A. (V.) '00, formerly of Bolton 
is now living at Thornbury. 

John Livingstone McPherson, B.A. 
(U.) '01, M.A. '03, who has been in 
charge of the Y.M.C.A. work at Hong 
Kong, China, is now on several months' 
furlough. His present address is the 
Central Y.M.C.A., Toronto. 

The Reverend S. B. G. Wright, B.A. 
(T.) '05, M.A. '06, has gone to Halifax 
as curate at All Saints' Cathedral. 

The Reverend John Lyons, B.A. 
(T,) '06, M.A. '07, has been appointed 
Rector of Elizabethtown, Lyn being his 
postoffice address. 

John B. Robinson, B.Paed. '06, has 
been appointed Inspector of Public 
Schools, Wentworth County, in the 
place of J. H. Smith, resigned. 

Miss Ethel MacRobert, B.A. (U.) 
'09, is in charge of the Ontario Govern- 
ment's new employment bureau in 
London. 

The present address of Reginald St. 
E. Murray, B.A. (T.) '11, M.B. '13, is 
495 East Santa Clara Street, San Jose, 
California. He is connected with the 
laboratories of the Columbia Hospital 
of San Jose. 

Miss Vera B. Kenny, B.A. (V.) '15, 
is on the staff of the Bradford High 
School. 

Miss Elsie Tighe, B.A. (U.) '15, is 
teaching classics in the Newmarket 
High School. 

Marriages 

BAILEY SALMON On April 4, 1917, 
at Toronto, the Reverend John 
Bailey, B.A. (U.) '95, M.A. '96, of 
Toronto, to Miss Emeline May 
Salmon. 

DYKES MCGREGOR On April 28, 
1917, at Trinity College Chapel, 
Toronto, Philip John Dykes, B.A. 
(T.) '13, of Toronto, to Miss Eva 
Leone McGregor, B.A. (T.) '11, of 
Fergus. 



328 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



GRIFFIN GRUNDY On April 10, 1917, 
at Toronto, Lieut. Selwyn Powell 
Griffin, Sig. Officer, Military Dis- 
trict, No. 5, B.A. (T.) '14, to Miss 
Elizabeth Maude Grundy. 

IWANAMI MOCHIDQUKI At the 

Oriental Home School, Victoria, 
B.C., Junkichi Iwanami, B.S.A. '12, 
the first Japanese student to receive 
the degree from the Ontario Agri- 
cultural College, to Miss Yae 
Mochidquki. Mr. Iwanami is at 
present engaged in the dairy business 
at 1721 Cook Street, Victoria, B.C. 

LLOYD LITTLE On April 4, 1917, at 
London, the Reverend Grover S. 
Lloyd, B.A. (U.) 13, M.A., '14, of 
Glencoe, to Miss Effie Pearl Little 
of In wood. 

MAHON McKEE On April 11, 1917, 
at Toronto, George W. Mahon of 
Toronto to Miss Kathryne E. Mc- 
Kee, B.A. (V.) '00. 

Deaths 

AKERS On April 21, 1917, at York- 
town, Va., Harry Goulding Akers, 
B.A.Sc. '09, of Toronto. 

BROWN On April 10, 1917, at Winni- 
peg, John Hislop Brown, B.A. (U.) 
'81, Deputy Registrar of Land 
Titles. 



GUMMING On April 9, 1917, at 
Washington, D.C., Montgomery 
Cumming, B.A. (U.) '69, LL.B. '73, 
clerk in the Division of Statistics of 
the Interstate Commerce Commis- 
sion. For several years after his 
graduation from the University of 
Toronto, Mr. Cumming was Pro- 
fessor of Physics at the University of 
Georgia. 

DAVISON In April 1917, at Toronto, 
John L Davison, B.A. (U.) '80, 
M.D., C.M. '84. 

FIELD In October 1916, George Aug- 
ustus Field, B.A. (T.) '97, M.A. '98. 

MEARNS On April 22, 1917, at 
Birmingham, Ala., John Mearns, 
M.D. (V.) '69, of Woodstock. 

SCOTT On February 11, 1917, at 
Carleton Place, the Reverend Alex- 
ander Armstrong Scott, B.A. (U.) 
'74, M.A. '76. 

SPARKS On April 10, 1917, at St. 
Mary's, Thomas Sparks, M.B. '67. 

WILSON On April 20, 1917, at 
Ottumwa, Iowa, John B. Wilson, 
M.D., C.M. (T.) '97, formerly of 
Harriston. 



The Royal Flying Corps have taken on a large number of young men for the 
Cadet Wing of the Corps to be trained as Flying Officers. Men between the 
ages of 18 and 25, who are athletic and have some knowledge of gasoline motors, 
etc., are particularly desired. 

The Aero Club of Canada is assisting the Royal Flying Corps in procuring 
candidates. Information may be had by addressing the Secretary, The Aero 
Club of Canada, Room 99 Sun Life Building, Toronto. 



VOL XVII. TORONTO, JUNE. 1917. No. 9 




THE ROLL OF HONOUR 



KILLED IN ACTION OR DIED OF WOUNDS. 
Private Robert Wade Smith; Applied Science, 1898. 
Gunner Charles Edward Harrop; Applied Science, 1917. 
Second Lieutenant Jeffrey McVicker Strathy; B.A.Sc., 

1914. 

Lieutenant Harold R. Scott; Education, 1916. 
Private Thomas Edward Govenlock; Education, 1912. 
Private Harry Erland Lee; Education, 1908. 
Private William -Lionel Charlton; Education, 1913. 
Private Hugh Lloyd Hughes; Education, 1912. 
Lieutenant Cecil Victor Perry, M.C. ; B.A.Sc., 1914. 
Lieutenant Gordon Mackenzie Pearce; Applied Science, 

1918. 

Private Walter Henry Cooper; Trinity College, 1889. 
Lieutenant Colonel Russell H. Britton; University College, 

1905. 
Second Lieutenant Robert Blaney McGuire; Dental 

College, 1918. 

Lieutenant James Cuthbert Hartney ; B.A.Sc., 1907. 
Lieutenant Valentine Ralph Pfrimmer; Applied Science, 

1916. 
Captain Webster Henry Fanning Harris; Trinity College, 

1907-09. 
Lance-Corporal Sidney James Luck; Victoria College, 

1915-16. 

Corporal Douglas Dickson; Victoria College, 1915-16. 
Gunner Harold Lament Longworthy; Applied Science, 

1917. 
Second Lieutenant Basil Lancelot Cumpston; B.A., 

Trinity College, 1915. 

Captain William J. Withrow; Applied Science, 1890. 
Lance-Corporal Edward Clarence Morgan; Education, 

1915. 

[329] 



330 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Lieutenant Russell Williams; University College, 1919. 
Second Lieutenant Gordon Parsons Davidson; B.A.Sc., 

1915. (Missing, believed killed). 
Captain William Teasdale Hall; B.A.Sc., 1915. 
Lieutenant Harold Edward Bridge; Trinity College, 1915. 
Lieu tenant Frederick Charles Peppiatt; University College. 
Gunner Albert Von Holt Michell; Applied Science, 1919. 
Lieutenant Harry Reid Nicholson; Applied Science, 1917. 
Flight Sub-Lieutenant Hugh Douglas Macintosh Wallace, 

B.A.Sc., 1914. 
Lance-Corporal Rupert Elwyn Rivers; Medicine, 1917, 

(In June, 1916). 
William Percy Richings; Victoria College, 1917. 

ACCIDENTALLY KILLED. 
Lieutenant Thomas William Parker Peacock; M.B., 1917. 

DIED ON ACTIVE SERVICE. 
Captain Adam Peden Chalmers; M.D., C.M., 1892. 



MISSING. 

Flight-Lieutenant H. S. Murton; B.A., U.C., 1907. 
Second Lieutenant L. Snyder; U.C., 1918. 
Second Lieutenant S. B. Johnston; U.C., 1919. 
Flight Sub-Lieutenant A. E. Cuzner; B.A. (U.C.) 1915, 

For. 1917. 

Lieutenant A. Holmes, U.C. '1915, Wycl. 
Lieutenant A. S. Buorinot; B.A., Trin. and U.C., 1915. 

WOUNDED. 

Lieut. R. S. Stone, U.C. 1917. 
Lieut. G. T. Evans, U.C. 1917. 
Sec.-Lieut. G. V. Laughton, U.C. 1919. 
Lieut. C. G. M. Purchas, App. Sc., 1917. 
Sergt. J. R. Mutchmor, B.A. (U.C.) 1913. 
Sec.-Lieut. H. M. Gardiner, U.C. 1917. 
Gnr. R. A. Carson, Med. 1920. 
Lieut. H. T. Major, U.C. 1919. 



MEMBERS OF THE UNIVERSITY 331 

Gnr. T. V. McCarthy, App. Sc. 1913. 

Sergt. F. G. Mabson, Vic. 1914-15. 

Lieut. S. H. Pepler, App. Sc. 1918. 

Lieut. K. Y. Sinclair, Med. 1919. 

Lieut. G. M. Eraser, Med. 1919. 

Lieut. N. F. Parkinson, M.A.Sc. 1913. 

Lieut. G. M. Hamilton, App. Sc. 1912. 

Sec.-Lieut. F. Mitchell, For. 1917. 

Lieut. C. E. Hill, Med. 1918. 

Sub-Lieut. F. L. Morton, U.C. 1917. 

Gnr. J. R. Chapman, B.A.Sc. 1916. 

Sec.-Lieut. R. H. Lloyd, B.A.Sc. 1915. 

Sergt. R. C. Paul, For. 1918. 

Lieut. N. J. Macdonald, B.A. (U.C.) 1912. 

Lieut. G. M. Huycke, Vic. 1917. 

Lieut. K. H. Saunders, U.C. 1917. 

Lieut. W. S. Duncan, Med. 1920. 

Lieut. A. S. Robertson, B.A. (U.C.) 1915. 

Lieut. N. A. Keys, B.A. (U.C.) 1912. 

Lieut. L. L. Matchet, D.D.S. 1910. 

Sec.-Lieut. W. Porter, Med. 1920. 

Bdr. C. W. Edmonds, App. Sc. 1916. 

Lieut. P. L. Barber, Ed. 1916. 

Lieut. A. D. Gray, U.C. 1918. 

Spr. W. M. Philp, B.A.Sc. 1915. 

Lieut. T. R. Buchanan, B.A.Sc. 1913. 

Bdr. J. B. Symington, Med. 1919. 

Gnr. R. A. Macdonald, B.A.Sc. 1916. 

Sec.-Lieut. H. R. Wilkinson, U.C. 1915. 

Gnr. W. G. Milligan, Vic. 1917. 

Sec.-Lieut. G. A. L. Gibson, U.C. 1916. 

Capt. F. H. Moody, B.A.Sc. 1909. 

Pte. R. J. Thompson, App. Sc. 1919. 

Gnr. C. W. G. Stevenson, App. Sc. 1917. 

Capt. K. H. McCrimmon, U.C. 1912. 

Capt. F. P. Lloyd, M.A., U.C. 1916. 

Major C. A. Corrigan, D.D.S. 1904. 

Capt. S. H. Johnston, App. Sc. 1918. 

Gnr. W. R. McCamus, B.A. (V.) 1914, Ed. 1915. 

Bdr. H. B. Norwich, App. Sc. 1916. 



332 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

ACCIDENTALLY INJURED. 

Flight Sub.-Lieut. M. R. Kingsford, B.A. (U.C.) 1915. 
Lieut. D. G. Findlay, M.B. 1916. 



HONOURS. 

C.M.G. Brig.-Gen. V. W. Odium; Lt.-Col. C. H. Mitchell, 
D.S.O. 

P.S.O. Lt.-Col. H. J. Dawson; Lt.-Col. W. B. Hendry; Major 
H. W. A. Foster; Major C. B. Lindsey ; Major A. G. Poupore; Major 
A. C. Button. 

D.S.C. Flight Sub-Lieut. D. A. H. Nelles; Flight Sub-Lieut. 
J. E. Sharman. 

Military Cross Capt. A. T. Davidson; Lieut. L. B. Husband; 
Capt. A. C. Johnston; Lieut. A. H. MacFarlane; Lieut. E. E. Price; 
Lieut. W. A. Steele; Capt. C. G. Sutherland; Capt. H. M. Wallis; 
Capt. D. A. Warren. 

Mentioned in Despatches Capt. P. P. Acland; Lieut. M. A. 
Clarkson (killed); Lieut. E. F. Coke; Lieut. H. B. Donald; Major 
H. W. A. Foster; Capt. W. D. Herridge; Lieut. J. Kay; Lieut. N. L. 
Lesueur; Capt. T. W. Macdowell; Capt. G. L. Magann; Capt. F. H. 
Marani; Capt. E. A. H. Martin; Lt.-Col. C. H. Mitchell, D.S.O. ; 
Major A. G. Poupore; Capt. W. M. Pearce; Major W. E. Phillips; 
Lieut. N. C. Qua; Major N. R. Robertson; Major I. M. R. Sinclair; 
Major G. H. Southam (killed); Lieut. W. A. Steele; Major A. H. 
Sullivan; Lieut. W. Webster; Capt. J. G. Weir; Lieut. L. L. Youell; 
Capt. T. H. Bell; Capt. H. Buck; Capt. A. W. M. Ellis; Col.-J. T. 
Fotheringham; Capt. R. R. McClenahan; Lt.-Col. G. R. Phillip; 
Capt. the Rt. Rev. A. U. DePencier; Capt. The Rev. G. G. Kil- 
patrick; Capt. The Rev. L. W. Moffit. 

Italian Military Medal for Valour Capt. H. H. Burnham; 
Lieut. W. G. McGhie. 

Italian Riband Lieut. N. Cacciapuoti. 



THE ROLL OF SERVICE 

The replies to the circulars which have been sent out in con- 
nection with the Roll of Service have brought in a great deal of 
additional information. It is hoped that the preliminary edition 



EDITORIAL 333 

will be published during the vacation. Partly owing to existing 
regulations, partly in order not to delay publication, the numbers 
of particular units will not be published, but the information 
acquired will be of great value for reference in the University, and 
will make the basis for the larger and more detailed edition that will 
appear later. Enquiries regarding individuals should be addressed 
to the Editor of the Roll. Many of the circulars have not yet been 
answered, and the Editor will be grateful to any concerned if they 
will send replies as soon as possible. The first edition will be sent, 
free of charge, to anyone who addresses a request to the Editor. 



EDITORIAL 

ROYAL HONOURS. 

THE MONTHLY notes with pleasure the honour conferred 
on Sir Robert Falconer, President of the University, and 
on Sir Joseph Flavelle, a distinguished member of the 
Board of Governors, and congratulates these gentlemen and their 
families upon the high distinction won by them. 

COMMENCEMENT. 

It was a war-time Commencement, falling early, that is 
on May 18th, with a smaller number of graduates, particularly of 
men, and with less enthusiasm than in normal times. But one 
LL.D. was conferred. The recipient was the Lieutenant-Governor 
of the Province, Sir John Hendrie. Lieut.-Col. Nasmith received 
the degree of Doctor of Science; Mr. Pratt, that of Doctor of 
Philosophy; and Messrs. Campbell, Detweiler and Dickson, that of 
Doctor of Medicine. After the reception of candidates by the 
Chancellor, the President read the list of prize winners and the long 
list of our noble sons who have fallen at the front. He then 
addressed the graduating class, reminding the members of the 
solemn moment in which they finish their course and the solemn 
years during which they have done their work as students. 



334 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

FIFTY YEARS OF CONFEDERATION. 

The University has been celebrating the jubilee of the Confeder- 
ation of Canada by the publication of a course of four lectures given 
to the public during the session by members of the staff and others, 
as follows: "The Creation of the Federal System in Canada", by 
Professor G. M. Wrong; "Some Political Leaders in the Canadian 
Federation", by Sir John Willison; "The Working of Federal 
Institutions in Canada", by Mr. Z. A. Lash, K.C.; and "The 
Quality of Canadian Life", by President Falconer. The four 
lectures make a handsome little volume of 144 pages, printed by 
the University of Toronto Press, to which the title of The Federation 
of Canada has been given. No more appropriate kind of celebration 
could be made. The lectures are clear and full of information 
regarding the most important event in our history. It is a pleasure 
to be able to say that they are always lively and entertaining with 
here and there unique and picturesque touches. The day may come 
when some University man shall write a fuller treatment, but for 
the present University graduates and the general public will be 
grateful for a popular presentation of such high value. 

It is very gratifying to know that such a neat and well-printed 
book is the product of our own University Press, in spite of a certain 
number of orthographical inconsistencies to be found therein. 
(Compare for instance pp. 36 and 107.) 

MONSIEUR PAUL PASSY. 

The Espoir du Monde for April, 1917, reports that M. Paul Passy 
has been reinstated in his professorship at the Ecole des Hautes 
Etudes, Paris. Professor Passy is one of the leading phoneticians 
of the world and is well known to many of our teachers by his works, 
such as Les Sons du fran$ais, and by the fact that he was director 
of the Maitre phonetique. At the time of the change of the military 
law in France which lengthened the period of obligatory service from 
two to three years, M. Passy criticised the change very severely 
in a newspaper article and was dismissed from his position. His 
many friends throughout the civilised world will congratulate him 
upon his reinstatement, although he does not seem to expect that 
his health will permit him to resume his classes at the University of 
Paris. He will devote his time and remaining energies to his 
colony of Liefra in Champagne, one important feature of which is 
the home for war orphans. 



THE SCIENTIFIC MAN IN BUSINESS. 

NO greater opportunity has ever been presented to the scienti- 
fically trained graduate than that which exists to-day in 
the field of industry and commerce. The stage seems 
specially set for his reception, and a number of conditions are 
contributing toward the growing demand for his services. The 
remarkable results secured in Great Britain and Europe by the 
application of accurate and scientific knowledge to industrial 
problems; the verification of that experience by organisations in 
America that have established departments for special research; 
the wide-spread and rapidly growing realisation of the necessity of 
conserving our resources and eliminating waste; the tremendous 
stimulus toward activity that has been produced by the war, have 
all contributed to develop the belief that many of our present 
methods and processes are extravagant, and that by concentrated 
effort in the application of correct principles they can be greatly 
improved. Instead of the tendency, not very far remote, to regard 
the old and established procedure as the reliable one, the fashion is 
now to discredit it, to search for its weaknesses and to seek its 
improvement. 

This does not apply to any one sphere of activity. It is not 
merely chemical or physical or electrical science that is involved. 
Mere authority and tradition are not sufficient, and there is a 
growing desire to base our practise upon sound and fundamental 
principles. We see references to scientific government, scientific 
finance, and we are constantly hearing during recent years of 
scientific business management. It would seem that there is a 
leaven at work which is modifying and transforming all previously 
fixed ideas and leading to a demand for new and better methods in all 
lines of activity. 

Nor is this merely a passing phase of public opinion. The 
opportunity for genuine service really exists, and great improve- 
ments are possible in practically all commercial fields. The future 
of the technical graduate therefore is whatever he has the ability 
to make it. The world requires accurate knowledge, patient and 
careful investigation, verification of exact observation, and the 
proper correlation of facts. Moreover it realises that it needs this 
type of service, and is willing to reward it. This is the sort of 
service that is to be expected of men who have had the advantage 

[335J 



336 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

of a scientific training at our universities and it is to them that we 
should look for leadership in all progressive movements. It is to be 
hoped therefore that many of our ablest graduates will enter the 
industrial field, and that, so far as possible they will prepare them- 
selves deliberately with that end in view. The degree of their 
success will be dependent upon the thoroughness of the preparation 
and upon the attitude toward specific problems that they ultimately 
assume. 

So far as the nature of the university training is concerned, 
it is undoubtedly true that the greatest emphasis should be placed 
upon the aquisition of a knowledge of broad, general principles. 
This is referred to in particular because there is a tendency among 
many students to consider the time spent in such study as largely 
wasted, believing as they do, that such knowledge will not be of any 
great service in active practical life, and that it must inevitably be 
laid aside and forgotten. Such a belief, however, is utterly without 
justification, since it is precisely this foundation of sound general 
principles that constitutes the chief advantage of a university 
training. If it were not so, if the end in view were mere specialisa- 
tion, a young man's time could probably be spent more profitably 
in dealing with definite practical problems at first hand in some 
industrial establishment. Special expert knowledge, and definite 
and accurate technique can and will be readily acquired when they 
are needed in actual practice. But under the stress of business life 
there is a slighter possibility of building up the necessary founda- 
tions. It is quite true that there has been a widely spread opinion, 
now fortunately losing ground, that a business experience only is 
the wisest course for anyone who is to enter business life; that 
the years spent in a university are largely spent in vain, and that 
progress would be more centain and more rapid if all youthful 
energies were spent in mastering industrial problems at first hand. 

This view could without doubt be easily defended if it were 
generally possible to acquire by such a plan a knowledge of the best 
practice by a study of things as they are. But since this is not 
possible, since there is so much that is faulty it is surely the part of 
wisdom to learn first something of the laws which must ultimately 
govern, and of the spirit and methods by which scientific knowledge 
is gained. It must be added that if a university training is to 
consist merely in the mastering of a certain number, large or small 
as it may be, of isolated and generally unrelated facts, accurate 
though they are, it is a comparative failure. Such information can 



THE SCIENTIFIC MAN IN BUSINESS 337 

only be of service when it is frequently used, and it cannot be long 
retained unless it is made to live in practice. If such collected 
knowledge is laboriously carried into our industrial institutions, 
while it may be of considerable service, it cannot by itself carry very 
far, and it may be associated with a self-opinionated attitude on the 
part of the graduate that is almost certain to provoke antagonism. 
It is the scientific spirit that is required, the spirit that investigates 
carefully, that seeks to arrive at the real truth by the most vigorous 
means possible, that is sufficiently enlightened to realise the dis- 
tinction between the true and the false, and that never rests content 
with anything short of the best. 

In this connection I should like to refer to one line of study 
that will, especially during the next few years, have a very real 
relation to the work of the scientifically trained business man. It 
seems particularly fortunate that the various technical courses have 
included during recent years some subjects relating to general 
business practice, and every man who has the opportunity, should 
avail himself fully of the instruction they afford. But there still 
remains the intensely valuable field of industrial and economic 
science to which the average engineer has devoted very little thought. 
It is probable that the majority of the graduates in science will 
eventually have to deal in some manner with questions closely 
related if not actually involved in general broad economic problems ; 
to such men a knowledge of economic laws, a familiarity with the 
outlines of the history of the relations between capital and labour, 
an intelligent realisation of some at least of the pressing economic 
problems of the present time must prove of inestimable value. 
Changes of a sweeping character are imminent or already in progress 
and the scenitific man who is to be of the greatest service must of 
necessity be informed and alive to this aspect of industrial life. 
Would It not be possible to incorporate into every science depart- 
ment some course of reading, general though it might be, that would 
open to many a man this field of thought that might otherwise be 
closed to him? 

A word may be added regarding the attitude of the university 
man entering business toward the work he is to undertake. It is 
always to be borne in mind that he probably has much to learn in 
his new environment, and that it is his first duty to study that 
environment scientifically and in detail. Many a man has fallen 
short of his possibilities and lessened his usefulness by over- 
estimating his own attainments, and greatly under-estimating the 



338 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

value of gaining a thorough grasp of the accumulated knowledge, 
translated into practice of the field which he has entered. Imperfect 
though it may be, and as in some instances it undoubtedly is, it 
must be remembered that it is the product of a long experience, 
and that it has produced real results. The technical graduate 
may often very easily lay aside his own special knowledge for the 
time being and concentrate his energies upon the task of learning 
whatever he can of the actual practice of the business. Many of 
the greatest successes have been achieved by men who, after 
completing their university courses, have entered some business in a 
humble capacity, at a modest salary, for the sake of mastering the 
detail of its practice in a manner that only close contact will give. 
Such men usually "make good". There always develops some 
opportunity of showing the benefit of previous academic training 
if they have really profited thereby. On the other hand many a 
graduate has handicapped himself and prevented an adequate 
subsequent advance by seeking a position where his previous 
training already entitles him to a fairly good salary. 

S. B. CHADSEY, B.A.Sc. '03. 



MESSAGE OF GABRIELE D'ANNUNZIO 
TO THE CITY OF VENICE 

ON the 22nd of March last, the city of Venice celebrated the 
anniversary of its short-lived liberation in 1848 from 
Austrian rule which was like a fifteen-month prelude to its 
full emancipation in 1866. The city was en fete. In the morning 
there was an imposing procession, headed by the mayor and city 
council accompanied by the prefect, deputies and senators, which 
passed from the Public Gardens to St. Mark's and laid wreaths upon 
the monuments of Garibaldi, Victor Emanuel and Daniel Manin. 
In the afternoon there was a great public meeting at the city hall 
with eloquent speeches and the reading of D'Annunzio's message 
which he had sent as an accompaniment to his donation to the 
patriotic fund in charge of the Citizens' Defence Committee of 
Venice. It runs as follows: 

"In offering my little gift, I am not ashamed of its smallness, 
because I feel that my offering is multiplied manifold by that 



MESSAGE OF GABRIELE D'ANNUNZIO 339 

unanimous passion which to-day enlarges and exalts the humblest 
act of duty to our country. To-day this righteous war renews and 
changes in us all the values of life. Dead, coarse matter is trans- 
muted into effectively operating spirituality. Gold, which our 
ancestral Romans called the mother of envy, a metal more deadly 
than iron, hoarded and hidden gold, becomes 'lux publica', not as 
weighed in the scales of self-interest but as estimated by the test of 
charity. 

"There is an old Italian device of a princely family which 
represents a piece of gold being tested by a hand on the touchstone : 
'sic spectanda fides' 'thus faithfulness is tested'. To-day we are 
renewing it and elevating it on our civic fervour in discipline and 
liberty. And the poorest amongst us are showing that we know 
how to keep it with a loyal and liberal mind, as well as the most 
magnificent soul of a king. 

"For lo! gold in this holy war has become for us as noble as the 
heart's blood. The hand which opens and offers is as dear to our 
country as the wound which does not complain. That which once 
meant sorrow to the common people, robbed by usury and extortion, 
to-day is a sign of heroic will, of sublime sacrifice. 

"Yea, verily, to conquer and live for right and justice, for altar 
and hearth, for love and beauty, because through centuries of 
Roman dignity 'man has been man to man', the people of Italy 
are prompt to pour forth treasure within walled cities as well as 
in torn trenches, and will give ardently the last drop of blood and the 
last ounce of gold. 

"Listen to the living word of Dante as it speaks to us to-day: 

la caritd che fra noi arde! 

This is indeed the grace of victory and that grace which St. Augus- 
tine called triumphant. It is beautiful that the example should go 
out from that Venice where, nearly seventy years ago, the people 
poor and rich, stripped themselves of all, in a burst of charity to offer 
strong resistance to the same, unchanging enemy. 

"Thus to-day all Italians, in wealth or in poverty, will show 
the same spirit, sanctifying this our third springtime of war, whilst 
there hangs over this bloodstained world that dizzy anxiety which 
precedes the storm of storms and the ultimate judgment of destiny. 
And for each of us, both rich and poor, there will be realised as 
never before a stronger and deeper sense of that ancient word of the 
soul stripped bare: 'Eternally mine are the gifts which I have 
made'." J. S. 



DR. G. W. JOHNSTON 

Address pronounced by Principal Hutton at the funeral of Professor G. W. 
Johnston in the Bloor Street Baptist Church, Toronto, on May 7th, 1917. 

MY pupil, friend and colleague, Dr. George Wesley Johnston, 
was above everything a worker; he had a passion for work. 
He was one of those busy men of whom it is truly said, it is 
only the busy man who always finds time for other work when work 
turns up to be done. Such men are always imposed upon. If 
there was extra work to be done, large or small, about the University 
and College, from the tiresome arrangement and distribution of 
inadequate lecture rooms among an inordinate number of classes, 
subjects and lectures, up to the foundation of a Toronto Society 
of the Archaeological Institute of America, the work in itself alone 
involving a large correspondence, the issuing of numberless tickets 
of invitation for archaeological lectures, the keeping of records of 
members, the solicitation even of subscriptions for new membership, 
all this work, small and great, came to him and received the same 
devoted attention, the same unsparing labour. 

He worked always at high pressure. I should be afraid to 
read the record of the number of hours per day and per week he 
devoted to his lectures, and not to his lectures only, but to his 
students personally. If I wanted to have an inner idea of what any 
student in the first year of the college was doing, if he was likely to 
pass his examinations, if he was working honestly, I went to Dr. 
Johnston to ask. I knew his knowledge and interest extended from 
his work to his students, to the men and women of his classes. If 
his judgment ever erred, I knew beforehand how it would err, in 
kindness and indulgence. 

People who work hard, it is sometimes said, are hard on others 
as well as on themselves. Pity is the fault of narrow minds, 
said an old pagan. It is the redeeming virtue of weak minds, says 
a more human and later version. It was neither the one nor the 
other with a Christian, such as was our friend. Unsparing of 
himself, he was all generosity and indulgence to others; he spared 
others, himself he would not spare. When the illness of his chief 
last autumn involved more work for the rest, he was as anxious 
to let off his colleague as to add fresh burdens to himself. Other- 
wise perhaps we should not be here to-day at his funeral. 

I have said he was a Christian. It is strange to think that in 
the old, far-off days the college to which he belonged was sometimes 

[340] 



DR. G. W. JOHNSTON 341 

stigmatised as a godless college. I never hear it so called to-day; 
it couldn't be with men of his stamp working in it; there was enough 
leaven in him to leaven the college. Character and conscience 
were his abiding features, the bed rock, the backbone of all he did ; 
and the bed rock and backbone of character and conscience even 
with him, as with the normal man, was religion. He was a Christian, 
and as many other good Christians, he was a good churchman 
of his own church. There are many pious variers from church to 
chapel and from chapel to church; there are other pious only who 
do not vary. We saw Dr. Johnston seldom at our Sunday service 
at the University because his heart turned more fondly to his own 
denomination and to this church where he is to-day for the last time. 
I suppose if he had not been a professor and a schoolmaster he would 
have been a minister; he was, even as a professor, something of a 
minister and a missionary. It is out of date, out of fashion, it 
strikes a strange note to call a man ' 'godly". Dr. Johnston was at 
least a god-fearing man, fearing God and most loving and considerate 
to man most affectionate. If we ever disagreed in an opinion we 
never disagreed except in opinion, it was from this affectionateness 
of his nature. He loved mankind, he abhorred war; he was shocked 
at the word "militarism"; yet he donned the khaki promptly 
to lend a hand in the home defence of Canada. And because he was 
so affectionate it follows that I have only touched the outside of his 
life in all I have said only the outside. He worked at the college 
as if the college were his only work. He loved his church as if it 
were the only church, yet neither college nor church revealed him 
fully or knew him, I think, or more than half of him. There may be 
professors whose work is summed up in their lecture room or their 
lectures, who have no life beyond. Only half or less than half 
his life was there. He did not talk of his home and family much a 
man of his mind doesn't he talked of his work; but one could 
not know him for twenty years without discovering that his heart 
was in simpler deeper things in private family life. If I say little 
more, it is not because we do not all know we who knew him 
that much as the college will miss him, those who knew him better 
miss him more sorely, more abundantly and with better reason. 
His best life as is the case I suppose generally with the best 
and the happiest men, and he was a very happy man for all his 
hard work was in his family. Like his great namesake, Dr. 
Samuel Johnston, he interpreted that word "family" in no narrow 
sense. Family meant for him not only wife and children but all the 



342 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

ties of blood and marriage. The last time he left his house, I think, 
was when he ventured out, himself a very sick man, tojnquire about 
his twin brother. He never failed in his duty tojfcollege or to 
church, but he never let these ties shut out the nearer and the 
dearer, the lasting and the happier chains of blood and marriage. 



LIEUT. DANIEL GALER HAGARTY 

THE MONTHLY'S tributes to sons of the University who have 
laid down their lives in the present war would be incomplete 
without some special mention of one of the youngest of her 
officers, Lieut. Daniel Galer Hagarty, App. Sc., 1916, Princess 
Patricia's Canadian Light Infantry, kilted in action at Zillebeke, 
June 2nd, 1916. 

Lieut. Hagarty was the first undergraduate offered a com- 
mission in the University of Toronto contingent of the Canadian 
Officers' Training Corps when, in the fall of 1914, this Corps was 
organised. When the Second Universities Overseas Company was 
formed at Niagara Camp in May, 1915, having just completed his 
third year by examination in the Faculty of Applied Science, he 
was again the first undergraduate to be offered a commission and, 
with Captain (Prof.) Geo. H. Smith of the History Department, 
represented Toronto among the officers of this reinforcing draft of 
the P. P. C.L.I. He sailed from Montreal on June 29th and pro- 
ceeded to Shorncliffe. Here, after a course at Napier Barracks, he 
was appointed to the staff of the Canadian Machine-gun School in 
August. His work there was highly spoken of and the Commandant 
would gladly have retained him, but the lure of the firing line was 
too strong for this stout young heart. Intimate personal friends 
to whom he was much attached, Captains MacDonald and Molson, 
and Lieut. Philip MacKenzie of McGill University, had crossed the 
Channel to join the Patricias before him. He became restless and 
dissatisfied, as letters home indicated, and when Col. Duller and 
Major Gault personally requested him to join the regiment he gladly 
accepted the opportunity. He left Folkestone on Jan. 29th and 
was in the front line trenches by Feb. 7th. 

Just about this time his father was appointed to the command 
of the 201st Overseas Battalion, and cabled Galer the offer of the 



LIEUT. DANIEL GALER HAGARTY 343 

Adjutancy with the rank of captain. The Minister of Militia 
requested the War Office for his return to Canada, but so strong was 
his sense of duty that three times he cabled his father that he would 
not return unless ordered, and finally on March 17th, when a 
"request" of the War Office, instead of an "order", came through, 
he refused. 

It was not until later when his senior officers told him that they 
thought it was his duty to return and help his father that he 
consented. Another request from Ottawa and further corres- 
pondence intervened. On May 23rd Sir Sam Hughes, when 
reviewing the troops in Queen's Park, told the father that a cable 
from London announced the early return of Lieut. Hagarty to 
Canada. The same day the family learned by cable that Galer 
was in London on leave. It proved to be only an eight days' leave. 
The order of the War Office had not come through. On May 31st 
he returned to the trenches. On the morning of June 2nd, just 
after the opening of the bombardment that killed General Mercer, 
Lieut. Hagarty, who was in command of the 7th platoon in the fire 
trench, was hit by a high explosive and instantly killed. Only 
three of his platoon came out alive. In Vol. II of "Canada in 
Flanders", Lord Beaverbrook mentions his death and tells how the 
enemy had the exact range of his trench, while on each side of him 
the shells were falling twenty yards in the rear. The same day 
Col. Duller was killed, Major Gault was seriously wounded, Captain 
Molson, who commanded No. 8 platoon in the next trench was put 
out of action by a bullet wound in the jaw and the regiment suffered 
some 400 or 500 casualties. A few days afterwards out of 26 officers 
only six sat down, to dinner. 

Lieut. Hagarty's body was at 12.30 p.m. found at the bottom 
of the trench. His bank pass book and damaged revolver were 
recovered but when the party returned during the afternoon to 
rescue the body it had been buried by further shell fire. These 
trenches, which were up near the appendix in the northern end 
of Sanctuary Wood, were vacated during the night and the Germans 
have held the spot ever since. 

His company commander, Major Agar Adamson, wrote as 
follows: " His keenness and interest in everything he undertook, and 
the thorough manner in which he tackled even the smallest details, 
were often noticed by Col. Buller. I feel that the regiment has lost 
a most capable officer, and his remaining brother officers a most 
charming personality." 



344 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

In similar strain wrote Major Gault, Capt. (now Lt.-Col.) Niven, 
Lieut. MacKenzie, Capt. Molson and others. His old schoolmate, 
Lieut. Percy K. Heywood of the Third Universities Company, wrote 
that, in conversation with the men of the platoon who survived, he 
learnt that Lieut. Hagarty was generally conceded to be the best 
man in his trench on the morning of that terrible bombardment. 

Galer Hagarty had won distinction as a cadet when only 
fourteen years of age, being the first Canadian cadet selected to 
shoot at the Boys' Bisley in London, England, on Empire Day in 
1909. He again represented Canada as a cadet at the Coronation 
of King George V in 1911. At the University before the war broke 
out he was an ardent member of the Rifle Association and served 
in the Queen's Own Rifles. During the winter of 1914-1915, he 
worked very hard at his engineering studies, besides taking his 
O.T.C. course and drilling fellow students and some of the professors. 
He was Vice-President of the Engineering Society and an active 
member of the Theta Zeta Chapter of Beta Theta Pi. 

Always a manly fellow, six feet one and a half, and of handsome 
appearance, strong in athletics, a skilled violinist and superb rifle 
shot, he was above all a quiet, Christian gentleman, of a kindly 
disposition that endeared him to everyone who came into contact 
with him, and made him the joy and brightness of a mother's and 
father's hearts now sore stricken by his loss. In the depths of their 
sorrow General Logic's words still ring in their ears: 
"Go thy way, thy son liveth." 

His FATHER. 



THE TORONTO BRANCH OF THE 
ENGLISH ASSOCIATION 

THE third meeting of the English Association for the session 
of 1916-1917 was addressed by Professor H. C. Simpson on 
the subject of "H. G. Wells". The speaker described Mr. 
Wells as the first novelist of consequence to show an acquaintance 
with the achievements and ideas of modern science. Of these ideas 
he is most deeply impressed by that of evolution ; and he has that 
type of imagination which is ever looking forward, particularly to 



THE TORONTO ENGLISH ASSOCIATION 345 

the future development of society. This is forecast in his earlier 
tales of scientific marvel, as well as in his later sociological treatises 
and novels. His hope is for an increase of efficiency, not soulless 
Prussianism, but rational co-operation in the service of all. He 
prophesies the development of a world-state in which present social 
distinctions will give way to government by a scientifically-trained 
class. These views are embodied in his later novels, some of which, 
like Tono-Bungay, are genuine works of art, while others, The 
Research Magnificent, for instance, are only thinly-veiled essays 
on sociology. As a literary artist, Mr. Wells has great power and 
variety in characterisation ; it is a mistake to say that his heroes and 
heroines are all alike. His humour was illustrated by a reading of 
the portrait of Lady Beach Mandarin in The Wife oj Sir Isaac 
Harman. Though his main appeal is to the intellect, his novels 
are not wanting in passages of deep feeling. 

The fourth meeting was held on February 14th at Annesley Hall, 
where Professor W. P. M. Kennedy spoke on " Joseph Conrad". 
After referring to the romantic and unusual circumstance of a Polish 
officer of the British mercantile marine rising to a foremost position 
among contemporary English novelists he characterised Conrad 
as supreme among all who have described ships and the sea and 
unequalled as an interpreter of the East, its life and spirit. Conrad's 
method of telling a story from many different points of view, with 
many shifts of temporal sequence, and with the introduction of 
much detail superficially irrelevant, was defended as true to our 
experience of life itself. The speaker admitted, however, that this 
narrative method, combined with the subtlety of Conrad's psycho- 
logy, makes him anything but an easy writer and may repel the 
inexperienced reader. In emphasising Conrad's indebtedness to 
and affiliations with French fiction, Professor Kennedy mentioned 
the interesting fact that Conrad entertained the idea of writing his 
novels in French before finally choosing English as his medium of 
expression. A lively discussion as to the presence of symbolism in 
Conrad's novels concluded a stimulating meeting. 

On March 14th, Dr. A. F. B. Clark read a paper on the novels 
of Henry James. Pointing out the cosmopolitanism of this author's 
training and subsequent life, he showed that it was reflected in the 
subject of his novels the reaction of unsophisticated new-world 
society to long-established European culture and vice versa. This 
type of international romance, the speaker thought, was original 
with James and his most noteworthy contribution to the develop- 
ment of the novel. The relative clearness and simplicity, with 



346 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

which this theme is treated in the earlier works like Daisy Miller, 
was contrasted with the detailed psychological analysis of later 
novels like The Golden Bowl, and The Ambassadors. James's 
intense artistic self-consciousness was illustrated by citations from 
the prefaces of his critical edition of his own works; and he was 
condemned for the over-refined preciosity of his style. 

Principal Hutton concluded the series on April 18th with an 
address on Rudyard Kipling. Kipling's literary work is a glorifica- 
tion of the man of action by a journalist who has a thorough 
sympathy with him. This author's heroes are the silent doers of 
deeds the soldier, the engineer, the explorer and coloniser. Their 
exploits as related by Kipling, the speaker ventured to think, are 
more in the spirit of Greece in her heroic days than the refined 
neo-Hellenism of Bridges and Swinburne. "Kipling's Tomlinson ", 
said the Principal, amid laughter, "was probably a professor of 
Greek." Of direct classical influence on Kipling there are, however, 
a few traces for example, the Horatian echoes, and the terms 
"dromond and catafract, thranite and thelemite" in "Poseidon's 
Law". Kipling's scientific interests are concerned with the 
romance of machinery rather than the philosophy of science; but a 
characteristic penchant for the occult was shown combined with his 
mechanical phase in Wireless. His imperialism, as voiced in the 
Recessional, was defended from the charge of self-righteousness; 
and his dislike of flag-waving was illustrated by the episode of the 
M.P. addressing the school in Stalky & Co. Reference to his 
soldier stories, his Anglo-Indian tales, his pictures of native Indian 
life, illustrated his journalistic gift of friendship of getting into 
sympathetic touch with varied types and reflecting their life and 
sentiments. 

For next session Principal Hutton has been elected president 
and an attractive series of addresses on modern English writers has 
been arranged. Professor Cappon of Queen's will open the pro- 
gramme on October 17th with an address on "Recent Movements 
in Literature". At subsequent meetings Professor Alexander will 
read a paper on "J. M. Synge", Professor Hooke on "Francis 
Thompson and the Mystics", Professor De Lury on "The Irish 
Renaissance", Professor Maclver on "Social Backgrounds in 
Modern Literature", and Professor R. K. Gordon, of the University 
of Alberta, on "George Meredith ". Other papers are also expected. 
The membership fee for next year will be $1.25. Those interested 
should communicate with the Secretary, W. H. Clawson, University 
College. W. H. C. 



THE UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO SKETCH 

CLUB 

ONE of the curious features of our University is that Art, 
with few individual exceptions, engages our attention only 
from the intellectual point of view. We have more than 
this interest in medicine, engineering, literature and architecture, 
for within our walls we study the practice of these professions. 
Should not our great educational institutions encourage a more 
active interest in the Fine Arts? Surely the need is appreciated. 

In this period when Art is being regenerated, there is a service 
to be given to Art by those within and without the profession, who 
have stored their minds with the beauties of the past. It has 
occurred to many that if the artist had been encouraged to break 
some of the more binding traditions, rather than to abandon 
completely the best of our artistic inheritance, there would not be, 
for instance, the crude and curious attempts of some of our modern 
painters. 

There is another point of view: Art, by which I mean the line, 
form, colour and design of everything made by man, is a part of 
our every-day life. The ugliness of our utensils and articles of 
common use point to a standard of taste lower than the most 
primitive generations. This, we are told, is due to the industrial 
revolution which substituted machine-made articles for the hand- 
work of the individual craftsman. There have been great gains 
by this change from the economic point of view, and as large 
losses from the artistic. But there is an art in the product of the 
machine as well as in the work of the hand. Very recent improve- 
ment in design, I believe, is making this more evident. With the 
application of electric power to small and more portable tools T.he 
possibilities of individual expression by the machine craftsman are 
great. That is, there is coming the opportunity of retaining the 
advantages of economy of machinery production, and, at the same 
time, obtaining new expressions of beauty. 

Our University should lead in this new Renaissance, because it 
may not only furnish the undergraduates with a possibility of a 
fascinating avocation from among the Fine Arts, but also increase 
their appreciation of the beautiful, which is "a symptom of happy 
work". 

[347] 



348 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

A small group of these enthusiasts found in Colonel Vincent 
Massey an attentive listener to their idea, and when to these few 
there was opened the prospect of quarters in Hart House for an 
organisation which should include undergraduates of all faculties, 
then the University of Toronto Sketch Club sprang into life. This 
club is open to any member of the University of Toronto, and 
contains both undergraduates, graduates and members of the 
Faculty. It has the brilliant promise of a large room in the south- 
west corner of the basement of Hart House a room approximately 
25 by 50 feet, which is well lighted and has a fireplace. Picture this 
room furnished with drafting tables, illustrator's boards and easels, 
with a press for etchers and a tray in which to bite their plates will 
it not be an educational force? Imagine, also, in this room, a table 
loaded with magazines, a few shelves with books, and the walls 
covered with examples of the work of the members, or of works of 
Art loaned by friends is it not attractive? In this connection it 
should be mentioned that the greatest service the University could 
give is to make more readily accessible the books on Art in the 
Library. However efficient a card catalogue the Library possesses, 
it does not, and probably cannot list the illustrations in its works 
of Art. Certainly there is no known method of placing on a card 
index the works of the painter by period, or, more important, by 
colour scheme, by motive, by composition, by technique. Yet for 
the assistance of the Fine Arts the storing of the brain with examples 
of this kind is most essential. 

A start has already been made in collecting a library for the 
Sketch Club by the donation, by Colonel Massey and others, of 
valuable drawings, and, by a graduate, of some back numbers of 
The Connoisseur. 

The club, now of thirty-two members, has tried to make its 
organisation period profitable. Temporary quarters in the large 
room occupied by THE VARSITY Staff have been generously offered. 
Also a prize for a* Recruiting Poster has been announced by an 
unknown friend. The programme was drawn up by a committee 
consisting of Mr. J. M. Lyle, Professor Coleman and Mr. Jeffreys, 
but the closing of the University due to a shortage of coal, made 
it impossible to take advantage of this competition. 

The Sketch Club has been asked to give assistance to THE 
VARSITY War Supplement'by designing a cover, and I understand 
that the Staff of this publication will offer a prize for the best 
design submitted. 



TORONTO ALUMNI IN THE UNITED STATES 349 

The work accomplished this year has been of two forms 
visiting Exhibitions and Noon-Day Luncheons. The first 
Exhibition visited, at the Toronto Art Museum, was the work of 
American illustrators, and the other was lithographs, the work of 
the Senefelden Club of London, England, and another was the work 
of the students of the Ontario College of Art. In the first two 
mentioned, the Sketch Club was offered the rare opportunity of 
participating in a private view and discussion of the Exhibition by 
the Society of Graphic Arts. This organisation warmly welcomed 
the Sketch Club, and congratulated the University upon its forma- 
tion, and offered any possible assistance and advice. 

There were also Noon-Day Luncheons, at the first of which 
President Falconer and Mr. Wyly Grier, R.C.A., spoke. The 
President enthusiastically welcomed the new organisation to the 
University and introduced Mr. Grier. The latter spoke fluently 
and interestingly of the advantages and pleasures of sketching, 
giving personal reminiscences of his own sketching trips. 

At the second luncheon, Mr. C. W. Jeffreys, A.R.C.A., spoke 
humorously of the modern tendencies of Art and gave the Club 
a very broad-minded idea of the future of Art and its relationship 
to the so-called "new schools of Art" of which so much has been 
heard. 

The officers of the club for next year will be Mr. Douglas 
Robertson, President; Mr. H. W. Cavell, Vice-President ; Mr. 
Helm, Secretary; Mr. Brummell, Treasurer; and Mr. Colgate, 
Curator. 

By the way of continuing the work during the summer a number 
of sketching trips have been planned. Until the club acquires its 
promised quartos, it must of necessity mark time. However, as 
much work as possible will be undertaken during the college year 
of 1917-18. 

J.B. 



TORONTO ALUMNI IN THE UNITED 
STATES 

FEELING the great importance of the entry of the United 
States into the war, the President of the University addressed 
the following circular letter to all our' graduates residing in 
that country : 



350 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Dear Sir : 

On behalf of your old University I wish to send you our 
greetings now that the United States has definitely entered 
the war and taken her stand along with us for the maintenance 
of free democracy and righteousness in modern civilisation. 
I am sure that I can speak for the University and its graduates 
when I say that we welcome this step with profound thank- 
fulness not only because it will ensure a speedier and more 
decisive issue for the war, but because it also means that here- 
after the English-speaking peoples, and we who have so many 
common interests as neighbours on this continent, shall stand 
side by side for the development of true democracy and for a 
government of the world based on moral principle. 
Yours sincerely, 

R. A. FALCONER, 

President. 

A large number of replies have been received from ladies and 
gentlemen who live in more than twenty states of the Union. 
Those who have replied represent all the professions: clergymen, 
lawyers, medical men, professors, members of the civil service, 
manufacturers and business men. They all express their deep 
satisfaction that the United States have now taken their place 
alongside England and her allies in the great struggle for civilisation 
and national righteousness. The following are samples given 
without names: 

"Was much pleased to hear from you and that you realise we 
are in this fight to the finish, to accomplish what you so well indicate 
in your letter. This is the fiftieth year of my graduation, if I were 
fifty years younger I would gladly go as I did in 1866 with the old 
10th Royals at the time of the Fenian invasion. Well ! well ! I hope 
too, this will bring us closer together and establish a kindly feeling 
both north and south of the border." 

"Many thanks for your letter of greetings re the United States 
becoming an ally to the Entente. We Canadian residents of Cleve- 
land are rejoicing that the United States, though late, has decided 
to enlist under the banner of the Allies, may we say 'The United 
States of Great Britain and America.' Is it not glorious that 
Canadian and American soldiers are comrades in the war battling 
for civilisation and the spread of righteousness through the land? 



TORONTO ALUMNI IN THE UNITED STATES 351 

"We hope that German militarism will speedily be overthrown 
and an end put to the Titanic holocaust, and furthermore that a 
more humane and righteous form of government for Germany and 
Austro-Hungary may soon be inaugurated. 

"The Canadian sons have greatly distinguished themselves for 
their valour, patriotism, and heroism. Vimy Ridge like Marathon 
and Thermopylae will never be forgotten. The University has done 
splendidly but at what a sacrifice to Canada that so many of her 
gallant men should be killed in this unrighteous war. I am proud 
to be a Canadian and an alumnus of Victoria." 

"I deeply appreciate your kind communication of April 17th 
regarding the entrance of the United States into the war. I am 
sure that your words will touch closely the hundreds of graduates 
of the University of Toronto who are now living in the United 
States. For myself, while I have tried to observe the proprieties 
of public speech in the country of my adoption, I have never ceased 
to urge that there could be no neutrality for the Christian man 
between right and wrong. 

"I thank God now that we are clearly and decisively on the 
side of the right. 

"I have been given leave of absence by the Board of Trustees 
of our Seminary, and have hopes that I shall be shortly sent abroad 
as a chaplain in the United States Army. A good many of my 
pupils will go too." 

"I have your letter of April 17th and was mighty glad, indeed, 
to receive from you the cordial greetings therein contained and the 
excellent sentiments expressed concerning our fellowship and closer 
relationship in our struggle for a free democracy and a higher 
civilisation. I have never known a more general and spontaneous 
response to any movement on the part of a government than has 
been the case on the part of our people in this matter of the war with 
Germany. 

"Yesterday, in this institution, there was opened a recruiting 
office for our Officers' Reserve Training Camp and sixty of our best 
graduates and seniors enrolled the first day. There will be more 
than 100 students from this institution leave for the training camps 
within the next ten days. This number would be doubled if the 
men had had sufficient training to be accepted for the Officers' 
Training Camp and if we did not feel that many of our best agricul- 



352 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

tural students ought to remain at home for possibly more important 
work. 

"It has been a great surprise and a great pleasure to many of us 
who have come from the north to find how universal, how genuine, 
and how spontaneous the response has been from this southern 
people to this great cause of our country. We are glad, indeed, to be 
with you in this great struggle and hope for a speedy and permanent 
peace that may be based on true democracy and the highest moral 
principles." 



THE BALFOUR CONVOCATION. 

"Science is of no party." 

"The sentiments with which an Englishman regards the English Empire 
are neither a small nor an ignoble part of the feelings which belong to him as a 
member of the commonwealth." A. J. BALFOUR. 

ABOUT twenty years ago the late Dr. David Irons, M.A., 
(St. Andrews) visited Toronto, with letters to Professor 
Goldwin Smith and the writer. The most brilliant man 
of his year (1892), at St. Andrews, he had won the Ferguson scholar- 
ship against all Scotland, and taken the extraordinary course of 
coming to Cornell to pursue the study of philosophy. It was 
supposed to be the first case of the kind on record. His talk was 
full of charm and centred mainly on two subjects: golf and Mr. 
Balfour. Indeed it was rather difficult to decide whether his almost 
passionate admiration for the rising hope of the Liberal-Conservatives 
was not based as much on the Scottish laird's skill with the clubs 
as on his power over an audience and his marvellous intellectual 
dexterity. The general impression left by the eulogy of the far- 
seeing young Scot was a corrective to the somewhat different idea 
that most people in our country had of the "nephew of his uncle". 
Irons did not live long enough to carry out his purpose of teaching 
his people the truth about America, but he taught some of us the 
truth about Mr. Balfour, as the gentleman himself has taught it to 
all those who came within the range of his voice. "In the work of 
building up a perfected humanity, every one may bear a part. 
None indeed can do much, yet all may do something". So wrote 
the critic of positivism in 1888 (Balfour, Essays and Addresses, p. 



THE BALFOUR CONVOCATION 353 

301), in a paragraph resplendent with power of thought and beauty 
of expression. And now Mr. Balfour in his turn has come to 
America to win the hearts of his hearers as he has impressed the 
minds of our governors. In the meetings at Washington no one, 
we have heard, was listened to with such attention, no one showed 
such knowledge of the subjects he discussed, no one had such weight 
in its decisions as he. It was feared at one time that the crisis in 
the affairs of the Allies would prevent Mr. Balfour from coming to 
Canada. He has himself seen how serious is the situation here, and 
can understand from the warmth of his reception how keen would 
have been the disappointment if he had failed to come. 

Owing to the lateness of his arrival on Friday the Convocation 
was postponed till Saturday afternoon, May 26th, at half-past three. 
The weather was favourable, the crowd great and enthusiastic. 
As the assembly of notables in the East Hall watched the ticket- 
holders, it was estimated that at least two thousand were lined up 
in a column that reached from the door of the Hall to Knox College. 
The yeoman bedel never led a more distinguished procession across 
the lawn. Within the Hall the bursar, Mr. Moure, performed on 
the organ a selection made with his usual care and working up to a 
climax in Elgar's Imperial March, to the strains of which the 
procession advanced to the dais. There was a rustling of silken 
hoods and gowns as the dignitaries took their seats upon the 
crowded platform and in the two side sections which had been left 
free to provide for the overflow. The music ceased, the Chancellor 
made a sign to the President, on his left, who rose, followed after a 
moment's hesitation by the great English leader, who was greeted 
with an outburst of applause. President Falconer then made the 
address of presentation, the text of which follows : 

" Mr. Chancellor: I have the distinguished privilege of presenting 
to you for the degree of Doctor of Laws, honoris causa, the Right 
Honourable Arthur James Balfour, Secretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs. Mr. Balfour has played so many parts and has played them 
with such consummate success, that I may perhaps venture to say 
that though he is a member of that elect circle who hold the Order 
of Merit, he has by his versatility and attainment given especial 
significance to such an order. University graduates esteem him 
as having shed lustre upon their confraternity, though he did once 
say that 'at Cambridge he found attendance at ordinary lectures 
a somewhat irksome and ineffectual means of increasing human 
knowledge'. They remember, however, that he was a favourite 



354 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

pupil and later an intimate friend of Henry Sidgwick, and that he 
turns from the cares of State to seek refreshment in the calm of 
philosophy, though true to his spirit of philosophic doubt he half 
inclines to the world's opinion, when he chaffs the metaphysicians 
as being a strange folk 'gently quarrelling with each other in an 
unknown tongue'. Was it from true sympathy or irony that Mr. 
Balfour wrote 'Foundations of Belief and 'Humanism and Theism 1 
in his leisure moments? None of those who read these books 
carefully can fail to perceive that they are pervaded by sympathy 
with the philosopher. Whether addressing the scientists of the 
world at the great Darwin celebration in Cambridge, or giving a 
lead to the deliberations of the Conference of the Universities of the 
Empire, or granting degrees as Chancellor of the University of 
Edinburgh, Mr. Balfour is accepted by university constituencies 
as their worthy representative. 

"But to the world at large Mr. Balfour is known for having 
performed with distinction the duties of the greatest offices in the 
State. He is one of those fortunate men whose career has been 
equally brilliant in initial promise and in full accomplishment. 
Though he had at his disposal through inheritance most powerful 
influences, he himself has earned the respect of the British people 
by his sheer ability, his calm judgment, his fearless action in the 
hardest tasks and his personal charm. 

"But in his forty years of public service perhaps no one act 
has been pregnant with greater issues than the mission to the 
United States of America, which he has just brought to a conclusion ; 
not only did he contribute of his wisdom and experience to the 
solution of the immediate problems of that country occasioned by 
the war, but having also caught the imagination of the American 
people as no other Briton has ever done, he has in his person re- 
united in sympathy in a wonderful way the English-speaking nations 
and has established more securely the Western civilisation of which 
he is so perfect an ambassador. 

"These are but a few of the reasons why Mr. Balfour is worthy 
of the highest honour that we can bestow upon him." 
Mr. Balfour replied as follows: 

"Mr. Chancellor, Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: It 
would at any time and in any circumstances be a very great honour 
to receive a degree from this University. It is, I am told, and I 
well believe it, the largest University in the British Empire. It 
carries on to a degree therefore unparalleled elsewhere the great 



THE BALFOUR CONVOCATION 355 

work of training the future rulers of industry, of politics, of liter- 
ature and of learning. That such a body should grant a country- 
man from overseas the honour of a degree is one which would 
always claim his deepest recognition and his warmest gratitude. 
The President has added, if possible, to the intrinsic value of the 
honour in the speech in which he has just recommended me to the 
Chancellor for the conferring of the degree. 

"He has referred in terms far too laudatory to the mission just 
brought to a conclusion in the United States. I will say nothing 
upon that subject except this one thing. In my view, a view which 
I have held ever since I held any view upon international politics, 
there never were two nations better fitted to understand each other 
than the Republic of the United States and the British Empire 
(applause) and there never were two States whose grounds of 
agreement were more surely or more deeply founded in the historic 
past; whose causes of difference, where they have existed, have been 
superficial ; where the causes of sympathy have been more profound 
and irremovable. If I have assisted, even in the smallest degree, 
to make that great fundamental truth apparent to all men speaking 
the English language, following laws based upon the British laws, 
employing and adding to British literature if, I say, I have done 
anything, even of the smallest degree, to aid that comprehension, 
intended by nature from the first, I have reason to congratulate 
myself more deeply, more profoundly, than upon any other action 
of my public life. 

"When I turn indeed, ladies and gentlemen, from the obser- 
vations made by the President to the more academic side of my 
public career, I am not sure that I have equal reason to congratulate 
myself. He appears to have studied my works with great attention 
(laughter) and to have extracted from them one or two obser- 
vations which I by no means feel disposed to withdraw, but which I 
did not wish placed before such an audience under the limelight of 
public criticism. 

"It is quite true that I did not think that lectures were always 
the best and most abundant source from which the spring of learn- 
ing flows. I think I noticed as your President read the extract 
from the essay in question (or was it a speech? I forget) that he 
laid rather unkind emphasis on the word 'Cambridge.' I can 
assure him that my observations applied just as much to Oxford 
as to Cambridge (applause and laughter) and, unless I am 
greatly mistaken, just as much to Toronto as to Oxford. 



356 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

"One thing I say with confidence, I may have lapsed in an erring 
moment into the observation to which your attention has been 
drawti, but the most hostile critic may examine everything I have 
written and everything I have said from beginning to end with the 
minutest care and he will not find one observation which suggests 
that I do not regard universities as a great civilising influence of 
any community in which they flourish. 

"I am a profound believer in university education. I believe in it, 
not merely nor solely, nor even chiefly, because it is possible to 
acquire at universities a great deal of knowledge of one kind or 
another which may be essential and useful in later years of life. 
Of course that is true, and of course that is one of the great reasons 
that universities exist; but universities have done much more than 
provide machinery for imparting learning. They have been the 
means of not merely uplifting man, but of forming and creating 
character. In that great work it is not merely the official teachers 
sometimes I think that the official teachers contribute, except 
indirectly, perhaps, less than the fellow-students, the men with 
whom as learners we are thrown into constant collision day by day. 
That is as great a source, believe me, in training and education as 
anything which books or lectures or examinations can possibly 
offer. 

"Let any man I am now addressing the older members of the 
audience, who, like myself, look back upon their university experi- 
ence as a far-distant but happy memory let any of those look back 
upon what they most valued in university life and they will find 
it will be the personal intercourse with teachers or pupils, with the 
lecturer or the students; it will be the action and reaction of mind 
on mind, the influence of a common life, the joy of common 
memories, the feeling of brotherhood in a great institution to which 
he once belonged and still belongs, a famous institution in whose 
triumphs he shares, and whose future he believes and hopes will add 
greatly to the glory of his own country and the heritage of mankind. 

"Ladies and gentlemen, it may perhaps seem to you that this is 
hardly the moment in which to allow one's thoughts to play freely 
upon the joys and benefits of academic life. The University of 
Toronto, like Oxford, like Cambridge, like Edinburgh, Glasgow, 
like every university in this British Empire, has suffered sorely from 
the war. Your lecture rooms are emptied, young members of the 
staff themselves are serving at the front, and a vast number of 
these are risking their lives, and, as we all know, too many of them 
have already sacrificed their lives. 



THE BALFOUR CONVOCATION 357 

"The indignation which I feel and which I believe to be shared 
by all of you against those who are responsible for the state of things 
in which young men in the prime and promise of their lives, the 
future leaders of thought, of industry, the future leaders and 
statesmen of their country, are cut off even before they have been 
able to show the full flower of the performance of their life my 
indignation rebels against this as perhaps the greatest of the many 
great crimes which have taken place. We cannot help feeling 
appalled at what has occurred and in what is daily occurring at the 
front, not only adding to the suffering and bereavement, but the 
free progress of the race is hampered and throttled by losing so many 
of these youngest and best men. It is best that I put that thought 
away from me, as I believe fundamentally erroneous. 

" I saw just now the honoured roll of those belonging to the Uni- 
versity of Toronto who have already perished in the war. I refuse to 
think, I don't think, that they have perished in vain. I don't merely 
mean that their efforts as soldiers or as doctors or whatever they 
may be I don't merely mean that they have helped, and we 
recognise they have helped, to bring a victory to the Allies which 
means in the long run victory to civilisation. I mean something 
deeper and profounder, something more intimately connected with 
the life of this University . Believe me, the sacrifice made by these 
young men, with all life before them, is not merely service to their 
country and to the world, it is direct service to the university which 
they have left for more dangerous and perilous methods of doing 
their duty in that station in the Empire to which they have been 
called. 

"And the reason I think so is that there is a common life belong- 
ing to every great institution, and above all to every great university 
which goes on continually from generation to generation, which 
knows no break, which is the very ideal of earthly immortality. 
Now when the future generations come to this great seat of learning 
in order to equip themselves for the struggle in life which is before 
them, do not doubt that they will get inspiration by looking at that 
list of immortal heroes; that they will feel that the University 
which they have attended is no mere organisation for imparting 
useful information, but that in its life it has done glorious and 
heroic things, and if the need should again come upon the country 
which it serves, the need will again be satisfied with equal courage, 
equal patriotism, and equal devotion to public duty. 



358 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

"Mr. Chancellor, ladies and gentlemen, to belong to such a body, 
to see the results of so much that the University has done in the past 
and what it is doing and is prepared to do, makes me feel that I am 
now a member of a body which has in it the promise of much in 
the future, and to feel one is rendered illustrious by the sacrifices 
of this great crisis of world-history, makes this one of the proudest 
moments of my life. 

"Mr. Chancellor, ladies and gentlemen, I most warmly thank 
you for the manner in which you have received me, and I most 
heartily give of my gratitude to the authorities of this University 
who have thought me not unworthy of the highest honour it is in 
their power to bestow." 

After the applause and the spontaneous burst of cheers which 
followed it had died away, Chancellor Meredith arose and pro- 
nounced the classic formula "Convocatio dimissa est". The 
organist played and the audience sang "God Save the King", and 
the procession moved slowly out of the hall, while the audience again 
gave vent to their feelings in renewed cheering. To the last the 
new graduate bended his looks on the friendly faces which smiled 
back at him from all parts of the great octagonal chamber. To the 
honoris causa of the Senate, the University convocation was ready 
to add favoris et amor is causa. Never was good feeling more 
abundantly shown nor more evidently reciprocated. And some of 
us as we walked away recalled the youthful enthusiasm of David 
Irons and wished that all Toronto's graduates had been able to 
witness that historic scene. One colleague, not a Scotchman, 
confessed that he found in Mr. Balfour's face a benediction and 
in his words the incitement to a higher life. Another has taken all 
his works out of the Library, and intends subscribing to the London 
Morning Post which prints Mr. Balfour's speeches in full. Let us 
hope that our youngest graduate may live long enough to return 
after the war and perhaps give a course of Marfleet lectures on how 
he healed the schism in the Anglo-Saxon race. 

D. R. KEYS. 



LIEUTENANT-COLONEL NASMITH 

Address of Dr. W. H. Ellis in presenting Lieut. -Col. Nasmith for the degree 
of D.Sc. at Commencement. 

"Mr. Chancellor : I have the honour to present to you Lieut. -Col. 
George Gallic Nasmith, C.M.G., Ph.D., for admission to the 
degree of Doctor of Science honoris causa. 

"There never was a time when science was held in more general 
esteem than the present. Science has come to be recognised as 
the handmaid of industry, and industry has become the slave of war. 
Industry, with the assistance of science, is straining every nerve to 
produce engines of destruction for earth, air, sea and beneath the 
sea, but Minerva bears a shield as well as a spear. Science is a 
protector as well as a destroyer and science has won some of her 
brightest triumphs in relation to public health. We may be proud 
that in this domain England occupies the first place. Before 
Pasteur brought the methods of the chemical laboratory into the 
service of the biologist and bacteriology became an exact science, 
English physicians divined the truth as to the origin and mode of 
propagation of epidemics and devised means for their prevention. 
In this war sanitary science has achieved a marvellous triumph. 
Whereas typhoid fever invalided one in nine in the Boer War, and 
one in five in the Spanish-American War, in this war, thanks to 
inoculation and water purification, it has almost disappeared. 
According to the latest reports at my disposal the number of cases 
in one week in the British Army is given as follows: In France 4, in 
Salonica 9, in Egypt 3 and in Mesopotamia 8. Total 24. 

"In this beneficent field, Col. Nasmith won his laurels. He 
graduated in 1900 with honours in Natural Science and was awarded 
the degree of Ph.D. in 1903 for a research on gluten. In 1902 he was 
appointed Chemist of the Provincial Board of Health and there 
devised a simple method of water purification still in use all over 
the world, and conducted a research on the action of carbon 
monoxide on the blood, a subject the importance of which became 
evident in the course of the war. At the outbreak of war Dr. 
Nasmith was appointed Sanitary Adviser to the First Canadian 
Expeditionary Force with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. He had 
charge of the water supply at Valcartier and successfully protected 
the troops from the dangers of contaminated water. He went 
overseas in command of the Fifth (Canadian) Mobile Laboratory, 

[359] 



360 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

in which laboratory he won the recognition of both sanitarians and 
military men and was sent to represent Canada at the War Allies' 
Sanitary Commission in Paris in March, 1916. In recognition of 
his services he was invested by the King as a Companion of the 
Order of St. Michael and St. George. 

"Col. Nasmith was present at Ypres on the memorable 22nd of 
April, 1916, and witnessed the attack by means of poison gas, 
to combat which he suggested a method which proved effectual and 
which, with some modifications, is still in use." 



G. E. Jackson, who wrote the two poems following, was formerly 
lecturer in Economics at the University of Toronto and Secretary 
to the Ontario Commission on Unemployment and is now serving 
in Mesopotamia in the Royal West Kent Regiment. 

THE JACKALS SPEAK 

The sun is set; the four red rays 

Are fading in the western sky; 
The bullock carts have gone their ways ; 

The silly mules have all passed by; 
The voice, that o'er the desert strays, 

Heeds not the jackals' cry. 

The carts, that spoil our sleep by day, 

The roaring carts, at last are still ; 
Nor ox nor mule, nor yoke nor stay 

They heed, but drive us where they will; 
Allah! to Whom the jackals pray, 

Pray let them sleep their fill ! 

That moon, that hangs above the grove, 

Expectant, is the jackals' lamp: 
Good is it o'er the waste to rove, 

And good to skirt the sleeping camp. 
To them that find, is treasure-trove. 

Hark ! How the watch-dogs ramp ! 



POETRY 361 

Aldebaran is out to-night: 

His darts, across the Shadow flung, 
Fail not. How swift and true their flight: 

The pack is out, the night is young, 
Praise to the Hunter, in the Height! 

Brothers! give Tongue! give Tongue! 

G. E. J. 



CIRCUMSTANCES 

Rich argosies at Ashar lie, 

Ships moored and mirrored in mid-stream 
Asleep; and, in a noonday dream, 

Brood always on their Odyssey. 

Brave is their exodus; for them 

Waters of pearl that, unconfined, 
Unhurried, subtly devious, wind 

The wilderness a diadem. 

Away past green Mohammerah, 
Past restless, fevered Abadan, 
Past all the scattered tents of man, 

To where the troubled waters are 

The fancy follows ; roaming free 

Beyond old ocean's mountain gate, 
To Hindostan, that lies in state 

For men to gaze on majesty; 

To Plymouth, hopeful of our kind; 

To church bells ringing on the hill, 
That greet an English wanderer still 

As once they greeted "Golden Hind"; 

To Cambridge, through whose narrow streets 
And dreaming courts, in jest and song 
And long dispute of right and wrong, 

The pulse of youth forever beats; 



362 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

To villages in Holderness, 

Where Hedon sleeps at Havenside; 
Where Paull rides out the swinging tide, 

And Winestead wears her woodland dress ; 

And, far beyond the northern shire, 

To kind hearts harbouring in York, 
The dancing shadows, and the talk; 

The vacant seat beside the fire ; 

The solemn woods, that wear a fleece 

So white and soft and innocent, 

It seems, in winter's great event, 
The snows have covered them with peace. 

So fares the soul ; no singing breeze 

More free not though the ropes and stays 
Of great ships speed it on their ways 

To cross, and cross again the seas. 

But here, within the narrow space 
From desert rim to desert rim, 
The feet are stayed; the gypsy whim, 

That lives within the desert race, 

Caged; and the road that man has made, 

Where dead things make it foul of breath, 
Hath seen such cruelties and death 
That in high noon we were afraid. 
31st March, 1917. G. E. J. 



IN FLANDERS FIELDS 

This poem appeared in Punch. It was written by a graduate 
of this University, serving at the front. 

In Flanders fields the poppies grow 
Between the crosses, row on row, 
That mark our place, and in the sky 
The larks still bravely singing fly, 
Scarce heard amid the guns below. 



POETRY 363 

We are the dead ; short days ago 
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow, 
Loved and were loved, and now we lie 
In Flanders fields. 

Take up our quarrel with the foe; 
To you from falling hands we throw 
The torch ; be yours to hold it high ; 

If ye break faith with us who die, 
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow 

In Flanders fields. 



Latin version by Principal Hutton. 

IN AGRO BELGICO 

Longa stat series hie rudium crucum 
Et, cuiusque sua sub cruce, militum 

Strages; perque cruces mille papavera 
Sunt et sub crucibus mille cadavera. 

Flagrat rubra suis mista rubris strues ; 
Flores et madidi sanguine coespites. 

At sublime canens carmen alauda fit, 
Ne inter bella quidem secius occinit. 

Subter cassa cohors quae f uit ante nos : 
Vivebamus heri non secus atque vos. 

Viventes hilaros lucifer ordiens 
Arridebat adhuc, nee minus occidens. 

At nunc obruitur quisque silentio; 
Cessat c'onscia mens corpore livido. 

Frustra est, quicquid amabant et amaverant: 
Frustra est, quicquid amabantur amati erant. 



364 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Tu qui nunc aciei superaveris, 
Cura ut strenuo earn continuaveris 

Finem ad legitimum: non aliter quidem 
Sponsam Manibus his reddideris fidem. 

Vitae lampada enim si manibus tuis 
Tradet nostra manus languida languidis, 

Nee Manes facile oblivia ceperint 
Nee quanquam Elysii rite quieverint, 

Nee solventur humo nostra cadavera 
Nee nasci poterunt rubra papavera. 



BOOK REVIEWS 

From the St. Lawrence to the Yser with the First Canadian Brigade. 

FREDERICK C. CURRY. Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild 

& Stewart. 

This account, based mostly on personal experiences of the early 
history of the First Brigade, is written by a graduate of the Univer- 
sity of Toronto. Captain (then Lieut.) Curry went over with the 
First Contingent. He first describes briefly the previous condition 
of the Canadian Militia, and in a chapter on Valcartier Camp 
indicates the first stages in the process of transforming 30,000 men 
hastily gathered together, into a fighting division. To Lieut.- 
Gen. Sir Sam Hughes he gives a considerable measure of credit for 
the success that was attained. The writer did not cross with the 
first draft to Flanders, being among those retained in reserve. 
Consequently he was not present at the battle of St. Julien, but he 
quotes from an account written by a brother officer, who has since 
fallen, of a small part of that engagement, which well illustrates 
the desperate nature of that heroic fight. Immediately after, 
Capt. Curry was sent over with a draft, and he vividly describes 
the initiation of the new arrivals till the draft was "broken in". 
Chapter XI describes life in reserve billets, followed by the "trek 
south" from Bailleul to Bethune. In May the Canadians were 



BOOK REVIEWS 365 

again in action at Festhubert. We read in detail of the part played 
by the Central Ontario Battalion and others both there and at 
Givenchy. Through the winter the same units endured the hard- 
ships of guarding the line at Ploegsteert and northwards facing 
Messines. Captain Curry remained with his battalion throughout 
till the summer of 1916, when he was temporarily transferred to the 
Engineers, and while serving with them was wounded. Numerous 
incidents of trench warfare are vividly described. In a few pages 
the writer has often been very successful in portraying the endur- 
ance and the heroism of the men of the First Division. The book is 
well illustrated by a number of good photographs, taken it would 
seem by the writer himself. In the frontispiece, with others, is the 
portrait of Lieut. Herbert Klotz, one of the first of our graduates 
to fall in action. 

The book concludes with a tribute to the memory of Captain 
George Richardson, of Queen's University. "On Christmas Day 
there were the usual toasts and speeches, and before the party broke 
up Captain Richardson asked for a few minutes' silent prayer for 
those who would not be present at our next dinner. It was a 
wonderful tribute to his sincerity that this was granted, for the 
evening was well advanced, and soldiers, as a rule, dislike having 
their religion tampered with by any one but chaplains and other 
authorised persons .... He was the first of us to go but a few 
weeks later .... So died a man who never gave a command 
he would not himself have executed willingly, and whose character 
and ideals were such that all who knew him envied him." 

G. o. s. 

Le Feu, Journal d'une Escouade, par HENRI BARBUSSE, Paris, 1915. 
Le Feu, like its predecessor Gaspard, has been crowned by the 

Academic Goncourt. With Gaspard and Bourru it forms a series 
of strongly-written war-books of considerable interest. Looked 
at from the artistic standpoint Gaspard is the best of the three. 
The author has succeeded therein in sketching a character who gives 
you the illusion of being a real, living man, worthy of a place 
alongside Sam Weller or Daudet's Tartarin. The plot also is 
conceived and carried out in a more satisfying manner than the 
plots of Bourru or Le Feu. Bourru, however, excels the other two in 
psychological penetration and in a certain religious tenderness. 

Le Feu is the story of a squad of infantry under the leadership 
of Corporal Bertrand. Poor Bertrand, so good a soldier, so 



366 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

energetic and clear-headed, beloved of his men, is towards the end 
of the story found dead by the few who survive a horrible encounter 
with the Boches. He was a fine-looking fellow, but what a horrible 
sight he was when dead ! His hair down in his eyes, his moustache 
in the froth of his mouth, a leer on his face, one eye closed, his arms 
stretched out, one leg smashed by a shell all this made the men 
turn their eyes from the sight! They are a very mixed group of all 
ages, trades and regions. There are Poterloo the miner from the 
north of France, and Fouillade the dock-hand from Cette in the 
south. Cocon the thin fellow, with spectacles on, and his town air, 
is in striking contrast to Biquet the roughly-hewn Breton. Andre 
Mesnil, the pharmacist from the small Norman town, who talks so 
nicely, is quite different from Lamuse, the fat farm labourer from 
Poitou. Paradis had been a teamster. Cadilhac had a farm of his 
own and Blaire was a tenant farmer from la Brie. 

There were no representatives of the liberal professions in this 
squad or near by. They were common, fighting soldiers without 
intellectuels , artists or rich men amongst them. In spite of any 
differences existing, there were great similarities. They spoke the 
same speech, a mixture of the slang of shops and garrisons with 
local patois thrown in. 

One great characteristic of the men is their patience. For days 
and days they wait in the same trenches, until they become 
"waiting machines". They wait for the cooks to bring on the 
"grub ", they wait for the relieving squads. When they dare to lift 
their heads they stretch themselves straight, if not, they wait 
squat on their haunches. They puddle round in the same dirty 
water up to their knees, unless indeed they are in sticky mud 
almost as deep. After a certain lapse of time in the stinking 
trenches our group is relieved and it goes back to better quarters 
for a rest. The cantonnement may occupy nothing but a farm 
steading. But the joy of being in a dry, clean place, with a roof 
overhead and good straw to sleep on is intense. No mud, no vile 
odours, no vermin, and the men sleep and sleep and sleep. It is 
heaven. Then the order comes to march out to meet the Boches 
in a new encounter. The shells burst in every direction. Men fall 
to right and left, but on the rest go, and at the point of the bayonet 
take more trenches. Sometimes new trenches have to be dug in 
front of the enemy, with snipers and machine guns active. 

Of such is the soldier's life made up. Does he like it? No. 
There is no poetry left for him, nothing but march, fight and 



BOOK REVIEWS 367 

be killed. He is not surprised that there are "slackers". If 
Millerand, the Minister of War, says, to the Chamber of Deputies, 
that there are none, then he is a "skunk". But if the soldier uses 
strong language his spirit is really very humane. Even the Boches 
are not hated very intensely. They are after all men "just like 
us" they fight because they have to, we have to kill them if we 
can, and they try to kill us. "Voil&!" 

In the pauses the men discuss matters of high import. Is war 
necessary? When will this war close? Will there be any more 
war? Probably yes, for there are those who live by war, the 
selfish, financial monsters who profit by it. There are also those 
who love the sparkling exchange of blows, who, like women, love 
the sight of brilliant uniform and the sound of drums. There are 
those who bury themselves in the past, the traditionalists who 
believe that the future will be like the past, full of the din of war. 
You cannot change men, they have always fought, they always will 
fight. With these, are all the clergy who try to rock men to sleep 
with the morphia of Paradise. All the lawyers and economists are 
on their side too who proclaim the antagonism of the races. Scholars 
are often a variety of dunce who lose sight of the simplicity of 
things and darken counsel by formulas and many details. In 
books we often learn the little things, not the great. 

There is a degree of frank criticism about the book which is 
remarkable. War is represented as a horrible thing. All the 
tinsel is stripped from it. The government is criticised for lack of 
fairness. And the church, as well as theological doctrines, is 
blamed for its share in developing the militarist spirit. J. s. 

Our Progress-Idea and the War. An Essay Concerning Recent 
Literature. By GEORGE ROY ELLIOTT. Pp. 49 (Present- 
Day Problems Series. Boston; Richard G. Badger, 
1916.) 

This book belongs to the literature of reaction from modern 
rationalism. The author believes that the ideals of progress and 
human solidarity have been perverted by materialism and by 
democracy and thus made ineffective against the outbreak of 
nationalism responsible for the war. He maintains that since about 
1860 (that is, presumably, since the promulgation of the Darwinian 
theory) there has been a steady decline in idealistic literature, due 
to the growth of materialism and of the democratic spirit. The 
idealism of Goethe, Carlyle, and Emerson has been subtly trans- 



368 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

formed into a mere belief in material progress, without spiritual or 
intangible elements, perfectly intelligible to the average man, whose 
limited nature it reflects. "Demonaturalism" is the portentous 
name invented by Mr. Elliott for this new conception of life, and he 
finds it in all the representative writers of our age, from Swinburne 
to Wells. "Life has been restricted more definitely than ever to 
its sheer this-worldly terms." Meredith, for instance, uses the 
word "earth" to indicate his belief that human and natural life are 
one. In modern drama, from Ibsen to Shaw, "progress both in the 
individual and the race is conceived as the evolution of natural 
desires, directed by dialectic reason." Carlyle's hero-worship has 
given way to the glorification of the average men in the Superman of 
Nietzche and in the Utopian writings of Wells. The conception of 
preternatural forces, transforming society has yielded increasingly 
to monistic and materialistic views, readily appealing to democracy. 

Now, this "demonaturalist" idea of evolutionary progress 
ignores man's impulse to dualism to the belief in two worlds, 
a material and a transcendent. Hence in the sphere of inter- 
national relations, "demonaturalism" has failed to bring universal 
peace. A progress purely worldly and material, an internationalism 
wholly based on self-interest, on the argument that war does not 
pay, are ideas coldly intellectual. They could not restrain men's 
glowing, unreasoning response to the call of the nation an entity 
to which a people gives the strongest loyalty because they feel it to 
be preterhuman and preternatural. The author instances the 
semi-religious nationalism of French literature immediately before 
the war, and finds similar tendencies in Cramb's "Germany and 
England" and the later poetry of Rupert Brooke. 

One must agree with Mr. Elliott that sceptical materialism 
cannot control the violent forces of national enmity and that some 
other-worldly emotion is necessary to overmaster these forces and 
bring about a true international accord. He attempts to describe 
the needed remedy as a super-nationalism based on a fusion of 
justice and amity, conceived not as evolved, but as divinely imposed 
upon society. This is a fairly definite statement of the aims which 
lovers of progress should have before them; but the proposal that 
these aims should be inculcated by a course of ethics which should 
be central in every secondary school curriculum is mechanical. 
Mr. Elliott's arraignment of modern literature must also be criticised 
as too sweeping. In several of the authors he cites for example, 
Meredith, Hardy, Wells, and Shaw there is more genuine idealism 



LETTERS FROM THE FRONT 369 

than he will admit. Hardy's Dynasts, for instance, vividly 
expresses belief in an immanent will at work behind life's shifting 
contrasts, which will ultimately "fashion all things fair". 

Of the style of this essay one cannot speak favourably. There 
is a pedantry in diction, a disregard of euphony in the crowding 
together of mouth-filling words, and a somewhat tedious repetition 
of key-phrases and of rather ponderous metaphors; for example 
"the law of contrast and harmony", and the figure of a current 
rising or ebbing in the channels of a stream-bed. The following 
sentences are typical: "It is this comparison that is stimulating 
within us, consciously or not, a conviction that the progress-idea 
in our time has been less effective than prominent, professedly 
actualistic and yet haltingly theoretic." "It should be added that 
the literature of our age has a mystic strain of its own. But this, 
like the religious phenomena noted above, has evinced either the 
thinness of extraneity or an ambiguous vitality produced by assimila- 
tion to demonaturalism" . (The italics are the reviewer's.) It is to 
be hoped that the ugly and barbarous Graeco-Latin coinage 
"demonaturalism" will never be generally adopted. 

It must be added that the thought of the essay is usually clear 
and free from vagueness, that the book is accurately and attrac- 
tively printed, and finally that it helpfully criticises a real weakness 
in modern ideas of progress. w. H. c. 



LETTERS FROM THE FRONT 

France, December 29th, 1916. 
Dear Friends: 

This is the first opportunity that I have had to write and thank 
you for your many Christmas parcels. All arrived in good time and 
none were damaged. As I opened each parcel and undid its many 
wrappings, I enjoyed once again the eager excitement of my boyhood 
Christmas mornings. This year, I have missed the great pleasure 
of sending little tokens of love and good wishes, but each of you has 
my deepest gratitude and abiding friendship. 

I regret exceedingly that I am at present unable to write each 
of you a personal letter of thanks but am trying to send a card 



370 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

acknowledging the parcel. I will try to catch up with my corres- 
pondence in the near future but please accept this letter as an 
answer to any I owe you and don't stop writing. 

My many friends have made my life out here as pleasant as 
possible and it is their prayers and trust in me which have helped 
me to live as I ought. Life here is trying and temptations are many 
and hard to combat. All types and classes of men are thrown 
into intimate contact with one another and unconsciously we are 
drawn together by bonds of friendship and the ties of our common 
life. A man's soul is often laid bare and life is stripped of all its 
frivolities but our manhood has stood the test. 

Since joining the army I have had some interesting and exciting 
experiences. I have seen more of the world than ever before and 
have an intimate knowledge of parts of the British Isles, Belgium, 
and France. In fact it is a common saying over here that we have 
done a walking tour of Northern France. For lack of any definite 
news I will try to give a brief summary of my life since leaving dear 
old Canada. 

Up until the time we came to France, I experienced almost 
exactly what every other soldier endures while training, long hours 
of drilling, hard beds and few luxuries. At first it was trying, but 
the novelty and excitement of the strange new life kept it from 
becoming monotonous. A deep enthusiasm and a longing for what 
was to come made the time pass quickly and I rather enjoyed the 
change. There were no hardships worth mentioning and the 
regular hours and plain food together with plenty of exercise kept 
one in good physical trim. 

When we left England, I was a mounted despatch rider and 
dreamed of daring dashes across shell swept areas with urgent 
despatches. After a twenty-four hour ride in a tightly packed 
horse car, followed immediately by a long night march, I was too 
tired to dream at all. Next day we marched to our first rest 
station in France and awaited orders to go forward. 

We camped in a field, which, during the great German drive 
towards Paris, had been occupied by enemy cavalry. The village 
nearby bore many evidences of fighting in several ruined houses 
and many bullet marks on the walls. The church spire was almost 
completely shot away and we gathered many souvenirs during our 
short stay. . 

In a few days we moved towards the firing line and occupied a 
reserve position just over the Belgian border. A big fight was on 



LETTERS FROM THE FRONT 371 

and the roar and rumble of the guns kept us awake at night. Every 
day we witnessed air fights and often the sky was thickly dotted 
with white and black puffs of smoke from anti-aircraft shrapnel. 
On several occasions we were forced to take shelter from the falling 
splinters and shrapnel bullets. I was kept busy laying telephone 
lines to our various units and riding with despatches. However, 
our services were not required in that particular fight, so we were 
moved farther north and sent into the line to hold a quiet stretch of 
front in Belgium. 

Horses were no longer required for our work so I was transferred 
to the office. It was my duty to supervise the delivery of messages 
and despatches and keep a record of everything handled. We 
worked twelve-hour shifts in a dark cellar under a fine old Belgian 
chateau. 

At first everything was quiet and all went well. We walked 
about the beautiful grounds unmolested and thoroughly explored 
the extensive flower gardens and orchards. The village remained 
almost intact and many civilians still clung to their homes. We 
spent our spare time and all of our money in their houses drinking 
coffee, etc., and eating all sorts of dishes. Most of the villagers 
had never seen so much money before and they did everything 
possible to get what little we had. 

About a month later things became very lively. Our quiet 
little village became a mass of ruins in less than a month. The 
inhabitants were forced to leave and it became so unsafe to walk 
about day or night that we moved our headquarters to a quieter 
locality. It became a common occurrence to lie in the most con- 
venient shell hole or sheltered spot and watch houses and streets go 
heavenward. Narrow escapes were frequent but casualties 
remarkably few. 

It was now necessary for us to maintain an advanced lineman's 
station and battle headquarters. I with three others was detailed 
to man this station. We fitted out a fine large dugout on a sunken 
road and were quite comfortable. Very few shells landed near our 
little home and we kept to the trenches as much as possible during 
daylight. We cooked our meals in a sandbagged cellar of an old 
house and ate with the observers and trench policemen; we fared 
remarkably well and were happy and contented. 

After about four months of this life we were sent to France for a 
month's rest. We were billeted in private houses and our meals were 
cooked by the French women of our billets. The privilege of sitting 



372 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

at a table with someone to serve and no dishes to wash, was worth 
far more than the trifling sum we paid for extras and service. 

Shortly after our return to the line we were called upon to relieve 
Imperial troops who had been badly cut up in a fight for several 
enormous mine craters. From then on we learned what warfare 
really is. Our casualties were extremely heavy and we were worked 
to exhaustion. However we held the ground and kept up com- 
munications. I was too busy to be nervous and laughed and joked 
with the others despite the horrible and ghastly sights we were 
forced to endure every day. During severe fighting we were 
relieved every few days and sent back for rest and reinforcements. 
During quiet spells we repaired the damage and prepared for the 
next fight. 

Our unit was moved about considerably and we acted as a flying 
column, that is we were rushed in, wherever needed, and held on till 
relieved by fresh troops. 

During one of these periods I was slightly wounded in the hand 
and recommended for a medal. After a brief treatment in field 
hospital, I was allowed to go on leave. Despite my injured hand I 
had a glorious time, thanks to my kind Canadian friends who 
treated me as one of themselves. My few days in London were 
crammed with motor rides, sight-seeing, shopping, theatre-going, 
eating and sleeping. I returned to France thoroughly refreshed 
and ready for another long spell of war. 

I was in Boulogne hospital for a few days after my return to 
France owing to illness caused by inoculation and to give my hand 
an opportunity of thoroughly healing; was discharged from hospital 
to clearing station and then shipped in a crowded horse car to 
Canadian base. It was a long miserable ride and quite a come- 
down from what I had enjoyed in Blighty. I was re-equipped and 
thoroughly examined at base and then, after several days' drilling, 
etc., was sent with several hundreds more, to rejoin our various 
units. 

I found mine on the same old front and was glad to get back 
once again with my friends and chums from Canada. Things were 
much quieter than formerly and during our rest periods we enjoyed 
ball games and sports of all kinds. The Y.M.C.A. and Soldiers' 
Institute provided concerts and cinema shows and we were well 
looked after. 

Then the great Somme offensive demanded our attention and we 
started south. A long hard march of five days was broken by two 



LETTERS FROM THE FRONT 373 

rests of several days each and this was followed by a long train ride. 
We arrived at the scene of hostilities early in September and our 
work there was very satisfactory, so they say. I never worked so 
hard before and am not anxious to do it again. However, we are 
all satisfied and only did our duty. I made three trips up to the 
front and each time came back utterly fatigued and thoroughly 
convinced of the horrors and hell of war. Each trip lasted about 
five days but they were days of work and nights of sleepless horror. 
However at the time I thought not of these things and went about 
my work cheerfully and with few thoughts of danger. So many 
shells burst within a few yards of me without doing any damage 
that I came to believe that I couldn't be hit. I was fortunate 
enough to be awarded a bar to my military medal so I am almost a 
hero. 

Another five days' march from the Somme brought us to our 
present position where we hope to remain for a short while longer. 
I had just nicely settled down for a quiet winter's work, hoping to 
write many letters, when I was packed off to corps to instruct in a 
school of signalling. I was kept busy then from six forty-five in 
the morning till eight at night with never a moment to myself. I 
gave lectures and demonstrated and taught practical line-work. 
I was thanked for good work but let myself in for another job. 
For, just after returning to my unit for the Christmas festivities, 
I was brought to my present location to instruct in another school. 
I am almost as busy as ever, but hope to have a change shortly and 
will write letters then. This one has taken several days to com- 
plete and it is now several hours past my bed time. 

Thanks to your many parcels and the generosity of our officer, 
to say nothing of the hard work of our cooks and dinner committee, 
we enjoyed an excellent Christmas dinner and a real happy day. 
We sorely missed some of our comrades and longed to be in Canada 
but a soldier must smile and carry on. 
Very sincerely, 

CPL. A. W. CRAWFORD, 
Sig., 6th Inf. Bgde. Hdqts., B.A.Sc. '14. 



The following was received by Professor Keys from Dr. Harley 
Smith (Major) and is evidence that he has not only kept up his 
Italian literature but has not neglected his English authors. 

"Two weeks ago I was sent down to Surrey and Hampshire by 
the Director of Medical Services, to give a series of lectures to the 



374 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Canadian soldiers encamped in those counties. As my work was 
chiefly at night, I had the opportunity by day of rambling through 
the picturesque old-time haunts of Tennyson, George Eliot, Conan 
Doyle, Mrs. Allingham and Mrs. Humphrey Ward. I walked down 
to the three little lakes, called Waggoner's Wells, where Tennyson 
wrote 'Flower in the Crannied Wall', and then along the beautiful 
Tennyson Lane leading up to his Sussex home, Aldsworth, where 
he spent the last twenty-five years of his life. This was one of the 
most delightful walks I have ever taken. Down at Shotterwill, 
near Haslemere, was George Eliot's home for a time. I saw 
'Undershaw', Conan Doyle's house, looking down the Nutcombe 
Valley, and still higher Professor Tyndall's house, partly hidden by 
furze and bracken. In the quaint old St. Bartholomew's Parish 
Church at Haslemere, I saw the tablet erected by the parishioners 
in memory of their dear friend, Alfred Tennyson. 

"But this country is full of sweet associations. It is a great 
privilege to be able to lessen the bitterness of this fearful war, 
gained by these occasional brief tastes of England's wonderfully 
beautiful resources and treasures." 

HARLEY SMITH, B.A. (U.) '84, M.B. '88. 



ANNUAL MEETING OF THE U. OF T. 
ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

THE Annual Meeting of the University of Toronto Alumni 
Association was held in the West Hall of the Main Build- 
ing of the University at 4.30 p.m., on the 17th May, 
1917, the President, Mr. Justice Masten, in the chair, and about 
twenty-five or thirty members present. 

On motion of Mr. Clark and Professor Fields, the minutes of the 
last meeting as published in THE MONTHLY were taken as read. 

It was moved by J. Patterson, seconded by Dr. Goggin, and 
resolved that, notwithstanding any previous resolutions, THE 
MONTHLY should be a charge on the funds of the Alumni Associa- 
tion. 

The Secretary presented the Report of the Executive Committee, 
including the Reports of the Editorial Committee and the Treasurer, 
and also the Financial Statement as prepared by the auditor. 



ANNUAL MEETING 375 

ANNUAL REPORT OF THE EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE OF THE 

UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION 

FOR THE YEAR 1916-17. 

At the last Annual Meeting of the Association, action was 
taken to give effect to the desire expressed by all, that there should 
be a closer connection with the University, by altering the Con- 
stitution so as to permit the Board of Governors to employ an 
Organising Secretary for the Alumni Association. The Executive 
Committee are pleased to report that the Board of Governors have 
been able to make arrangements whereby Dr. A. H. Abbott can 
give most of his time to this work and venture to express the 
expectation that this action will result in one of the great forward 
movements in the University. It had been intended that the active 
work of re-organising the Association should be commenced at the 
beginning of the Michaelmas term but the Provincial Government 
sought Dr. Abbott's aid and assistance in organising the Provincial 
Resources Committee. This work was deemed to be of so great 
importance at the present juncture that it was felt that we should 
loan them the services of Dr. Abbott even though it necessitated 
the postponement of the active prosecution of our own plans. 
To our regret this work has so fully occupied his attention up to 
the present time that our work of re-organisation has not yet 
commenced. 

The first step in organising the Association was the preparation 
of a card index of all the graduates and the Committee are pleased 
to report that the first part of this catalogue has been prepared, 
but before it Can be used for organising purposes, it will be neces- 
sary to have a second index arranged geographically and this will 
shortly be undertaken. 

The organisation of the California branch was completed 
during the year and is now in a flourishing condition". In February 
last, President Falconer and Dr. Abbott attended a meeting of 
the Alumni at Buffalo and as a result of the meeting a large and 
enthusiastic branch organisation for Buffalo and Niagara Falls 
was formed with Dr. John D. Bonnar as President. On the entry 
of the United States into the war, President Falconer, on behalf 
of the University, sent to all our graduates in the United States a 
letter of greetings, a copy of which appears elsewhere in this 
number. 

During the year President Falconer addressed meetings at: 
Woodstock, Montreal, Niagara Falls, Welland, Hamilton, Buffalo, 



376 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Brantford and New York; at Buffalo he was accompanied by Dr. 
Abbott and at New York by Professor DeLury. Dr. Primrose 
represented the University at dinners in Chicago and Detroit. 

The need of the University Hospital Supply Association for 
financial assistance and the evident fact that the work being carried 
on in the interest of the men overseas is the work of the University 
as a whole, appealed so strongly to the Finance Committee that 
an appeal to the graduates of the University was authorised. 
While this appeal has not as yet brought in nearly the amount 
asked for, it has accomplished at least two gratifying results: 
1. Some four thousand dollars has been sent to the Treasurer of 
the Hospital Supply Association. 2. Several hundred new members 
have been brought into the Alumni Association. 

The appeal has also had other results equally gratifying, for 
it has enabled us to check up the addresses of hundreds of the 
Alumni and it has brought in many kindly references to the splendid 
work of the women of the University. 

The Alumni Association is indebted to the President of the 
University and the members of the Board of Governors for the 
aid given this appeal in so kindly defraying the cost of the printing 
and postage, items of no small moment when all the graduates 
are to be circularised. 

It may not be out of place here to state that, apart from the 
financial, red cross, medical, engineering and scientific contribu- 
tions of the University to the war, over 3,800 graduates and under- 
graduates of the University have enlisted and that already 232 
have made the supreme sacrifice for the Empire and civilisation. 
To them the University and the Alumni owe a debt that cannot 
be repaid. Others return to us, some broken in mind and body 
and all suffering from the dislocation of their professional and 
business connections. It seems peculiarly suitable that their 
sacrifice should receive recognition as adequately as possible from 
the brotherhood of their fellow-alumni by a welcome both public 
and private and by practical assistance to aid them in re-establishing 
themselves in civil life among us. 

REPORT OF THE EDITORIAL COMMITTEE. 

At the beginning of the year^changes were made in the form of 
the MONTHLY, whereby about one-third more material was printed 
per page than formerly. This has enabled the Committee to 



ANNUAL MEETING 377 

publish at least the same amount as before in less space and with- 
out increasing the cost per issue. 

The Roll of Honour and matters connected with the war have 
naturally occupied a prominent place in the MONTHLY and some 
1,200 names have been added to the Roll during the year. 

Professor G. Oswald Smith resigned his position as editor in 
January to edit the Official Roll of Service to be published by the 
University and the Committee desire to take this opportunity 
of acknowledging its indebtedness to Professor Smith for the 
faithful manner in which he carried out his work during his term 
of office and for his kindness in continuing to edit the Roll of 
Honour. For the balance of the year Professor J. Squair has very 
successfully carried on the work and the Committee cannot express 
too strongly its gratitude to Professor Squair for carrying on this 
work at much inconvenience to himself. 

The advertising for the year was slightly better than last 
year, and it, together with the grant from the Board of Governors 
and one half the fees, was sufficient to meet all the expenses of the 
MONTHLY except $35.37. 

THE TREASURER'S STATEMENT. 

The appointment of an organising Secretary made it necessary 
to make important changes in the office, chief of which was the 
employment of an office Secretary who could also do the work of 
the assistant editor. In regard to the card index, the Finance 
Committee desires to express its gratitude to the Board of Gover- 
nors for defraying the cost of printing the cards and supplying 
the filing cabinets. The index has cost the Association to date, 
more than half the time of the office Secretary and $150.00 in 
extra help, making a total cost of at least $400.00. The office 
changes and the card index thus involved a considerable addition 
to the liabilities of the Association and the Finance Committee 
was faced with the fact that with the most rigid economy it would 
have a deficit of nearly $400.00 this year unless some special 
means were taken to raise this amount. The opportunity occurred 
in connection with the University Hospital Supply Association 
and in response to the appeal sent out by the Organising Secretary, 
as already explained, $440.00 in subscriptions were obtained, but 
it must be remembered that most of these subscriptions do not 
expire until April 1918. 



378 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Hitherto separate financial statements have been given tor 
the Alumni Association and for the UNIVERSITY MONTHLY, but 
in accordance with the resolution which was passed at the last 
Annual Meeting that the two statements be combined, only one 
statement is given: it is drawn, however, to give the same inform- 
ation as before to those who desire it. 

The fees collected from the members of the Association were 
slightly less than last year, but with the $440.00 received through 
Dr. Abbott's appeal they amounted to $1041.90. The special 
subscriptions for the Secretarial Fund were $369.75 as against 
$409.00 for the previous year. Advertising amounted to $1,756.90, 
an increase of $31.80, and the revenue from all other sources was 
$546.97. As regards the principal items of expenditure, printing 
the MONTHLY cost $1,517.90, a decrease of $59.80; salaries amounted 
to $1,303.67 as against $1,000.00 last year. The net result of this 
year's operations is a surplus of $82.71. The financial statement as 
prepared by the auditor is appended. 



UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO ALUMNI ASSOCIATION. 

Balance Sheet, April 30th, 1917. 

LIABILITIES. 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE: 

University of Toronto Press $1,356. 15 

J. A. Harkins (Advertising Agent) 257.91 

Salaries Due 358.33 

$1,972.39 

Unearned Advertising 568 . 12 

Alumni Surplus, April 30th, 1916 $2,181 . 43 

MONTHLY Deficit, April 30th, 1916 1,297.67 

MONTHLY Surplus, April 30th, 1916 $883. 76 

Surplus for the year 82.71 966.47 

$3,516.98 
ASSETS 

Advertisers' Balances $1,381.62 

Board of Governors 388.89 

$1,770.51 

Commissions on Unearned Advertising 148. 82 

Cash in Bank Current Account $101 . 41 

Cash in Bank Savings Accounts 1,056. 24 

Cash on hand 440. 00 

1,597.65 



$3,516.98 



ANNUAL MEETING 379 

REVENUE AND EXPENDITURE. 

For the year ending April 30th, 1917. 
REVENUE: 

Alumni Fees $1,041.90 

Special Subscriptions 369 . 75 

Interest and Discount 25 . 15 

- $1,436.80 

MONTHLY Advertising $1,756 . 90 

Torontonensia 500. 00 

Sale of MONTHLY 21.82 

2,278.72 



$3,715.52 
EXPENDITURE: 

Alumni Salaries $683.32 

Office Expenses 17 . 46 

Printing 23.30 

Postage 32.90 

Stationery and Supplies 40. 79 

$797.77 

MONTHLY Printing MONTHLY $1,517.90 

Commission on Advertising 397. 13 

Salaries 653.66 

Postage 177.62 

Stationery and Supplies 43 . 35 

Expenses 29. 38 

Bad and Doubtful Accounts 16. 00 

$2,835.04 



$3,632.81 
Surplus $82.71 

In moving the adoption of the Report, Mr. Justice Masten, the 
President, gave a brief statement supplementing the Report and 
indicating the probable course of action during the coming year. 

He recalled the statement which appears in the Report to the 
effect that Dr. Abbott's appointment as permanent and organising 
secretary to the Association, foreshadowed by the President of the 
University at the last annual meeting, had, with the aid of the 
Board of Governors, been effectuated. The Board had generously 
consented to giving Dr. Abbott's services for the organisation of 
the Alumni. It had been fully intended to commence this work 
immediately after the last summer vacation, but in consequence 
of the great success which had attended his organisation, first of the 
work of the Speakers' Patriotic League and afterwards of the 
campaign for the British Red Cross, Dr. Abbott's services were 
specially requisitioned, first on behalf of the Ontario Resources 
Committee and later by the Imperial Munitions Board. In 
view of the importance of these two great movements, your execu- 
tive felt that these calls for the services of Dr. Abbott could not be 
neglected and with their approval he has, during the past year, 
devoted his services to these two organisations. These activities 



380 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

so fully occupied his time that it was impossible to proceed with his 
original work of organising the Alumni and extending the power 
and efficiency of this organisation. 

The Association is, however, entitled to look upon this giving 
up of Dr. Abbott for the year as an additional contribution to the 
patriotic cause by the University, and by this Association of Alumni. 

Dr. Abbott's work in these two directions has been so far 
completed that it is now confidently expected that he will, next 
October, proceed actively with the organisation of the Alumni. 

Referring further to the plans for this organisation, the President 
pointed out that only in so far as the Association filled a want and 
contributed to our alumni, something of value to them as alumni 
of the University, only so far could it hope to be successful as an 
organisation. Further discussing this idea he pointed out the great 
necessity at this juncture of our affairs, for more intimate associa- 
tion among the alumni of the University because from the men of 
the universities more than from other sources will be provided the 
leadership under which good or bad solutions will be found for 
the innumerable and important questions arising out of the war. 
These questions should be considered by different groups of our 
University alumni meeting together wherever they live, so that as 
much as possible may be accomplished now by such consideration 
in order that we may not be unprepared for these after problems 
when our boys come home. 

He then referred to the statistics showing that between three 
and four thousand of the alumni and undergraduates of the Univer- 
sity had enlisted, of whom 232 have fallen. On this statement he 
founded the suggestion that in opening the work of organising the 
Alumni, local associations should at once be formed to welcome back 
with honours and afterwards to assist in their trying efforts to 
re-establish themselves in civil life, those members of our Alumni 
who abandoned their businesses and professions here to go to 
France, and he urged that at the present juncture this formed an 
effective basis on which to establish such local associations of alumni. 
It might thus be possible to found one complete and permanent 
organisation which if wisely conducted and resolutely developed 
may prove of the highest benefit to the Alumni and to the Univer- 
sity, and in so doing will give to the country the benefit of the 
stimulated thought of our alumni on the numerous problems which 
the war is bound to bring us. 

The motion was seconded by Mr. Clark. In the discussion that 
followed, President Falconer read an extract of a letter from Colonel 



ANNUAL MEETING 381 

Mitchell in which he expressed the opinions of the men at the front 
in regard to the effect of the war on them. Many of the profes- 
sional men felt that they had lost touch with their professions and 
were beginning to wonder how they could ever get in touch with 
them again. 

Rev. John Craig was then introduced as one of the oldest 
graduates, and who had been for forty years a missionary on the 
Madras coast in India. He spoke of the feeling of the Canadian 
Missionaries to the Government in India and at the present time 
all were taking some part in the war, many of their missionaries 
having joined the army in Mesopotamia, and his only son being 
in Flanders. 

The Report was then adopted. 

Dr. I. H. Cameron as chairman of the Nominating Committee, 
read the Report of the Nominating Committee and moved its 
adoption ; seconded by Professor Mavor. The motion was carried 
and the following officers were elected for the ensuing year 1917-18: 

Honorary President: BRIG.-GEN. THE HON. SIR JOHN M. GIBSON, 

K.C.M.G., M.A., LL.D., K.C. 

President: THE HON. MR. JUSTICE C. A. MASTEN, B.A. 

Vice-Presidents: THE HON. MR. JUSTICE J. D. CAMERON, B.A., 
Winnipeg; JOHN M. CLARK, M.A., LL.B., K.C., Toronto; J. H. COYNE, 
M.A., St. Thomas; H. M. DARLING, B.A., Chicago; G. H. DUGGAN, 
M. CAN. soc. C.E., Montreal; THE HON. SIR F. W. G. HAULTAIN, 
B.A., LL.D., Regina; ANTHONY McGiLL, B.A., Ottawa; ARCHDEACON 
N. I. PERRY, M.A., St. Catharines; REV. R. W. Ross, M.A., Halifax; 
R. G. SNYDER, M.B., New York; J. SQUAIR, B.A., Toronto; F. C. 
WADE, B.A., Vancouver. 

Secretary-Treasurer: J. PATTERSON, M.A. 

Executive Council: Miss C. C. BENSON, B.A., PH.D.; Miss 
CONSTANCE LAING, M.A.; Miss JULIA S. HILLOCK, B.A.; J. W. BAIN, 
B.A.SC. ; R. G. BEATTIE, B.A. ; G. S. BRETT, M.A; LT.-COL. I. H. 
CAMERON, M.B., LL.D., F.R.C.S. ; H. H. DAVIS, M.A., LL.B.; H. T. F. 
DUCKWORTH, M.A; W. H. ELLIS, M.A., LL.D.; J. D. FALCONBRIDGE, 
M.A., LL.B.; J. C. FIELDS, B.A., PH.D., F.R.S; SURG.-GEN. J. T. 

FOTHERINGHAM, B.A., M.D., C.M., C.M.G. ; D. J. GOGGIN, M.A, D.C.L.; 

R. A. GRAY, B.A.; REV. W. T. HALLAM, B.A., D.D; ALBERT HAM, 
MUS. DOC.; VERY REV. DEAN HARRIS, LL.D; W. A. KIRKWOOD, M.A., 
PH.D.; A. E. LANG, M.A.; GEO. H. LOCKE, M.A., PH.D.; LT.-COL. 
VINCENT MASSEY, B.A.; J. P. MCMURRICH, PH.D., LL.D.; J. A. 

OlLLE, M.B., M.D.; W. A. PARKS, B.A., PH.D.; R. A. REEVE, B.A., 



382 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

M.D., LL.D.; PETER SANDIFORD, M.SC., PH.D.; WALLACE SECCOMBE, 
D.D.S; F. N. G. STARR, M.B.; J. B. TYRRELL, M.A., C.E. 

It was moved by J. Murray Clark that the alumni of the 
University of Toronto assembled in Annual Meeting of the Alumni 
Association, having learned that their former president, Dr. J. C. 
McLennan, F.R.S., has been attached to the Imperial Board of 
Inventions, desires to convey to him their best wishes for his 
success in the national wprk he has undertaken in Great Britain, 
and for his safe return to continue his important work as head of the 
Department of Physics in the University and in connection with 
the Bureau of Industrial and Scientific Research in Toronto. 

The motion was seconded by Professor Squair and carried, and 
the Secretary was instructed to send a copy of it to Dr. McLennan. 

The following resolution of condolence to Dr. R. A. Reeve was 
moved by Dr. Goggin and seconded by Dr. Cameron and carried, 
and the Secretary instructed to send a copy of it to Dr. Reeve. 

"The Alumni Association in Annual Meeting assembled, this 
16th day of May, 1917, deeply regrets to note that one who has been 
always with us on these occasions and who for the first twelve 
consecutive years of our existence presided over our gatherings, has 
in the past few days been passing through the deepest waters of 
affliction. The bond of affection and regard which binds us to our 
past President, Dr. R. A. Reeve, is no common one, and it is there- 
fore with more than usual poignancy and grief, that we feel impelled 
to express and convey to him our sympathy and sorrow in his 
bereavement of his widely beloved and most amiable helpmeet of so 
many years. Every member of this Association has the deepest 
brotherly affection for Professor Reeve, and will not cease to pray, 
nay, will not hesitate to affirm, that in this dark day of trial, "The 
Lord will keep him in perfect peace whose mind is stayed on Him". 
If it be true, as South says in one of his sermons, that "Sorrows by 
being communicated grow less (and joys greater), for sorrow, like a 
stream, loses itself in many channels", then it may well be that the 
universality of the sympathy we now express and the common 
condolence of all his fellow citizens will materially assuage the 
bitterness of grief and mitigate the keenness of the thrust of fate 
which has just befallen our beloved past President." 

Some discussion arose as to the best means of giving notice of 
the annual meeting of the Association and it was resolved that in 
future, notices of the meeting should be sent to each member. 

The meeting then adjourned. 



TORONTONENSIA 

Dinner to At the annual graduation dinner held in 

Professor A. H. ,.. r A -i r,~ 1 

Young. Trinity College on the evening of April 27th, 

Professor A. H. Young, M.A., D.C.L., a 
member of the staff for twenty-five years, was the guest of honour. 
The Provost, Dr. Macklem, in proposing the toast, "Our Guest", 
spoke with gratitude and enthusiasm of the very valuable services 
rendered to the College and University by Dr. Young. In addition 
to his duties, first as lecturer and later as professor, he has held 
successively the official posts of librarian, clerk of convocation, and 
dean of residence and is now filling with much acceptance the 
positions of professor, clerk and dean. The warm personal interest 
which Dr. Young has always shown in the students not only during 
their residence in College but also in their later years and the 
admiration and affection felt for him by students and staff were 
happily described by the Provost who said that the completion of 
Dr. Young's twenty-fifth year of continuous service was deemed 
an appropriate time to give public expression to the high esteem 
in which he is held by Trinity and its friends. 

Dr. Goggin, chairman of convocation, in supporting the toast, 
spoke of the guest's whole-hearted devotion to the interests of the 
College, of his zeal for its ideals and traditions, of his personality 
as a moulding influence in the life and work of the students, and 
concluded by presenting Dr. Young on behalf of some of his friends 
with a mahogany cabinet of silver and cutlery and a .cheque for 
three hundred dollars. D. J. G. 



Dean e Ell?s The award of the de g ree of Doctor of Laws to 

Dr. Ellis by McGill University was selected 

by the Council of the Faculty of Applied Science as an opportunity 
of expressing their esteem for their Dean and their great pleasure 
at the honour which he was to receive. A dinner was held at the 
York Club on May 4th at which, in addition to the members of the 
Council, there were present, the President, Principal Hutton, Dean 
Baker, Dean Clarke, Sir Frederick Stupart, H. W. Mickle, Esq., 
Mr. W. P. Dobson, representing the Engineering Alumni Associa- 
tion, and Messrs. Chadsey, Burton and van der Linde, representing 
the Society of Chemical Industry. 

[383] 



384 UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 

Professor L. B. Stewart, as the senior professor in the Council, 
occupied the chair and read an address reviewing the Dean's long 
connection with Applied Science, and assuring him of the high 
regard and esteem in which he is held by the staff. The President 
paid a warm tribute to the fine character of the Dean and expressed 
a high regard for his well-balanced judgment and sympathy. Even 
on the golf links, said the President, Dr. Ellis preserved his serene 
equanimity. Principal Hutton, in calling attention to the rarity 
of the poetic gift among chemists, supposed that Dr. Ellis turned 
from his chemical labours to refresh himself with verse, and re- 
marked further that it was extremely difficult for the literary man 
under like circumstances to find recreation in chemistry. Dean 
Baker emphasised the importance of the study of science in modern 
life and congratulated Dr. Ellis on the success which had attended 
his long career. 

The health of Dr. Ellis was then proposed by Professor Coleman, 
who reminded his audience that their Dean was an artist as well as a 
poet and referred to the numerous occasions on which the members 
of the University had been entertained by his skilful pencil. 

Over seventy-five telegrams and numerous letters from Dr. 
Ellis' old students and from officials of learned societies were then 
read, after which Dr. Ellis replied. 

The third meeting of the California Branch of 

C 4L fo V? ! * Br * ncl % the University of Toronto Alumni Association 

of the University of TT . 

Toronto Alumni was held at the University Club in San 

Association. Francisco on March 16th last, to meet 

Professor Gordon Laing, '91, Toronto, of the 

University of Chicago. A short business meeting was held during 
which President Fairclough announced that the alumni of Southern 
California had organised and had elected Dr. C. H. Montgomery, 
'02, as vice-president; and Mr. Edgar F. Hughes, '03, as associate 
secretary-treasurer to serve with the officers of the San Francisco 
organisation. Dr. Douglas H. Montgomery and Dr. E. C. Dickson 
were appointed delegates to attend the meeting of the Alumni in 
New York in June. After the business meeting Professor Laing 
gave an address which was much enjoyed by all who were present. 

University Hospital Mrs> F * N ' G * Starr ' Honorar y Treasurer of 
Supply Association, the University Hospital Supply Association, 
reports the receipt of $1,777.22 since the 
statement published April 30th. 



TORONTONENSIA 



385 



Mrs. F. B. Kenrick, Convener of the Packing Committee, 
reports that during the month of May the following articles were 
packed: 1,328 sets of pyjamas, 294 day shirts, 1,136 pairs of socks, 
66 dressing gowns, 108 pairs of slippers, 24 bed jackets, 120 bed 
socks, 180 sheets, 48 laparotomy sheets, 660 pillow cases, 132 towels, 
42 surgical shirts, 54 laparotomy stockings, 156 abdominal binders, 
414 T bandages, 624 arm bandages, 300 amputation bandages, 
233 miscellaneous articles. 

These were all forwarded to the Canadian Red Cross Society, 
excepting 882 pairs of socks which were sent to the Soldiers' 
Comforts, 80 King Street West, to be forwarded to the Canadian 
Field Comforts' Commission. 



PERSONALS 



An important port of the work of the 
Alumni Association is to keep a card 
register of the graduates of the University 
of Toronto in all the facilities. It is very 
desirable that the information about the 
graduates should be of the most recent 
date possible. The Editor will therefore 
be greatly obliged if the Alumni will send 
in items of news concerning themselves 
or their fellow-graduates. The inform- 
ation thus supplied will be published in 
11 The Monthly", and will also be entered 
on the card register. 



Military. 

Colonel G. Acheson, B.A. (U.) '80, 
M.B. '87, is now Officer in Command 
of Casualties for Military District 
No. 2. 

Major P. P. Acland, B.A. (U.) '13, 
who was severely wounded in Septem- 
ber, 1916, has returned home. 

Capt. F. Adams, M.B. '10, is now 
with No. 2 Mobile Laboratory, Folke- 
stone. 

Capt. J. T. Adams, D.D.S. '12, is 
now with the C.A.D.C. in the Second 
Training Brigade at East Sandling. 

J. A. Aikenhead, Vic. '11-' 13, 
wounded, is home on leave. 



Capt. H. F. Alford, D.D.S. '15, who 
was invalided home from Salonica last 
autumn, is now in London, and suffer- 
ing from a return of malaria. 

Lieut. E. B. Allan, B.A.Sc. '16, is 
with a siege battery of the R.G.A. 

Capt. G. Allison, M.B. '15, who left 
in February 1915 as a private in No. 2 
Casualty Clearing Station, was shortly 
afterwards given a commission in the 
R.A.M.C. He was first in a hospital 
ship in the Mediterranean, then at 
Gallipoli, being one of the last to leave 
at the evacuation, and has since then 
been on duty in hospitals at Bombay 
and Cherat, India. 

C. C. Anderson, Sc. '16, who went as 
a private in No. 3 Stationary Hospital, 
Lemnos, was invalided to England 
where for a year he was sergeant ir the 
Pay and Record Office. He is now 
working in the chemical plant at White- 
haven. 

Capt. G. W. Anderson, B.A. (U.) '07, 
M.B. '09, who was formerly M.O. of the 
19th Battalion, C.E.F., is now in the 
R.A.M.C. in France. 

Capt. S. R. Armour, M.B. '15, 
formerly of No. 4 General Hospital, 



386 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



is now in the R.A.M.C. with the forces 
in East Africa. 

Lt.-Col. E. C. Ashton, M.D., C.M. 
(T.) '98 is now O.C. the 15th Infantry 
Brigade, 5th Division, C.E.F. 

C. R. Avery, M.A.Sc. '15, after six- 
teen months' service in the ranks of the 
C.F.A., has received a commission and 
is with a reserve battery in England. 

Sec.-Lieut. F. H. Ball, (T.) '05, who 
enlisted in 1915 with the Patricias, is 
signalling officer, London Rifle Brigade. 

Capt. S. S. Ball, M.B. '15, who 
enlisted in February 1915 in No. 2 
Casualty Clearing Station, and then 
obtained a commission in the R.A.M.C., 
has seen service at Gallipoli and in 
Egypt, India and Mesopotamia. 

Capt. C. C. Ballantyne, C.A.M.C., 
M.B. '14, is now at Moore Barracks 
Hospital, Shorncliffe. 

Lt.-Col. G. W. M. Ballard, B.A. (U.) 
'04, LL.B. '11, who was wounded and 
home on leave in 1915, and subse- 
quently went overseas again with the 
76th Battalion, is now O.C. the 13th 
Infantry Battalion, C.D.F. 

Sec.-Lieut. A. D. Banting, B.A. (V.) 
'13, a former member of the U. of T. 
Training Company, now has a com- 
mission in the Royal Garrison Artillery. 

Sec.-Lieut. F. L. Barnes, B.A.Sc. '16, 
is in the Royal Engineers. 

Capt. W. W. Barraclough, B.A. (V). 
'13, M.B. '16, has left for England with 
the 16th Field Ambulance, C.A.M.C. 

Lieut. V. A. Beacock, B.A.Sc. '15, 
who left as a lance-corporal in the 
Third Universities Company, now holds 
a commission in the Royal Fusiliers at 
the front. 

Capt. J. W. Bell, D.D.S. '94, who 
was for several months in the C.A.D.C. 
in England, has been invalided home 
and has resumed practice in Hamilton. 

Lieut. J. M. Beatty, U.C. '19, holds 
a commission in the King's Royal Rifle 
Regiment. He was wounded last 
summer, and also suffered from shell- 



shock and fever, but is now at the front 
again. 

G. H. Berry, B.A. (U.) '16, formerly 
of No. 3 Stationary Hospital, is now 
training for a commission in the R.F.A. 

Lieut. N. J. Bicknell, Med. '18, who 
went overseas as a private in a field 
ambulance of the Second Contingent, 
subsequently obtained a commission 
in an infantry battalion. He was 
wounded last autumn and invalided 
home, and has now been discharged. 
At present he is completing-his medical 
course. 

Lt.-Col. J. L. Biggar, M.B. '03, 
served in a field ambulance in France 
till he was invalided towards the end 
of last year. He is now O.C. a 
convalescent hospital at Bromley, 
Kent. 

Capt. E. R. Birchard, B.A.Sc. '10, 
formerly sergt. -major of the Eaton 
M.G. Battery, is now in command jf a 
divisional supply column in France. 

Major S. T. Blackwood, U.C. '99, is 
now D.A.A.G. at Militia Headquarters, 
Ottawa. 

R. D. Blott, Med. '18, formerly of 
the 37th Battalion, C.E.F. , and of the 
Black Watch, was wounded last 
November and has been discharged as 
unfit for further service. 

Capt. A. H. Boddy, B.A. (T.) '13, 
after service with the 162nd and 36th 
Battalions was disabled by blood 
poisoning contracted while on duty, 
and is now practising law in Brantford . 

Major J. S. Boyd, M.B. '09, is Officer 
Commanding the A.M.C. Training 
Depot, Military District No. 2. 

Capt. H. O. Boyd, M.D., C.M. (T.) 
'97, is now M.O. with the Ordnance 
Corps at Liphook, Hants. 

Capt. G. F. Boyer, M.B. '07, Staff, 
C.A.M.C., who was with No. 4 General 
Hospital at Salonica, is now at Gran- 
ville Hospital, Ramsgate. 



TORONTONENSIA 



387 



Capt. G. H. Bray, C.A.D.C, D.D.S. 
'05, is now in France attached to a 
field ambulance. 

Sec.-Lieut. L. R. Brereton, B.A.Sc. 
'14, is now in the R.F.C. 

Capt. F. A. Brockenshire is now 
M.O. to the Royal Canadian Regiment. 

Gunner A. H. Brown, V. '17, who left 
in March 1915, was wounded in 
December, but has now recovered and 
returned to duty. 

Capt. J. B. Brown, M.B. '08, has 
returned on leave after illness after 
serving for fifteen months in Mesopo- 
tamia with the R.A.M.C. 

Capt. P. B. Brown, M.B. '16, has 
been with the R.A.M.C. in Mesopo- 
tamia. After being invalided he went 
to India where he was stationed at a 
military hospital. 

Major E. Bristol, B.A. (U.) '11, who 
first enlisted as trooper in the 1st 
Regiment, K.E.H. in August, 1914, 
and later was wounded and returned 
home, was appointed chief instructor 
in the M.G. School, Toronto, then 
appointed to the Headquarters Staff 
in the Militia Department, Ottawa. 
He is now private Secretary to the 
Minister of Militia. 

Capt. the Rev. C. H. Buckland, T. 
'96, is chaplain at No. 2 Canadian 
Stationary Hospital, France. 

Lieut. W. H. Bunting, B.A. (U.) '92, 
enlisted at the outbreak of the war 
with the Royal Naval Reserve, and 
then transierred to the infantry as a 
private. In January, 1916, he was 
promoted lieutenant and went to 
France in July. In September he was 
severely wounded, the left leg having 
to be amputated. He is now in Hyde 
Park Hospital, London. 

Capt. C. R. Burroughes, B.A. (U.) 
'09, is Adjutant of the 234th Battalion, 

C. G. Butchart, Phm.B. '15, formerly 
of the Patricias, who was severely 
wounded last June, has been discharged 
and has returned to his home in 
Edmonton. 



Major H. A. Burbidge, B.A. (U.C.) 
'95, LL.B. '97, formerly 120th Battalion 
is now with the Second Canadian 
Reserve Battalion. 

Sergt. W. Burd, U.C. and Wye., who 
has recently returned, was wounded in 
January 1916 and has won the D.C.M. 

Capt. R. N. Burns, B.A. (V.) 79, is 
chaplain with the Canadian Engineers. 

Capt. T. L. Butters, M.B. '13, after 
service as M.O. to one of the battalions 
at the front, from which he was 
invalided last year, is now Acting- 
Adjutant of the Canadian Convales- 
cent Hospital at Epsom. 

Capt. E. M. J. Burwash, B.A. (V.), 
is now chaplain at Bramshott Military 
Hospital. 

Capt. C. E. Bush, B.A.Sc., who left 
with the Divisional Cyclists in the 
First Contingent, is still with that 
unit. 

Lieut. W. B. Caldwell, B.A.Sc. '13, 
is now in a tunnelling company of the 
Canadian Engineers. 

Capt. C. A. Campbell, C.A.M.C., 
M.D., C.M. '97, is Consultant in 
Ophthalmology to the Hospitals' Com- 
mission, Military District, No. 2. 

Capt. O. A. Cannon, M.E. '07, after 
service in England and the Mediter- 
ranean and as D.A.D.M.S. in Military 
District No. 1 in Canada, is now 
specially employed on Invaliding at 
Headquarters, Ottawa. 

Capt. G. W. D. Carleton, M.B. '11, 
was in France in the R.A.M.C. for 
nine months, the last three in the 
Somme campaign. He has now re- 
turned to Canada in the C.A.M.C. and 
is on the Standing Medical Board, 
M.D., No. 2. 

Capt. G. H. Carpenter, B.S.A. '04, 
who was twice wounded, is now with 
the 4th Reserve Battalion. 

Capt. M. J. Casserly, M.B. '08, was 
for a year in the R.A.M.C. at Salonica 
and is now in France as M.O. to a 
heavy artillery unit. 



388 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Sec.-Lieut. M. C. E. Catalano, B.A. 
(V.) '13, Staff, who returned home to 
serve in the Italian Army and was 
wounded last year, has now recovered, 
and is at the front again. 

Capt. N. S. Caudwell, Sc. '10, 
formerly Staff Captain, Headquarters 
9th Brigade, has joined the R.F.C. 

Lieut. H. E. Cawley, Trin., and Sc., 
who went with the First Contingent as 
a gunner in the C.F.A., and received a 
commission on the field after the battle 
of St. Julien, was wounded at Zillebeke 
last June. He is at present home on 
leave. 

Lieut. E. V. Chambers, B.A.Sc. '14, 
recently reported wounded, is in the 
machine-gun corps. 

Capt. W. J. Chapman, M.B. '95, was 
in the R.A.M.C. at Gallipoli, and then 
in Egypt from December 1915 to 1916. 
He is now home on leave. 

Capt. J. Chassels, M.B. '15, left as a 
private in No. 2 Casualty Clearing 
Station, C.E.F. Receiving a com- 
mission in the R.A.M.C. in May, 1915, 
he saw several months' service at 
Gallipoli and in Mesopotamia and is 
now in France. 

Sergt. A. E. Chegwin, Dent. '18, who 
enlisted as a private in the 198th 
Battalion, is now in the C.A.D.C. 

E. F. Chesnut, B.A.Sc. '14, who 
went as a private in the 19th Battalion, 
was wounded at the end of 1915. He 
subsequently was promoted to a 
lieutenancy, but has been struck off 
strength, as medically unfit for further 
service. His brother, the late A. W. 
Chesnut, P.P.C.L.I., had also been 
selected for a commission, but died 
from the effect of wounds received last 
summer. 

Pte. S. Cieman, U.C. '17, R.A.M.C., 
Indian Expeditionary Force, Meso- 
potamia, was ill with fever from June 
to October, 1916, but is again on duty 
at Cornwallis Barracks, Bangalore, 
India. 



Lieut.-Col. F. F. Clark, Sc. '03, is 
now O.C. the 2nd Battalion, Canadian 
Railway Troops, which has been en- 
larged by several drafts from the 
Imperial forces. His brother, T. W. 
Clark, Sc. '10, who went with the First 
Contingent and was wounded in May, 
1915, is now a lieutenant in the same 
unit. 

Lieut. H. S. Clark, B.A.Sc. '10, is 
Assistant Adjutant in the Royal 
Canadian Regiment. 

Capt. E. E. Cleaver, C.A.M.C.; 
B.A. (V.) '06, M.A., M.B., is at Moore 
Barracks Hospital, Shorncliffe. 

Lieut. W. W. Code, who went as a 
private in the First Contingent, is now 
in one of the battalions at the front. 

J. W. Cohoon, B.A. (V.) '06, Ph.D. 
is Acting Sergeant in the 73rd Battery, 
C.F.A. 

Capt. K. E. Cooke, M.C., C.A.M.C., 
B.A. (U.) '11, M.B. '13, was M.O. of 
his battalion through the Somme 
campaign, during which he won the 
Military Cross. He is now on duty 
at Moore Barracks Hospital, Shorn- 
cliffe. 

A. B. Coville, B.A. (T.) who left 
Canada as lieutenaut in the 39th Bn., 
was invalided home after service in 
France with the 20th Battalion. Later 
he was appointed major in the 228th 
Battalion, and in January 1917 trans- 
ferred to the office of the General 
Auditor, C.E.F. 

Capt. W. G. Cosbie, M.B. '15, who 
was wounded last June, has now 
recovered and is with a field ambulance 
in France. 

Capt. W. G. G. Coulter, C.A.M.C., 
M.B. '08, served for a year with the 
R.A.M.C. and was in France as M.O. 
with the Argyll and Sutherland High- 
landers and the Royal Berkshire 
Regi ment . He is now on duty at West 
Cliff Hospital, Folkestone. 

Lieut.-Col. J. D. Courtenay, 
C.A.M.C., M.B. '85, is O.C. the 



TORONTONENSIA 



389 



Canadian Eye and Ear Hospital, West 
Cliffe, Folkestone. 

Capt. H. D. Courtenay, C.A.M.C., 
B.A. (U.) '12,.M.B. '15, is also at the 
West Cliff Hospital. 

E. M. Coutts, M.B. '00, held a 
commission in the R.A.M.C. and was 
with a stationary hospital at Lemnos 
till he was invalided. 

Capt. F. W. Clement, M.B. '15, has 
served for several months in the 
R.A.M.C. on a hospital ship in the 
Mediterranean, at Gallipoli, and in 
Egypt. He is now with the East 
African Expeditionary Force. 

Capt. A. W. Crawford, B.A.Sc. '14, 
who went with the Engineers of the 
Second Contingent, is acting as Instruc- 
tor in the Second Division. He has 
won both the Military Medal and a 
Bar. 

Major J. P. Crawford, B.A. (T.) '06, 
M.A., B.C.L. '09, is with the 12th 
Reserve Battalion at West Sandling. 

Lieut. -Col. J. J. Creelman, C.F.A., 
B.A. (U.) '04, has recently been home 
on leave, 694 Sherbrooke Street West, 
Montreal. Col. Creelman went with 
the First Contingent and has been 
twice Mentioned in Dispatches. He 
also won the D.S.O. and the Russian 
Order of St. Stanislaus, third class 
(with swords). 

Capt. W. B. Cronyn, C.A.M.C.; 
B.A. (U.) '01, is M.O. with one of the 
Artillery Brigades, C.E.F. in France. 

Capt. T. D. Cumberland, M.B. '13, 
after service in the R.A.M.C. since 
May 1915, is now home on leave at 
Alliston. 

Capt. J. G. Cunningham, B.Y.S. '15 
is now at Jhansi, India, in the Indian 
Army Veterinary Corps. 

Capt. F. C. Curry, Phm.B. '13, left 
with the First Contingent as lieutenant 
in the 2nd battalion. Going to 
Flanders with reinforcements after the 
battle of St. Julien he served through 
the battles of Festubert and Givenchy 



and Zillebeke. In July 1916 he was 
attached to the Canadian Engineers 
and shortly afterwards was wounded. 
He has recently published an account 
of his experiences, entitled, "From the 
St. Lawrence to the Yser." 

Major the Rev. J. C. Davidson, 
B.A. (T.) '82, formerly Chaplin of the 
93rd Battalion and the Ontario Military 
Hospital, Orpington, is now with No. 
3 Stationary Hospital, France. 

Gnr. G. W. Davis, (U.) '18, formerly 
of the 25th Battery, after a year at the 
front is returning home, having suffered 
from shell shock. 

Lieut.-Col. F. H. Deacon, (V.) '95, 
is Inspector of Supplies, Eastern 
Canada. 

Capt. W. J. Deadman, B.A. (U.) '11, 
M.B. '13, was with the R.A.M.C. in 
Egypt till he was invalided by a 
serious illness. After a short leave 
at home is now at Aldershot. 

Fit. Sub.-Lieut. R. D. Delamere, 
R.N.A.S.; B.A.Sc. '14, has been for the 
past year in East Africa and is now on 
duty at Zanzibar. 

Lieut. G. Dingle, U.C. '16, is with 
the 8th Reserve Battalion. 

Capt. O. T. Dinnick, M.B. '04, is at 
the Cancer Hospital, London, S.W. 

Lieut. J. H. Douglas, B.A. (U.) '10, 
who was wounded and taken prisoner 
last year, has now been transferred to 
Switzerland. 

Lieut. R. W. Downie, App. Sc. '16, 
who went as a sapper in the Engineers 
of the First Contingent and has seen 
service throughout, has been promoted 
through all the ranks to lieutenant. 
He is now stationed at the Training 
Depot, St. John's, P.Q. 

J. S. Eadie, B.A. (U.) '15, Div. Sig. 
Coy., reverted to the rank of private 
in order to go to France. 

Major A. Eastham, B.S.A. '09 was 
awarded the Military Cross. 



390 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Pte. E. V. Elliott, Dent. '18,formerly 
sergeant, C.A.D.C., has transferred 
to the infantry and is in the 12th 
Reserve Battalion. 

Lieut. G. R. Elliott, B.A.Sc. '12, has 
transferred from the Cyclists to the 
5th Divisional Signal Company. 

G. C. Ellis, B.S.A. '13, formerly of 
the P.P.C.L.I., was wounded last June 
and is now at the Military Convales- 
cent Hospital, London, Ont. 

Capt. S. Ellis, C.A.M.C.; M.B. '10, 
is now at the Granville Hospital, 
Ramsgate. 

Brig.-Gen. J. F. Embury, C.M.G.; 
U.C. '99, who was wounded last year 
is now Officer Commanding the 13th 
Infantry Brigade, 5th Division. 

Capt. D. T. Evans, M.B. '11, was in 
Mesopotamia last summer in the 
R.A.M.C. and is now in France. 

Capt. H. H. Eyres, M.B. '10, after 
serving in a field ambulance at the 
front, is now attached to the King's 
Canadian Red Cross Hospital, Bushey 
Park. 

Capt. O. A. Finch, M.B. '13, after 
serving in a field ambulance of the 
R.A.M.C. is now in the Royal Warwick- 
shire Regiment. 

Gnr. H. G. Forster, B.A. (V.) '13, 
who was wounded last year, has 
returned to the front and is serving in a 
Heavy Trench Mortar Battery. 

Surg.-Gen. J. T. Fotheringham, 
C.M.G., B.A. (U.) '83; M.B., M.D., 
C.M. '91; formerly D.A.D.M.S., 2nd 
Division, has now returned to Canada 
as Director of Medical Services, 
Invaliding. 

S. G. Freeborn, B.S.A. '15, who won 
the Military Cross as a Forward 
Observation Officer, C.F.A., is now in 
an anti-aircraft battery. 

Capt. J. G. Gallie, M.B. '10, Staff, 
formerly at Salonica with No. 4 
General Hospital, is now at the Kit- 
chener General Hospital in Brighton. 



Lieut. C. A. F. Caviller, M.D., 
C.M. '05, formerly with the Floriana 
Hospital, Malta, and the Clivedon 
Military Hospital, has returned. 

Capt. the Rev. J. E. Gibson, B.A. 
(U.) '16, Wycliffe, is now chaplain to 
the First Brigade, C.F.A. 

Major T. Gibson, B.A. (U.) '97, 
formerly of the 168th Battalion, is now 
with a labour battalion in France. 

Lieut. R. B. Gibson, B.A. (U.) '16, 
is now in France with a pioneer 
battalion. 

Pte. C. B. Gill, B.Sc.F. '16, is now 
in the Mechanical Transport, A.S.C. 
in Persia. 

Lieut. R. S. Gillespie, B.A. (U.) '15, 
who enlisted as a private with the 
Divisional Cyclists is now with the 
Reserve Brigade, C.F.A. 

Capt. W. H. Gilroy, D.D.S. '11, has 
transferred from the C.A.D.C. to the 
R.F.C. 

Capt. W. C. Givens, M.B. '16, after 
serving on the Staff at Moore Barracks 
Hospital, Shorncliffe, is now with a 
field ambulance in France. 

Lieut. T. S. Glover, App. Sc. '17, who 
went overseas as a private in the First 
Contingent, and then received a 
commission in the Yorkshire Light 
Infantry, is now attached to a machine 
gun company and is going to East 
Africa. 

Flt.-Lieut. E. R. Grange, D.S. Cross, 
Croix de Guerre; B.A.Sc. '16, is home 
on leave. He has seen many months 
of service at the front and has been 
mentioned in despatches a number of 
times. 

Major G. G. Greer, M.B. '13, who 
went in one of the battalions of the 
First Contingent, is now with a field 
ambulance in France. 

J. H. Grove, B.A. (U.) '14, who went 
in the 2nd Divisional Cyclists, trans- 
ferred to the C.F.A. last September. 
Shortly after he was "gassed " and has 
been in hospital since. 



TORONTONENSIA 



391 



Lieut. M. S. Haas, B.A.Sc. '15, is 
with a machine gun company in France. 

Lieut. R. D. Hague, App. Sc. '04, 
who went in the ranks in the First 
Contingent, now holds a commission 
in the Canadian Engineers. 

Lieut. H. P. Hamilton, M.C.; M.B. 
'15, who enlisted in No. 2 Casualty 
Clearing Station, and then received a 
commission in the R.A.M.C., is now 
M.O. to a battalion on the Balkan 
front. 

J. J. Hanna, B.A.Sc. '14, who went 
in the ranks of the Engineers, was 
promoted on the field, and is now 
lieutenant in a tunnelling company. 

Capt. F. Y. Harcourt, B.A. (U.) '00, 
formerly of the 94th Battalion, is now 
with a labour battalion in France. 

Capt. R. I. Harris, M.C.; M.B. '15, 
is with a field ambulance. 

Bombr. C. T. Hayes, B.A. (U.) '14, 
is in an anti-aircraft battery at the 
front. 

Capt. R. H. Henderson, M.B. '10, is 
now at the Eastbourne Canadian 
Military Hospital. 

Capt. J. B. Heron, B.A.Sc. '06, is 
with a railway battalion in France. 

G. C. Heward, T. '96, is A.D.C. to 
the Officer Commanding the 37th 
Division, B.E.F. 

Lieut. L. R. Hill, M.B. '16, formerly 
sergeant in No. 2 Casualty Clearing 
Station, received a commission in the 
R.A.M.C. and is now in Mesopotamia. 

Capt. W. R. Hodge, B.A. (U.) '12, 
M.B. '15, who enlisted in No. 2 
Casualty Clearing Station, and then 
received a commission in the R.A.M.C., 
was invalided home last summer, but 
has returned and is now with a field 
ambulance in Mesopotamia. 

Major-Gen. W. E. Hodgins, B.A. 
(U.) 74, M.A., Adjt. Gen. at Militia 
Headquarters, has been mentioned for 
valued services. 

Lieut. J. R. Howitt, M.B. '15, is in 
the R.A.M.C., and after service in a 



hospital at Malta, is now M.O. to a 
battalion in Egypt. 

S. A. Hustwitt, B.A.Sc. '14, is now a 
lieutenant in the R.F.C. 

Lieut. W. F. Huycke, B.A. (V.) '13, 
has transferred from the infantry to 
the C.F.A. and is at the front. 

R. F. Inch, B,A. (U.) '15, has been 
promoted major and is at the Machine 
Gun Training Depot, Crowborough. 

G. A. Ironside, B.A.Sc. '15, is a 
sergeant in the 55th Battery, C.F.A. 

Capt. R. A. Jamieson, B.A. (T.) '06; 
M.B. '10; of the Ontario Hospital, 
Orpington, has been appointed a 
member of the Medical Research 
Committee of England. 

Major O. V. Jewitt, B.A. (V.) '10, 
reverted to the rank of captain to go to 
the front, but was promoted major 
again on the field. 

Major R. B. Johnston, B.A. (U.) '13, 
is with the 12th Reserve Battalion at 
East Sandling. 

Lieut.-Col. D. P. Kappelle, M.B. '03, 
is with a cavalry field ambulance in 
France. 

J. Kay, For. '12, who went overseas 
in the 19th Battalion, has been 
invalided and discharged. 

C. B. Keenleyside, B.A. (V.) '92, 
formerly captain in the 195th Bn., is 
now Lieutenant-Colonel, O.C., 249th 
Battalion. 

Flt.-Lieut. H. S. Kerby, B.A.Sc. '14 
is in the R.N.A.S. and has been at the 
Dardanelles and in France. 

Capt. L. W. Kergin, M.B. '11, served 
in the R.A.M.C. in Mesopotamia last 
year. He has recently returned to 
England after being in Canada on 
leave. 

Lieut. W. H. King, B.A. (U.) '10, is 
bombing instructor with a reserve 
battalion at Shorncliffe. 

Fit. Sub-Lieut. M. R. Kingsford, 
B.A. (U.) '15, after service in France, 
has been accidentally injured by a fall 
and is in hospital in London. 



392 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Lieut. J. A. Knight, B.A.Sc. '14, is 
with a tunnelling company of the 
Canadian Engineers. 

Capt. A. W. Knox, M.B. '16, is in the 
R.A.M.C. and attached as M.O. to an 
artillery group in France. 

Major The Rev. G. A. Kuhring, 
U.C. and Wycliffe, has returned to 
Canada, after serving for several 
months as chaplain, first in No. 3 
Stationary Hospital at Lemnos, and 
then at the Red Cross Hospital, 
Bushey Park. 

Capt. L. A. LaPierre, B.S.A. '03, 
after serving in France last year in 
the Mounted Rifles, is now with a 
cavalry training brigade in England. 

Major N. V. Leslie, M.B. '08, is with 
No. 2 Canadian General Hospital. 

Lieut. R. G. Lewis, B.Sc.F. '12, is 
with the Forestry Corps at Sunning- 
dale, Berks. 

Capt. A. P. Linton, B.A.Sc. '06, is in 
France with the Canadian Railway 
Troops. 

Lieut. J. A. Linton, M.C.; Med. '16, 
who went in the ranks of the Second 
Contingent, and won his promotion 
in the field and also the Military Cross 
after being wounded at the Somme, 
has been in charge of a bombing 
school at West Sandling. 

Q.M.-Sergt. W. C. Little, C.F.A.; 
Med. '17, won the Military Medal in 
January and is now training for a 
commission. 

Lieut. R. H. Lloyd, B.A.Sc. '15, of 
the R.F.C. was wounded in March. 

Lieut. W. E. Lockhart, B.A.Sc. '15, 
has transferred from the Engineers to 
the R.F.C. 

Major A. L. McAllister, Sc. '93, is 
with the Canadian Railway troops in 
France. 

Capt. The Rev. H. McCausland, 
B.A. (T.) '00, is a chaplain with the 
4th Division. 

J. C. McClelland, M.B. '16, is a 
surgeon in the Royal Navy. 



Capt. R. R.McClenahann, M.B. '12 
is Sanitary Officer in the 4th Division. 

Lieut. A. D. Macdonald, B.A.Sc. '12, 
is in the Canadian Engineers. 

Sub.-Lieut. F. M. Macdonald, 
B.A.Sc. '12, is in the Motor Boat 
Patrol Service, R.N.V.R. 

Capt. J. L. MacDonald, M.B. '16, is 
with No. 4 General Hospital at Salonica. 

Major T. W. MacDowell, B.A. (V.) 
'15, who has been twice wounded and 
won the D.S.O. has been recommended 
for the V.C. 

Capt. A. J. McGanity, M.B. '15, 
who went as M.O. to the 84th Battalion 
is now in a field ambulance. 

Lieut. W. G. McGhie, B.A.Sc. '11, 
has been twice mentioned in despatches 
and has been awarded the Italian 
Military Medal for valour. 

Capt. E. G. Mackay, B.A.Sc. '12, 
after service for several months ac 
the front, is now on the General Staff 
in London. 

Lieut. H. J. Mackenzie, B.A.Sc. '14, 
of the R.A.M.C., served with several 
units in France from August 1915 to 
July 1916, and since then has been in 
Mesopotamia. 

Capt. R. D. Mackenzie, '14, is M.O. 
to a battalion of the First Division. 

Major W. T. M. McKinnon, M.B. 
'03, is on a Medical Examining Board 
at Folkestone. 

Major G. H. MacLaren, M.D., C.M. 
'99, who was M.O. of the 15th Bat- 
talion at Langemarck, and then was a 
major in the 92nd Battalion, is now 
with a reserve battalion in England. 
He has recently been mentioned for 
valued services. 

Capt. G. A. McLarty, M.B. '15, is 
M.O. in the Royal West Kent Regi- 
ment. 

G. A. McLean, B.A. (U.) '15, who 
went as a private in the Second 
Contingent, now has a commission in 
the Northumberland Fusiliers. 



TORONTONENSIA 



393 



Major N. B. McLean, B.A. (U.) '06, 
is in command of a siege battery in the 
Royal Garrison Artillery. 

Capt. W. J. McLean, M.B. '16, is 
M.O. with a labour battalion in France. 

Lieut. J. G. McLeod, M.B. '04, after 
service in Egypt is home on sick leave. 

Capt. N. McLeod, M.B. '07, is in 
Ottawa after service with the Canadian 
and Imperial Forces since November, 
1914. 

J. McQueen, B.A. (U.) '13, formerly 
of the U. of T. Training Company, is 
now second lieutenant in the R.G.A. 
and in training at Aldershot. 

Lieut. W. N. MacQueen, B.A. (U.) 
'12, was wounded last September, and 
is home on extended leave for medical 
treatment. 

Major K. A. Mahaffy, B.A. (U.) '15, 
is with one of the First Division 
battalions. He went with the First 
Contingent as lieutenant and has seen 
continuous action since. 

Sec.-Lieut. H. G. Manning, B.A. 
(V.) '09, Staff, of the Northamptonshire 
Regiment, who was severely wounded 
last summer, is home on extended leave. 

Lieut. C. C. Martin, B.A. (U.) '15, is 
with a C.F.A. battery of the First 
Division. 

Capt. E. A. H. Martin, B.A. (T.) '13, 
is on the Canadian Administrative 
Staff, Argyll House, London. 

Capt. C. K. Masters, B.A. (U.) '01; 
M.A.; is chaplain in the Kitchener 
Military Hospital, Brighton. 

Lieut. F. G. Mathers, B.A. (U.) '16, 
was twice wounded last year. He has 
transferred from the infantry to the 
R.F.C. 

Capt. A. F. Mavety, M.B. '12, of a 
field ambulance in the Imperial Army, 
was mentioned in despatches in 
January. 

Cpl. A. R. Mendizabal, App. Sc. '16, 
is now back on leave. On January 1st 
he was awarded the D.C.M. for 
valuable work done as telephonist with 
one of the howitzer batteries. 



H. O. Merriman, B.A.Sc. '11, is now 
a sub-lieutenant in the R.N.V.R. 

Sec.-Lieut. F. S. Milligan, B.A.Sc. 
'10, is in the Royal Engineers. 

P. H. Mills, B.A.Sc. '16, after service 
as sergeant in the C.F.A. at the front, 
is now training for a commission. 

Capt. V. H. K. Moorhouse, M.C.; 
M.B. '10, is now on the Staff of the 
Base Hospital, Military District, 
No. 2. 

Capt. W. N. Moorhouse, App. Sc. 
'04, is in command of a machine gun 
company in France. 

Capt. T. Morrison, M.B. '07, after 
several months' service at the front has 
returned to Canada and is temporarily 
on duty under the D.G.M.S., Head- 
quarters, Ottawa. 

Lieut. P. G. Mulholland, B.A. (U.) 
'13, is with a machine gun company in 
France. 

Capt. G. Musson, M.B. '95, is now 
in charge t)f the X-ray department of 
the Shorncliffe Military Hospital. 

Capt. J. M. Nettleton, M.B. '10, has 
served in hospitals in Lemnos and 
Boulogne, and is now in a front line 
unit. 

Sec.-Lieut. J. C. Newcombe, B.A.Sc. 
'12, formerly of the C.O.T.C., has a 
commission in the Royal Engineers. 

Lieut. J. Newton, B.A.Sc. '10, is in 
France with a howitzer battery. 

Lieut. W. F. Nicholson, M.B. '10, 
won the Military Cross last year. 

Lieut. A. C. Norwich, M.B. '16, is 
with a R.A.M.C. field ambulance 
detail in the Mesopotamia force. 

Lieut.-Col. J. W. Odell, B.A. (U.) '92, 
on the outbreak of war went with the 
Cobourg Heavy Battery on coast 
defence at Vancouver, then with the 
2nd Heavy Battery overseas and the 
Reserve Artillery Training Brigade. 
In January, 1916, he was invalided to 
Canada, since when he has been in 
command of the 12th Brigade, C.F.A., 
and at the Royal School of Artillery, 
Kingston. 



394 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



Capt. A. Perry Park, B.A. (U.) '13, 
chaplain with the forces, has been 
transferred from India to Dar-es- 
Salaam, East Africa. 

Capt. F. S. Park, B.A. (U.) '09, 
M.B. '11, who was taken prisoner last 
year, is now at Minden, Westphalia, 
in charge of several hundred Allied 
prisoners. 

Lieut.-Col. R. S. Pentecost, B.A. 
(U.) '07, M.B. '09, who went with the 
First Contingent is now in command of 
the 14th Field Ambulance. He has 
recently been home on a short leave. 

S. M. Peterkin, B.A.Sc. '15, served 
in the ranks through the Somme cam- 
paign, and is now training for a com- 
mission in the Royal Horse Artillery. 

Major W. E. Phillips, B.A.Sc. '14, 
formerly of the Leinster Regiment, is 
now with the Warwickshire Regiment. 

Lieut. H. H. Plaskett, B.A. (U.) '16, 
enlisted with the 67th Battery, and 
subsequently obtained a commission. 
He has recently gone overseas with a 
draft. 

Lieut.-Col. J. A. V. Preston, B.A. 
(U). '85, LL.B. r went overseas in 
command of the 39th Battalion. 
When his unit was broken up for rein- 
forcements, he served at the front with 
another battalion through the fighting 
at St. Eloi. Before his return to 
Canada, he was mentioned for valuable 
services. 

Fit. Sub-Lieut. E. V. Reid, B.A.Sc. 
'16, is in the R.N.A.S. 

Capt. J. A. Reid, M.D. '11, was with 
a field ambulance and was twice 
wounded last year. He is now on the 
Staff of the Military Hospital, Shorn- 
cliffe. 

Capt. J. W. Ross, M.B. '15, first held 
a commission in the artillery, and then 
became M.O. to an artillery brigade. 
He is now on the Staff of the Orpington 
Hospital. 

W. L. Scandrett, B.Sc. F. '12, was 
promoted captain in the R.F.C., in 



January, andjshortly after Flight- 
commander. 

Major E.jR. Selby, M.B. '10, after 
many months f service in the C.A.M.C. 
at the front, was wounded at Cource- 
lette. He is now with the 8th Field 
Ambulance. 

Major L. P. Sherwood, B.A. (U.) '07, 
LL.B., after serving at the front for 
several months is now Military Secre- 
tary to the Minister of Militia Overseas 
in London. 

Capt. K. H. Van Norman, M.B. '04, 
has been D.A.D.M.S., London area, 
since last November. 

Lieut. R. Hodder Williams, M.C.; 
B.A., Staff, who was wounded at the 
Somme has returned for duty in 
Canada. 

(Rev.)jfGordon JR. Jones, B.A.Sc., 
'07, of Szechwan, West China, is 
spending his first furlough in the 
employ of the British Government in 
France, in connection with a Chinese 
Labour Battalion. 



Lieut. J. F. Meek (U.) '15 of the 
Victoria Rifles of Canada, 24th Bat- 
talion, C.E.F., who was wounded at 
Courcelette last September, was 
granted leave by the Canadian author- 
ities to go to Decatur, where he gave a 
series of talks under the auspices of the 
Preparedness Committee. He talked 
before the City Club, the students of 
the University and High School, and 
the general public, and met with the 
heartiest response everywhere. 

A week before the declaration of war 
by the United States, Dr. Kellogg of 
the Modern Language Department, 
James Millikin University, and Theo- 
phile J. Meek, B.A. (U.) '03, B.D.) 
Ph.D. (both with military experience, 
organised a Millikin Battalion, which 
met with a very hearty response from 
the student body and now includes 
practically all the able-bodied men in 



TORONTONENSIA 



395 



the Institution. Dr. Kellogg is captain 
of Company "A" and Dr. Meek of 
Company "B". There is also a Red 
Cross unit, signalling section, etc. 

Dr. John Thomson MacCurdy, B.A. 
(U.) '08, M.D. (Johns Hopkins) '11, 
only son of Professor MacCurdy, late 
head of the Department of Oriental 
Languages in University College, is 
attached to the new Maida Vale 
Hospital, Hyde Park, London, in the 
capacity of Registrar. Dr. MacCurdy 
has for the past few years, specialised 
in psycho-analysis, was on the staff of 
the Psychiatric Institute, Maid's 
Island, New York, and a lecturer in the 
Cornell Medical School. He volun- 
teered for service at the beginning of 
the war, but illness among the staff 
of the Psychiatric Institute made it 
impossible for him to leave until April 
of this year. The Maida Vale Hospital 
has only recently been established, for 
the purpose of dealing with nervous 
disorders among the soldiers. 

In the April number of the American 
Journal of Semitic Languages and 
Literatures, that has just come from 
the press, is a long article by Theophile 
J. Meek, B.A. (U.) '03, B.D., Ph.D., 
entitled, "Old Babylonian Business and 
Legal Documents". There are forty 
tests in the collection, all fully edited. 

Marriages 

BOYLE CLARK On June 14, 1917, 
at St. Oswald's Church, Chalk 
River, Rev. V. Osmund Boyle, B.A. 
(T.) '13, M.A. '14, of Wellington, to 
Miss Jean Clark. 

BROUGHTON KELLERMAN On June 
2, 1917, at Dashwood, Ernest A. 
Broughton, M.B., of Whitby, to 
Miss Ethel May Kellerman. Dr. 
and Mrs. Broughton will reside in 



Whitby where Dr. Broughton is 
Medical Officer at the Military 
Hospital, having been overseas with 
Canadian No, 4 General Hospital at 
Salonica. 

CAMERON PATTERSON On May 29, 
1917, at 4 Cluny Crescent, Toronto, 
M. H. V. Cameron, M.B. '05 of 
Toronto, to Miss Olive Gair Patter- 
son, M.A. (V.) '11, M.B. '16, of 
Toronto. 

GOFORTH SPENCER On May 11, 
1917, at St. Paul's Church, Toronto; 
Captain Paul Goforth, B.A. (U.) '14, 
to Miss Marie L. Spencer of St. 
Lucia, B.W.I. 

CLUGSTON MACGILLVRAY On June 
14, 1917, at Toronto, Sergeant, The 
Rev. Harold Smith Clugston, Arts 
(U.) '17, of Base Hospital M.D. 2, 
to Miss K. M. MacGillvray of 
Toronto. 

KINSEY BLACKSTONE On June 2, 
1917, at Orillia, Harold Ivan Kin- 
sey, M.B. '15, of Toronto, to Miss 
Helen Marguerite Blackstone of 
Orillia. 

McCoNNEY HARDY On May 3, 
1917, at St. Paul's Church, Toronto, 
Sergeant G. E. McConney, 255th 
Battalion, to Miss Florence Spauld- 
ing Hardy, B.A. (U.) '17, of Toronto. 

McKAY ROBERTSON On June 8, 
1917, at Toronto, Craig-Allan 
McKay, B.A. (U.) '13, of Wood- 
stock, to Miss Mary Beatrice 
Robertson of Toronto. 

PATERSON MCGREGOR On June 15, 
1917, at Huntsville, Frank Chester 
Paterson, B.S.A. '15, of Huntsville, 
to Miss Eva Laura McGregor of 
Huntsville. 



396 



UNIVERSITY MONTHLY 



RUTHERFORD PENNINGTON On 
May 19, 1917, at Mount Fairview, 
Dundas, Ontario, Lieutenant Frank 
Stewart Rutherford of Brampton, 
Ontario, B.A.Sc., '14, to Miss Clara 
Alice Pennington. 

TAYLOR HOWARD On June 4, 1917, 
at Wycliffe College Chapel, Toronto, 
the Rev. William John Taylor, 
assistant clergyman of St. Paul's 
Anglican Church, Toronto, to Miss 
Kathleen Mary Howard of Toronto. 



Deaths 

CHOATE On May 14, 1917, at New 
York, Joseph Hodges Choate, LL.D. 
(Hon.) '15. 

JOHNSTON On May 4, 1917, at 
Toronto, George Wesley Johnston, 
B.A. '86, Ph.D. (Hopkins), formerly 
Associate Professor of Latin, Univer- 
sity of Toronto. 

MILLS On May 4, 1917, at Kingston, 
William Lennox Mills,D.C.L. (Hon.) 
(T.) '01, formerly Bishop of Ontario. 



LS University of Toronto 

monthly 
T66U57 
v.17 
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